White Button Mushroom ( Agaricus Bisporus ) Exhibits Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Properties and Inhibits Prostate Tumor Growth in Athymic Mice

Department of Surgical Research, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.
Nutrition and Cancer (Impact Factor: 2.32). 02/2008; 60(6):744-56. DOI: 10.1080/01635580802192866
Source: PubMed


White button mushrooms are a widely consumed food containing phytochemicals beneficial to cancer prevention. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of white button mushroom extract and its major component, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and mushroom extract in vivo. In all cell lines tested, mushroom inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis within 72 h of treatment. CLA inhibited proliferation in the prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. DU145 and PC3 prostate tumor size and tumor cell proliferation were decreased in nude mice treated with mushroom extract, whereas tumor cell apoptosis was increased compared to pair-fed controls. Microarray analysis of tumors identified significant changes in gene expression in the mushroom-fed mice as compared to controls. Gene network analysis identified alterations in networks involved in cell death, growth and proliferation, lipid metabolism, the TCA cycle and immune response. The data provided by this study illustrate the anticancer potential of phytochemicals in mushroom extract both in vitro and in vivo and supports the recommendation of white button mushroom as a dietary component that may aid in the prevention of prostate cancer in men.

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    • "DNA fragmentation assays and cell death detection by ELISA showed that the fraction induces apoptosis in NB-4 cells. Adams et al. (2008) evaluated the effects of A. bisporus extract in vivo and its major component , conjugated linoleic acid on prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, respectively. DU145 and PC3 prostate tumor size and tumor cell proliferation were decreased in nude mice treated with mushroom extract. "
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    ABSTRACT: From time immemorial, mushrooms have been valued by humankind as a culinary wonder and folk medicine in Oriental practice. The last decade has witnessed the overwhelming interest of western research fraternity in pharmaceutical potential of mushrooms. The chief medicinal uses of mushrooms discovered so far are as anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, nephroprotective, and anti-microbial agents. The mushrooms credited with success against cancer belong to the genus Phellinus, Pleurotus, Agaricus, Ganoderma, Clitocybe, Antrodia, Trametes, Cordyceps, Xerocomus, Calvatia, Schizophyllum, Flammulina, Suillus, Inonotus, Inocybe, Funlia, Lactarius, Albatrellus, Russula, and Fomes. The anti-cancer compounds play crucial role as reactive oxygen species inducer, mitotic kinase inhibitor, anti-mitotic, angiogenesis inhibitor, topoisomerase inhibitor, leading to apoptosis, and eventually checking cancer proliferation. The present review updates the recent findings on the pharmacologically active compounds, their anti-tumor potential, and underlying mechanism of biological action in order to raise awareness for further investigations to develop cancer therapeutics from mushrooms. The mounting evidences from various research groups across the globe, regarding anti-tumor application of mushroom extracts unarguably make it a fast-track research area worth mass attention.
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    • "In the present study, we used the WBM because it is widely consumed and it exhibits immunomodulatory [25] [26], hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic [32], and antitumor [26] [27] activities. In recent studies, we and other investigators have found that the WBM contains a wide range of soluble polysaccharides that have the ability to activate macrophages [26] [33], a key event for effective innate and adaptive immunity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom (WBM) is widely consumed in most countries for its culinary properties. Recently, its dietary intake has been shown to protect against breast cancer. Mushroom polysaccharides are known for their immunomodulating and antitumor properties; however, little is known regarding the properties of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Using size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude extract of A. bisporus, two polysaccharide fractions (designated as ABP-1 and ABP-2) were obtained. The estimated molecular masses of ABP-1 and ABP-2 were 2,000 kDa and 40-70 kDa, respectively, and their sugar compositions consisted mainly of glucose, mannose, xylose, and fructose. Analysis of the effects of the polysaccharides on murine macrophages demonstrated that both fractions stimulated the production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Modulation of macrophage function by A. bisporus polysaccharides was mediated in part through activation of nuclear factor-κB with the production p50/105 heterodimers. Both ABP-1 and ABP-2 had the ability to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells but had little effect on the growth of human colon, prostate, gastric cancer, and murine Sarcoma 180 cells as assessed by a tetrazolium dye [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]-based assay. However, when murine Sarcoma 180 cells exposed to ABP-1 or ABP-2 were implanted subcutaneously into mice, a reduction in tumor growth was observed compared with that observed in control mice. Taken together, our data provide a molecular basis to explain in part the reported beneficial therapeutic effects of A. bisporus WBM intake and suggest that macrophages likely contribute to the antitumor effects of Agaricus polysaccharides.
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    • "Numerous reports demonstrate beneficial in vivo effects of cultivated and wild edible mushrooms. It has been proven that the polysaccharide extract of Pleurotus pulmonarius delays the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma [2]; polysaccharide from Pholiota nameko has anti-inflammatory properties in rodents [3]; Agaricus bisporus inhibits prostate tumor growth in mice [4]; Pleurotus eryngii, Grifola frondosa , and Hypsizygus marmoreus protect apolipoprotein- E deficient mice from development of atherosclerosis [5]. "
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