Kagoma YK, Crowther MA, Douketis J, Bhandari M, Eikelboom J, Lim W. Use of antifibrinolytic therapy to reduce transfusion in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery: a systematic review of randomized trials

Applied Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Thrombosis Research (Impact Factor: 2.45). 12/2008; 123(5):687-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.thromres.2008.09.015
Source: PubMed


Minimizing bleeding and transfusion is desirable given its cost, complexity and potential for adverse events. Concerns have been heightened by recent data demonstrating that bleeding events may predict worse outcomes and by warnings about the safety of erythropoietic stimulating agents. Prior small studies suggest that antifibrinolytic agents may reduce bleeding and transfusion need in patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, no single study has been large enough to definitively determine if these agents are safe and effective. To address this issue we performed a systematic review of randomized trials describing the use of tranexamic acid, epsilon aminocaproic acid, or aprotinin administration in the perioperative setting.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane databases were searched for relevant trials. Two independent reviewers abstracted total blood loss, transfusion requirements, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) rates. Data were combined using the Mantel-Haenszel method and dichotomous data expressed as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Patients receiving antifibrinolytic agents had reduced transfusion need (RR 0.52; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.64; P<0.00001), reduced blood loss and no increase in the risk of VTE (RR 0.95% CI, 0.80 to 1.10, I(2)=0%, P=0.531).
We conclude that antifibrinolytic agents may reduce bleeding and transfusion in patients undergoing THR or TKA who receive appropriate antithrombotic prophylaxis. There is a need for a large, adequately powered prospective study to carefully examine the safety and efficacy of these agents.

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    • "TXA has been used since 1960 in most of the clinical cases whenever anti-fibrinolytic therapy have been appropriate. This is used to reduce haemorrhage and reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion especially in cardiac surgeries, liver transplantation and some orthopaedic surgeries with different results.1819202122 Also World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested TXA administration in uncontrollable PPH.81920 TXA decreases postpartum blood loss after vaginal birth and after Caesarean section based on a meta-analysis which reported on only a few outcomes.23 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the third-most common cause of maternal death in the United States and it is still the first prevalent cause of maternal death in developing countries. Active prevention of haemorrhage with an uterotonic or other new drugs leads to a decrease in postpartum vaginal haemorrhage. The aim of this study was to compare anti-haemorrhagic effect of Tranexamic acid (TXA) and Misoprostol for PPH. Patients and Methods: In a double-blinded randomised control clinical trial, 200 women were included after Caesarean or natural vaginal delivery with abnormal PPH. They were divided into two equal intervention and control groups. Effect of intravenous TXA and Misoprostol for postpartum haemorrhage was examined. Results: The mean age of patients was 26.7 ± 6.5 years which ranged from 14 to 43 years. The sonographic gestational age in the group treated with TXA was 37.7 ± 3.4 weeks and it was 37.4 ± 3.3 weeks for the other group (P = 0.44). The haemorrhage in the TXA and Misoprostol groups was 1.2 ± 0.33 litres and 1.18 ± 0.47 litres, respectively (P = 0.79). The haemoglobin levels after 6-12 hours of labour, in TXA group was more than that of the Misoprostol group, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.22 and P = 0.21, respectively). Conclusion: Regarding to the superior results in Misoprostol group in one hand and lack of significant differences between two groups in haemorrhage during labour, post-partum haemoglobin level and discharge haemoglobin level, we can state that Misoprostol has no specific preferences to TXA, but more studies with greater population are needed.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
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    • "The use of antifibrinolytics has provoked concerns about increased complications, especially the increased thrombotic tendency. The potential of postoperative thrombosis needs to be more carefully explored and diligent reporting of all adverse events must be adopted [5]. Dunn et al [20] performed a review of TXA in spine surgery, complications of cerebral thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, acute renal failure, and coronary graft occlusion was all reported. "
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    ABSTRACT: Spine surgery, particularly reconstructive surgery, can be associated with significant blood loss, and blood transfusion. Antifibrinolytic agents are used routinely to reduce bleeding in cardiac, orthopaedic, and hepatic surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of using antifibrinolytic agents in reducing blood loss and blood transfusions in spine surgery. A systematic search of all related studies written in English published by October 2012 was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases. Randomized controlled trials that reported the drug dosage, total blood loss, blood transfusion and incidence of deep vein thrombosis as the primary outcome were included. Nine studies involving 482 patients were identified. Patients receiving antifibrinolytic agents had reduced blood loss (WMD =-288.8, 95 % CI - 46.49, - 110.19; P = 0.002), reduced blood transfusion (WMD =-242.7, 95 % CI - 422.57, - 62.95; P = 0.008), reduced blood transfusion rate (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58, 0.93; p = 0.010) and no increase (RR 0.25, 95 % CI 0.03, 2.22; P = 0.21) in the risk of deep vein thrombosis. Conclusions: We conclude that antifibrinolytic agents significantly decrease blood loss, blood transfusion, and there is no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosisfor transfusion requirements in spine surgery.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Reduced fibrinolytic marker activity may be associated with increased thrombotic risk [2] [17], but studies of TKR with tourniquet show conflicting results as to the effects of TXA on coagulation markers [18] [19] [20]. In clinical practice, various meta-analyses of TXA in orthopedic surgery have shown no increase in thrombotic or thromboembolic risk [10] [11] [21] [22]. "

    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Thrombosis Research
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