Molecular detection of Theileria and Babesia infection in cattle

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Firat, 23119 Elazig, Turkey.
Veterinary Parasitology (Impact Factor: 2.46). 11/2008; 158(4):295-301. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.09.025
Source: PubMed


This study was carried out to determine the presence and distribution of tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in apparently healthy cattle in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey. A total of 389 blood samples were collected from the animals of various ages in six provinces in the region. Prevalence of infection was determined by reverse line blot (RLB) assay. The hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified with a set of primers for members of the genera Theileria and Babesia. Amplified PCR products were hybridized onto a membrane to which generic- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes were covalently linked. RLB hybridization identified infection in 16.19% of the samples. Blood smears were also examined microscopically for Theileria and/or Babesia spp. and 5.14% were positive. All samples shown to be positive by microscopy also tested positive with RLB assay. Two Theileria (T. annulata and T. buffeli/orientalis) and three Babesia (B. bigemina, B. major and Babesia sp.) species or genotypes were identified in the region. Babesia sp. genotype shared 99% similarity with the previously reported sequences of Babesia sp. Kashi 1, Babesia sp. Kashi 2 and Babesia sp. Kayseri 1. The most frequently found species was T. buffeli/orientalis, present in 11.56% of the samples. T. annulata was identified in five samples (1.28%). Babesia infections were less frequently detected: B. bigemina was found in three samples (0.77%), B. major in two samples (0.51%) and Babesia sp. in five samples (1.28%). A single animal infected with T. buffeli/orientalis was also infected with B. bigemina.

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Available from: Mehmet Fatih Aydin
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    • "The diagnosis of protozoan parasites has been based on traditional methods, which include Giemsa stained blood smears, serological assays, and observation of clinical symptoms. Currently, molecular diagnostic assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been established as epidemiological and diagnostic tools for the detection and identification of the Theileria and Babesia species (Altay et al., 2008; Altangerel et al., 2011; Githaka et al., 2012; Zanet et al., 2014; El-Ashker et al., 2015). Many target genes have been used as genetic markers to identify these parasites. "

    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · The Thai veterinary medicine
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    • "Recent advances in diagnostic technology have led to introduction of molecular tools as a means of overcoming low sensitivity of microscope in low parasitemia. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly sensitive and specific, thus considered as an effective diagnostic tool for field samples [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis was the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites were observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand were classified into type 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on pathogenicity T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Parasitology International
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    • "Our finding revealed that B. bigemina, T. annulata, T. orientalis and A. marginale were present in cattle from different study areas. Bovine babesiosis, caused by B. bigemina and B. bovis, is considered as one of the most important tick-borne disease of cattle in Turkey (Ica et al., 2007;Altay et al., 2008). The overall infection of B. bigemina was 11.2%. "
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    ABSTRACT: Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. are significant tick-borne pathogens of livestock globally. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle from 6 provinces of Turkey using species-specific PCR assays. The PCR were conducted using the primers based on the B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a), T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 (Tams-1), T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (ToMPSP) and A. marginale major surface protein 4 (AmMSP4) genes, respectively. Fragments of B. bigemina internal transcribed spacer (BbiITS), T. annulata internal transcribed spacer (TaITS), ToMPSP and AmMSP4 genes were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. PCR results revealed that the overall infections of A. marginale, T. annulata, B. bigemina and T. orientalis were 29.1%, 18.9%, 11.2% and 5.6%, respectively. The co-infection of two or three pathogens was detected in 29/196 (15.1%) of the cattle samples. The results of sequence analysis indicated that BbiRAP-1a, BbiITS, Tams-1, ToMPSP and AmMSP4 were conserved among the Turkish samples, with 99.76%, 99-99.8%, 99.34-99.78%, 96.9-99.61% and 99.42-99.71% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Turkish TaITS gene sequences were relatively diverse with 92.3-96.63% identity values. B. bigemina isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries in phylogenetic analysis. On the other hand, phylogenetic analysis based on T. annulata ITS sequences revealed significant differences in the genotypes of T. annulata isolates from Turkey. Additionally, the T. orientalis isolates from Turkish samples were classified as MPSP type 3 genotype. This is the first report of type 3 MPSP in Turkey. Moreover, AmMSP4 isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries. This study provides important data for understanding the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases and it is expected to improve approach for diagnosis and control of tick-borne diseases in Turkey.
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