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Families As Partners in Educational Productivity

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The author discusses how cooperative partnerships between school and parents promote student achievement and have the potential to help resolve the crisis in educational productivity. (MD)

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... The curriculum of the home (Walberg, 1984a(Walberg, , 1984b includes parent-child conversations about everyday events, leisure reading, television viewing, peer activities, longterm goals, and expressions of affection and interest in the child as a person and in his or her academic achievements. ...
... school principals and p~rents may help to develop and implement successful low-SES minority parent involvement efforts at school (Chavkin & Williams, 1987;Constable & 52 Walberg, 1988;Henderson, 1981;Kagan, 1985;Liebertz, 1983;Moles, 1982;Salmon, 1984;Saxe, 1984;Walberg, 1984aWalberg, , 1984bWarner, 1985). Low-SES minority parents care about their children's education. ...
... They want to be involved and to have some of their concerns addressed. The SES of parents may affect the kinds of strategies that are needed to enhance their involvement, but it is not related to the level of interest in their children's education and success at school (Chavkin, 1989;Comer and Haynes, 1991;Dauber and Epstein, 1989;Walberg, 1984aWalberg, , 1984b. R1 also utilized the concept of whole language. ...
... Campbell and Wu (1996) (Campbell, 1996a;Campbell and Connolly, 1987;Campbell and Connolly, as cited in Campbell, 1996a). As part of his investigation of mathematics achievement in pre-collegiate students, Campbell and Wu (1996) adapted the Walberg Educational Productivity Model as the theoretical framework for their Mathematics Olympiad studies (Walberg, 1984a(Walberg, , 1984b(Walberg, , 1986 cited in Campbell & Wu, 1996). ...
... Walberg has synthesized thousands of empirical studies in the construction of his nine-factor educational productivity model (see Figure 1) that is an outgrowth of more than three decades of development (Campbell & Wu, 1996). The Walberg Educational Productivity Model depicts aptitude, instruction, and the environment as the major causal influences to learning (Campbell & Wu, 1996;Iverson & Walberg, 1982;Walberg, 1984aWalberg, , 1984bWalberg, , 1986Walberg, as cited in Campbell & Wu, 1996;Walberg & Marjoribanks, 1976). In their research, Campbell and Wu (1996) adapted the Walberg Educational Productivity Model (see Figure 2), by subsuming five of the global Walberg factors and expanding the number of variables within the home factor to include: family processes, socio-economic status, and the number of parents living at home. ...
... Productivity Model as the theoretical framework for their Mathematics Olympiad studies (Walberg, 1984a(Walberg, , 1984b(Walberg, , 1986; Walberg, as cited in Campbell & Wu, 1996). ...
Article
The William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition is an intercollegiate mathematics competition for undergraduate college and university students in the United States and Canada and is regarded as the most prestigious and challenging mathematics competition in North America (Alexanderson, 2004; Grossman, 2002; Reznick, 1994; Schoenfeld, 1985). Students who earn the five highest scores on the examination are named Putnam Fellows and to date, despite the thousands of students who have taken the Putnam Examination, only 280 individuals have won the Putnam Competition. Clearly, based on their performance being named a Putnam Fellow is a remarkable achievement. In addition, Putnam Fellows go on to graduate school and have extraordinary careers in mathematics or mathematics-related fields. Therefore, understanding the factors and characteristics that contribute to their success is important for students interested in STEM-related fields. The participants were 25 males who attended eight different colleges and universities in North America at the time they were named Putnam Fellows and won the Putnam Competition four, three, or two times. An 18-item questionnaire, adapted form the Walberg Educational Productivity Model, was used as a framework to investigate the personal and the formal educational experiences as well as the role the affective domain played in their development as Putnam Fellows. Further, research (DeFranco, 1996; Schoenfeld, 1992) on the characteristics of expert problem solvers was used to understand those elements of the cognitive domain that contributed to their success. Data was collected through audio-recorded interviews conducted over the telephone or through Skype, and through written e-mail responses. The interview data was coded according to the coding category it represented and then sorted to identify existing themes and patterns for within-case and cross-case analyses. The results indicated that four subcategories of personal experiences, four subcategories of formal educational experiences, seven subcategories involving the affective domain, and three subcategories of the cognitive domain all played an important role in the development of Putnam Fellows. Future research should include a thorough examination of female Putnam winners as well as the problem-solving strategies used by Putnam Fellows.
... 193). Walberg (1984) in his synthesis of 2,575 empirical studies of academic learning found that parents directly or indirectly influenced eight significant determinants of academic, social and behavioral learning. These eight are: student ability, student motivation, the quality of instruction, the amount of instruction, the psychological climate of the classroom, an academically stimulating home environment, a peer group with academic interests, goals and activities and a minimum of exposure to low grade television (p. ...
... This policy oriented paper resulted from the current educational changes described in (Epstein, 1986;Fullan, 1982, Lareau, 1989Walberg, 1984;Wolfendale, 1989) supports the notion that parent involvement positively influences student's social , emotional and academic growth, their attitude toward school and ultimately school retention rates. Research (Fullan, 1982;Rosenholtz, 1989;Sarason, 1982) indicates that parent understanding and support, significantly influences the success of change initiatives. ...
... La implicación familiar en la educación es uno de los pilares fundamentales en el desarrollo del niño con discapacidad, destacándose los aspectos de la educación paternal en el niño con discapacidad. En los estudios (Stevenson y Baker, 1987;Morrow, 1989;Walberg, 1984;Lewis, 1992y Georgiou, 1996 realizados sobre la participación paterna en la educación de distintas formas, destacándose diversos aspectos de la acción paternal en la educación de los hijos con discapacidad (Sánchez, 2014). ...
... En cuanto a la variable socio-económica, muchos profesionales de la educación lo consideran como un factor determinante que puede afectar al rendimiento y desarrollo educativo. Sin embargo, análisis posteriores (White, 1982;Walberg, 1984;Barrera, et al., 2005;Hattie, 2009) han demostrado que el nivel socio-económico tiene una vinculación débil con el rendimiento escolar de la persona con discapacidad, en contraposición a lo planteado por Lewis (1992), teniendo el mismo criterio White (1982), el cual considera que el factor con más influencia es el propio entorno familiar. ...
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Resumo Existen pocos estudios que traten la relación entre la familia y la discapacidad, así como la importancia de la calidad de vida y la relación entre la educación y la familia. El presente trabajo tiene como principal objetivo la revisión de los estudios sobre el papel de las familias de las personas con diversidad funcional y su calidad de vida. Pretendemos una reflexión sistematizada de la estimación cuantitativa sinté tica de todos los estudios disponibles, estableciendo un marco teórico sobre la relación entre las familias con diversidad funcional y la calidad de vida. En este estudio se aportan valoraciones personales acerca de las variables anteriormente citadas. Dentro de las conclusiones obtenidas, se evidencia que la familia juega un papel fundamental como primer núcleo educativo. No obstante, ha de aunarse esfuerzos para una labor conjunta con los profesionales con mayor implicación en la educación, sin desmerecer el papel que ejercen los progenitores, a postándose por un bien común. Palavras-chave: Calidad de Vida. Diversidad funcional. Educación. Discapacidad visual. Participación familiar. Abstract There are few studies that try it relationship between the family and it disability, as well as the importance of it quality of life and the relationship between it education and the family. He present work has as main objective it review of them studies on the paper of them families of them people with diversity functional and its quality of life. Intend to a reflection systematized of the estimate quantitative synthetic of all them studies available, establishing a framework theoretical about the relationshi p between them families with diversity functional and the quality of life. In this study provides personal estimations about the above mentioned variables. Within the findings, it is evident that the family plays a fundamental role as the first education al core. However, has of combine is efforts for a work joint with them professional with greater involvement in the education, without diminishing the role that exercise them parents, betting is by a well common.
... They conclude that some students would benefit by using the Alberta model, but that others would not. In this way, the results appear similar to other studies (for example, Biddle & Berliner, 2002;Robinson & Wittebols, 1986;Walberg, 1984) that class size has more impact on students from families who are economically and socially challenged. ...
... He studied the relationship between class size and parental effort in lower secondary schools in Norway and found that in smaller classes parents appeared to be more engaged in their children's education. Given that there is considerable evidence connecting parental involvement in a school and in their children's education to an increased sense of community and improved student achievement (Walberg, 1984), this presents another potential benefit of small class size. ...
... The United States Department of education research publication Strong Families, Strong Schools (1994, p2) has described the parent as "a child's first and most important teacher". Walberg (1984a) has reported that students spend only 13 percent of their waking time and academically stimulating time in their first 18 years in school leaving the remaining 87 percent under the nominal control of their parents. This means that parents have control over 6 times more academically stimulating hours in the life of their children than the school. ...
... Furthermore, there is a lack of agreement regarding what constitutes parental involvement and which forms of parental involvement are most effective in enhancing learning. Some studies have revealed higher achievement when parents take part in school activities (Reynolds, 1992), monitor homework and television viewing (Walberg, 1984a;1984b), and have higher aspirations and expectations for their children (Halle, Kurtz-Costes, & Mahony, 1997;Singh, Keith, Keith, Trivette, Anderson, 1995). ...
... Extensive literature, mostly from the U.S., demonstrates that higher involvement of families in schooling is beneficial for children's educational outcomes (cf. Walberg, 1984;Topping, 1992;Epstein, 1992;Henderson & Berla, 1996;Sui-Chu & Willms, 1996;and Sheldon, 2003). Indeed, family involvement was found to generate positive effects even for less educated and poor parents. ...
... While most studies on the impact of family involvement on educational outcomes report positive effects (cf. Walberg, 1984;Topping, 1992;Epstein, 1992;Henderson & Berla, 1996;Sui-Chu & Willms, 1996;Sheldon, 2003) 51 , the magnitude of these effects seem to vary substantially with the population of the study. In particular, growing evidence suggests that parents' socioeconomic status (SES), which includes parents' level of education, income and occupational status, and ethnicity, drives the variation of the effect of community involvement. ...
Article
Ethnic diversity is widely assumed to negatively affect a country’s education outcomes. Yet, comprehensive explanations for this link are still missing. This dissertation proposes and tests empirically three separate mechanisms through which ethnicity might affect educational outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, in this thesis it is examined whether and how ethnic diversity affects a village’s community activities; to what extent it determines clientelistic resource distribution; and how its effect on education outcomes is influenced by the political salience of ethnicity. These three mechanisms are tested in a two-level hierarchical model using a novel dataset of district level school enrollment in 31 African countries in combination with newly coded indicators for district ethnic diversity, district shares of presidents’ co-ethnics and existing ethnic parties. In a second step, the relevant factors causing ethnicity to be a politically salient factor are established by comparing the development of the high politicization of ethnicity in Kenya to the low politicization in Tanzania and by tracing the impact of ethnic structures, colonial administration, land distribution, and nation building policies on the politicization of ethnicity. In the third part of this dissertation the impact of ethnic diversity on community activities is re-examined. In particular, this part focuses on the influence of ethnic diversity on the impact of parental involvement activities on educational outcomes. This effect is estimated in a panel model using the school mapping dataset from Tanzania. In der Literatur wird ein negativer Zusammenhang zwischen der ethnischen Diversität eines Landes und dessen Bildungsniveau postuliert. Allerdings ist nicht klar, durch welche Mechanismen ethnische Diversität das Bildungsniveau beeinflusst. Diese Dissertation zeigt daher drei unterschiedliche Mechanismen auf, durch die ethnische Diversität auf Bildungsresultate in Sub-Sahara Afrika wirkt und testet diese empirisch. Im Besonderen versucht diese Dissertation zu bestimmen, wie ethnische Diversität die Aktivitäten von lokalen Gemeinschaften beeinflusst, inwieweit Ethnizität zu klientelistischer Ressourcenverteilung führt, und inwieweit der Einfluss von Ethnizität auf Bildung abhängig davon ist, ob Ethnizität ein politisch relevanter Faktor ist. Diese drei Mechanismen werden in einem zwei-Level hierarchischen Model mit Daten zu den Einschulungsraten auf Distrikt-Level von 31 Afrikanischen Ländern und selbst-kodierten Indikatoren für ethnische Diversität auf Distrikt-Level, Anteil der ethnischen Bevölkerung des Präsidenten in den Distrikten und Existenz von ethnischen Parteien geschätzt. Im zweiten Teil dieser Dissertation werden die relevanten Faktoren, die dazu führen, dass Ethnizität politisch relevant ist, in einer vergleichenden Studie der hohen Politisierung von Ethnizität in Kenia und der niedrigen Politisierung von Ethnizität in Tansania untersucht. Insbesondere wird hier die Methode des process tracing angewandt und der Einfluss von ethnischen Strukturen, kolonialer Vergangenheit, Landverteilung und Staatenbildungsmassnahmen untersucht. Der dritte Teil dieser Dissertation beschäftigt sich vertieft mit dem Einfluss von Ethnizität auf die Aktivitäten von lokalen Gemeinschaften. Insbesondere wird hier der Einfluss des Engagements von Eltern in der Schule auf die Bildungsresultate der Kinder betrachtet. Dieser Einfluss wird in einem Panel model und mit dem school mapping Datensatz von Tansania geschätzt.
... For many years, research has been largely pragmatic with parent involvement assumed to cause student outcomes and little effort expended to answer the questions of how or why it might so do (Corter & Pelletier, 2005; Dearing, McCartney, Weiss, Kreider, & Simpkins, 2004; Edwards & Warin, 1999; Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 1995). Early findings that a parent's involvement in their child's education both at home and at school was positively related to the child's school outcomes (Clark, 1983; Stevenson & Baker, 1987; Walberg, 1984b) led to a flurry of intervention activity with little theoretical basis. The most widely cited model of parent involvement is that of Joyce Epstein (Epstein, 1987Epstein, , 2010 Epstein, Coates, Salinas, Sanders, & Simon, 1997) which focuses on the way in which home-school links can be strengthened, rather than the way in which those links work to improve student achievement. ...
... Although much of the empirical evidence is correlational, it is said that its strength lies in the extremely large number of studies that show a consistent positive relationship between parent involvement and school outcomes (Buerkle, Whitehouse, & Christenson, 2009). When family process variables (what families do) and family status variables (who families are e.g., socioeconomic status) are compared, family process variables have been found to predict student outcomes better than family status variables (Stevenson & Baker, 1987; Walberg, 1984b; White, 1982). In addition to achievement, parent involvement is positively correlated with a range of educational outcomes including student behaviour, student motivation, self-esteem, attitudes to school, school attendance and drop-out rates (Buerkle et al., 2009). ...
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Students growing up in socially disadvantaged environments typically experience poorer educational outcomes than students living in more advantaged circumstances. Strengthening parents’ involvement in their children’s learning is widely regarded as an important way of helping to reduce the achievement gap between disadvantaged students and their more affluent peers, but unfortunately policy interest in parent involvement has outpaced evidence of its effectiveness as an intervention strategy. A fundamental problem is the conceptual inconsistency, ambiguity and confusion in the literature on parent involvement. This confusion is exacerbated by the inherent complexity of the processes through which various forms of parent involvement are likely to have their effects on different aspects of children’s learning. In addition, factors such as family socio-economic status and ethnic background are expected to act as moderators of these already complex relationships. Hence, it is impossible to synthesise existing results and draw firm conclusions as to which aspects of parent involvement might be effective targets for intervention in disadvantaged communities. In other words, we still need to know, “What matters? And for whom does it matter?”
... Despite the wealth of empirical studies in this area, the evidence about the impact of parenting practices on children's academic achievements is often inconclusive. Although most of the pertinent research supports the claim that parental involvement enhances academic achievement (Coleman, 1991;Epstein, 1991Epstein, , 1992Francis & Archer, 2005;Ho & Willms, 1996;Majoribanks, 1979;Rock, Pollack, & Hafner, 1991;Topping, 1992;Walberg, 1984), other research claims that some aspects of parental involvement may actually depress levels of children's academic achievement (Horn & West, 1992;Milne, Myers, Rosenthal, & Ginsburg, 1986) or have at best a negligible impact (Keith, 1991). ...
... As pointed out earlier, research studies suggest that family social capital is usually closely associated with educational outcomes (Coleman, 1991;Epstein, 1991Epstein, , 1992Francis & Archer, 2005;Ho & Willms, 1996;Majoribanks, 1979;Rock, Pollack, & Hafner, 1991;Topping, 1992;Walberg, 1984), although the direction and nature of the relationship is not always clear (Epstein, 1991;Keith, 1991). Dika and Singh (2002) reviewed 14 studies that examined the relationship between social capital and educational achievement, all but one reporting a positive association between attainment and parent-child discussions, parental expectations, parent monitoring of progress and parent-school involvement. ...
Article
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An examination is reported of data from The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001, with samples of 5,050 Hong Kong Grade 4 students, 5,050 parents, 147 teachers and 147 school principals. The analyses examine the relationship between family capital (financial, human and social) variables and students' reading comprehension of informational and literary texts. Positive correlations were found between reading attainment and most family variables, with parents who read regularly to their children helping to promote reading competence in their offspring. These parents are well placed to provide a stimulating learning home environment for their children and serve as positive role models. Regression analyses of the data support the expectation that children accustomed to books and exposed to reading at home are not overwhelmed by the reading assignments they encounter in school. Negative correlations were found that reflect cultural idiosyncrasies. For example, the traditional unwillingness of Chinese parents to be seen going to the school to talk about their children's scholastic progress. It is suggested that many parents in Hong Kong possesiHandbook os the wherewithal to assist their children to learn to read with understanding but that some need guidance from schools about using their influence to ensure the best effect. © International Association for the Improvement of Mother Tongue Education.
... How can we know if schools favor girls or boys? The question is difficult to answer because girls and boys are also influenced in significant ways by their nonschool environments, where they spend the vast majority of their time (Walberg 1984). To address this significant confound and more persuasively isolate how schools matter, we compare how achievement gaps between girls and boys change when school is in session versus not. ...
Article
Growing evidence suggests that contrary to popular belief, schools mostly do not generate achievement gaps in cognitive skills but, rather, reflect the inequalities that already exist. In the case of socioeconomic status, exposure to school often reduces gaps. Surprisingly little is known, however, about whether this pattern extends to gender gaps in cognitive skills. We compare how gender gaps in math and reading change when children are in school versus out (in the summer) among over 900,000 U.S. children. We find that girls learn faster than boys when school is out (in both reading and math), but this advantage is completely eliminated when school is in session. Compared to the family environment, schools act as a relatively standardizing institution, producing more similar gendered patterns in learning.
... School desegregation involves, as do most other reforms, altering the conditions, processes, and resources only within the schools. It does not control the influence of the nonschool context, where the average student spends more than two thirds of his or her time (Hofferth & Sandberg, 2001;Walberg, 1984). Therefore, there is a need to examine school effects on performance as distinct from student-level effects that originate largely from outside the schools. ...
Article
Background/Context: Past studies have consistently found modest academic gains for minorities as a result of desegregation. In addition, school effects have tended to be small or even null once student-level nonschool factors are controlled. However, traditional approaches not only treat desegregation as a policy that may be sufficient by itself to improve student performance, but also involve analytical techniques that may mask the beneficial effects of desegregated schools. In reality, student performance is affected by both school and nonschool factors, and the latter is often more influential than the former. Therefore, there is a need to reframe the approach to evaluating desegregation's academic outcomes. Conceptually, modest gains need not be viewed as a sign of either success or failure. Instead, the outcomes can be judged in light of the inherent limitations characteristic of any reform intended to close the achievement gap, limitations associated with enduring nonschool problems that undermine student performance. Empirically, multilevel analytical procedures can disentangle school-and student-level effects of desegregation to help determine whether the policy can improve the schools, despite limited gains in eventual student performance. Purpose: This article illustrates the proposed conceptual and empirical approach to desegregation evaluation by focusing on the dropout problem in urban high schools. The principal objective is to estimate the difference that desegregation makes in the effects of high schools on the dropout tendencies of predominantly poor minorities, net of student-level effects, many of which originate from outside the schools. Research Design: The analysis draws on data from the Cleveland Municipal School District, 1977-1998. Specifically, data on four cohorts were available. The first cohort attended segregated schools until late in high school The second one gradually desegregated in middle school and attended fully integrated high schools. The third one attended integrated schools from 1st through 12th grade. The fourth cohort attended integrated elementary and middle schools, followed by gradual resegregation in high school Thus, the analysis estimates the effects of segregated, desegregated, and resegregated high schools while controlling for different degrees of exposure to desegregation prior to high school Findings: Minority (Black and Hispanic) dropout rates changed slightly, and only for the second cohort. Student-level nonschool problems, such as poverty, family disruption, and neighborhood disadvantage, had worsening effects over time, which likely countered some of desegregation's benefits. Yet, desegregation made a considerable difference in the way that high schools aggravated the dropout problem. Much of the difference was explained by key compositional changes such as reductions in minority, poverty, and nontraditional family concentration in the schools for minorities. Resegregation reversed those benefits. The results provide no evidence of White harm. Instead, Whites appear to have benefited from desegregated schools in ways similar to how minorities benefited, although to a lesser extent. Conclusions: It is fairer to evaluate desegregation in light of its inherent limits. The policy may benefit students in terms of school effects but still fail to reverse eventual performance problems such as dropouts, which are subject to many forces that the schools can do little about. The results suggest that in the absence of equitable "educational" policies, such as desegregation, unequal schooling conditions and outcomes for urban minorities may be further exacerbated.
... Researchers concluded there is constant need to improve school collaboration with parents, developing professional capacities of all school staff members and to build up staffs' communicational skills. Effects of parents' involvement are numerous, mostly are pointed on increased pupils' achievements and satisfaction of pupils and parents (Walberg, 1984, Hiatt -Michael, 2001, in Ferrara, M., and Ferrara, J., 2005Barnar, 2004). Perceived difficulties with increased parental involvement were minimized through adequate education and preparation of the staff. ...
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This paper aims to analyze the role and importance of parents' involvement in educational teams creating an Individual educational plan (IEP) in inclusive settings. The role of good and developed collaboration with parents is well known for a long time in the theory of educational sciences, and particularly in special education and rehabilitation science. Education of students with disabilities and gifted students demand additional engagement, knowledge, and efforts from their teachers, to adjust educational curricula, classroom conditions, methods, and techniques to the abilities and needs of this particular group of students, and to each of them solely and individually. From the moment of involving inclusion in the educational process in Serbia, nine years ago, legislation is adjusted to demand parents' decisions about accepting supporting measures for improving students' development and achievements. The parent became a closer partner to educational professionals but still not an equal member of the educational process and all its steps. The current educational overall law made imperative parents' involvement in the creation of the IEP. This means that parent has to be the equal and honored member of the Team for additional support that is creating IEP, besides other needed members. We reviewed professional and scientific studies that were dealing with parents' involvement in inclusive educational teams for IEP creation. Studies were selected across the known searching services and bases online. Most studies were selected using search words: parents, involvement, individual educational plan, collaboration, and inclusion. Through analyzing the selected studies, we found out some repeated opinions according to several researchers. Firstly, we didn't find any negative opinions or study-based proof regarding parental involvement in decision making and plan IEP planning. All researchers also underline the importance of parents' involvement in these processes. Researchers concluded there is a constant need to improve school collaboration with parents, developing professional capacities of all school staff members, and build up staff communicational skills. The effects of parents' involvement are numerous, mostly are pointed toward increased pupils' achievements and satisfaction of pupils and parents. Parents can help the teamwork with their knowledge about child's habits out of school, its' interests and hobbies, life rhythm of the family, support to learning, ways of application od learned, ways of practical learning, learning styles, unwanted reactions to failure, efficient and proofed ways to encourage a child, etc. On the other side, parents benefits of involvement are: using the right to participate, deepening cooperation, insight into the IEP, impact on the IEP, getting a share of responsibility for educating their children, the ability to contribute to better planning, the possibility to relieve a child of unnecessary obligations, the possibility to point to unprecedented hardships, and a possibility to point out the unrecognized potentials and abilities of the child. It is clear from the researched studies that parents' role in the educational team is very important. The participation of parents in the education teams is required, useful, and needed; the benefit is multiple. All persons involved in cooperation have to review their attitude and attitude towards parental involvement and to empower themselves, especially for teamwork. Schools have to take measures to improve the cooperation and participation of parents, such as teacher training and developing teamwork skills and introducing into practice grouped meetings of IEP teams.
... Fourth, communication between home and school settings regarding student engagement and achievement holds the potential to increase parental involvement (Thames, Pang, & Watkins, 2000). Research supports the crucial nature of parental interest and participation in the educational process, as it has been found to be beneficial for students, parents, and teachers to influence emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes, and more specifically, to increase the effectiveness of DBR as an intervention (Epstein, 1995;Vannest et al., 2010;Walberg, 1984). ...
Article
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With the advent of multi-tiered problem solving frameworks, including positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS), has come increasing emphasis on general education classroom teachers serving as data collectors, assessors, and interventionists for students demonstrating problem behavior. As such, there is need for teachers to have access to strategies that can be used as a foundation of service delivery and that are appropriate in assessment, intervention, and communication across a wide range of students and situations. Research suggests that Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) is a particularly promising tool for tracking student progress, affecting change in student behavior, maintaining and generalizing treatment effects over time and settings, and enhancing communication between school professionals and families. This article offers an overview of DBR and its various uses and suggestions for practitioners in implementing it as a tool for Tier 2 support. An overarching goal of positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) is to ensure the timely provision of preventative strategies that match student needs and support academic and social growth. Each of the three levels used in this multi-tiered problem solving framework represents a combination of systems and practices of service delivery for students demonstrating challenging behaviors (Simonsen, Sugai, & Negron, 2008). Tier 2 is designed to assist students who have not adequately responded to universal strategies at Tier 1, and whose behavior is considered disruptive to the instructional context, without being extremely serious or dangerous to self or others (Sanetti & Simonsen, 2011).
... In reality, however, school hours only count for a small portion of student daily life. Walberg (1984) reported that children from birth to age 18 spent 90% of their time outside of school. Therefore, it might be farfetched to link the school hours with the entire student learning experience. ...
Article
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As Common Core Standards gain momentum in the United States, it has been claimed to have curricular support from international studies. Accordingly, evidence of student learning is reviewed in this article to assess effectiveness of imported school curricula in the Washington DC area. The analysis is expanded to include confounding factors that impact school hours as a quantifiable variable. Meanwhile, additional indicators have been incorporated from higher education to facilitate the result triangulation across K-16 education. The research findings reveal importance of test fairness from comparative studies, i.e., when schools are under local control, no single international test can ensure a fair match to various curricula, nor does the result provide a valid measure of school accountability in STEM education.
... parental involvement (e.g., Pianta et al., 2002;Walberg, 1984;Wang et al., 1993) and peer influence (e.g., Johnson, 2000;Lefgren, 2004;Ryan, 2001;Zimmer & Toma, 2000). As mentioned earlier, parental involvement can be viewed in terms of three major components: ...
Article
This paper identifies three noncognitive domains relevant for academic achievement in K-12—student engagement, behavioral learning strategies, and school climate. The paper also documents empirical findings that show relationships between these three noncognitive domains and academic achievement, especially in the areas of reading and mathematics.
... More specifically, the nature of the relationship between parentinvolvement andvarious outcomes during adolescence remains unclear. While much research supports the claim that parentinvolvement leads to improved academic achievement (e.g., Boger, Richter & Paolucci 1986;Coleman 1991;Epstein 1991Epstein , 1992Ho Sui-Chi & Willms, 1996;Majoribanks 1979; National Association of Secondary School Principals 1992; Rock, Pollack &Hafner 1991;Topping 1992;Walberg 1984), other research indicates that parent involvement is associated with lower levels of achievement (e.g., Horn & West 1992;Milne et al. 1986) or does not affect achievement (e.g. ,Epstein 1991;Keith 1991). ...
Article
Using the concepts of cultural and social capital, I provide a theoretical framework for why there should be differential effects of parental involvement across cognitive (e.g., science achievement) and behavioral (e.g., truancy and dropping out) outcomes. Findings indicate that parental involvement is generally a salient factor in explaining behavioral but not cognitive outcomes, with greatest support for parent-child discussion and involvement in parent-teacher organizations. Findings also indicate that specific dimensions of involvement have greater effects for more affluent and white students, providing empirical evidence to support Lareau's (1989) contention that the greater levels of cultural capital possessed by members of the upper class magnify parental involvement's effect for advantaged students. The theoretical framework and associated findings provide insight into the seemingly inconsistent findings revealed in much previous research on parent involvement and achievement.
... This curriculum is not content-specific, but rather families support their child's development by emphasizing behaviors and attitudes that prepare their child for the academic demands of schooling. Examples include promoting leisure reading, monitoring homework, and participating in joint tele-viewing (Redding, 1992;Walberg, 1984). ...
Article
Parent educational involvement is an important avenue for enhancing student outcomes. Schools seek myriad ways to include families; however, the parent involvement practices used by schools lack coordination and are disconnected from existing school approaches. Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a systematic and coordinated framework used in more than 19,000 schools to support student behavior. Despite its success, PBIS implementation underemphasizes comprehensive systems for engaging families. The purpose of this article is to present a framework of family engagement within PBIS. The purpose of coordinating and sequencing family engagement within PBIS is to increase the efficiency, effectiveness, relevance, and durability of PBIS by supporting students across settings. Furthermore, this model extends current parent involvement frameworks by coordinating systematic family engagement in education.
... The positive effects of parent involvement have been demonstrated across a wide range of age levels and populations (eg, Epstein 1983;Reynolds 1989;Stevenson and Baker 1987). Parent involvement in children's schooling has been measured in many ways including reading at home (Morrow 1989) and helping with homework (Walberg 1984). Parents who believe they can make a difference in their child's education and view their role as that of teacher are more likely to become involved and engage in stimulating home activities (Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler and Brissie 1992; Grolnick et al 1997). ...
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Early Childhood Education is the official journal of the Early Childhood Education Council (ECEC) of The Alberta Teachers' Association (ATA). The journal assists the ECEC to achieve its objective of improving practice in early childhood education by publishing articles that increase the professional knowledge and understanding of teachers, administrators and other educationists involved in early childhood education. The journal seeks to stimulate thinking, to explore new ideas and to offer various points of view. It serves to promote the convictions of the ECEC about early childhood education. 2R1. Unless otherwise indicated in the text, reproduction of material in Early Childhood Education is authorized for classroom and professional development use, provided that each copy contain full acknowledgement of the source and that no charge be made beyond the cost of reprinting. Any other reproduction in whole or in part without prior written consent of the ATA is prohibited. Although every effort is made to ensure accurate scholarship and responsible judgment, opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the ECEC or the ATA. Action research is a powerful tool to help teachers become more conscious of their practices and realize how their practice reveals who they are. This article refers to a collaborative action research project in which a group of teachers and the author experimented with creating thinking dispositions in their early childhood settings. They developed a theoretically sound, research-based approach to understanding young children’s thinking processes through engaging the children in thinking routines. The initiative emphasizes the use of thinking routines and documentation to make the thinking process more visible in the classroom. In a collaborative effort to grow and help each other, the teachers were engaged in a self-study experience that helped them evolve from teachers to teacher-researchers. As they shared their concepts of thinking, the teachers were not only self-internalizing what thinking is but gaining ownership of the creation of a culture of thinking in their classrooms.
... Another consideration is how family practices influence, and are influenced by other ecological domains such as school and community. In terms of its relation to school, some researchers have said that family provides children with an informal educationthe behaviours, skills, and attitudes learned at home are often applied in the school setting, affecting their academic achievement (Christenson, Rounds, & Gorney, 1992;Walberg, 1984). ...
... From an instrumental view, ethnic minority parental involvement activities and programs directed by the school are thought to yield the greatest results in increasing or improving ethnic minority parental involvement (Berger, 1991;Comer and Haynes, 1991;Dye, 1989;Edelman, 1987;Epstein, 1986Epstein, , 1984Epstein & Dauber, 1991;Moles, 1982;Swap, 1987;Walberg, 1984;Wells, 1990). It is thought that the greater school-directed parental involvement, the greater the chance that student achievement will increase, and the greater the possibility that schools will be effective (de Marris & LeCompte, 1995). ...
... However, what H. J. Walberg (1984) calls "the curriculum of the home"-such things as leisure activities, reading, and family conversations on everyday events-is alterable. According to Oliver C. Moles (1990), several programs and practices to help parents strengthen the home environment have been shown to be successful in raising achievement levels among children from low-income and minority families. ...
... These three themes are related conceptually to strategies teachers were learning and practicing through the Getting Ready intervention (see Table 2). The first theme, home-school collaboration, involved generalization of strategies teachers were learning to promote collaborative planning on home visits; for example, informing parents about what was going on in the classroom and suggesting ways they could follow up and extend it if they liked, thus creating a "curriculum of the home" (Walberg, 1984) that would support school readiness. The second, Emotion-Focused theme, consisting of personal touches and disclosures, acknowledging parent and child competence, and emotional messages of welcome and goodbye, was directly related to the integrated triadic and collaborative strategies teachers learned in the Getting Ready intervention, with its methods for establishing communication, building rapport and trust, and affirming confidence and competence. ...
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To advance the field of children’s services, implementation and generalization studies are needed to help us reveal the inner workings of intervention projects and how they do (or do not) achieve their outcomes. This paper provides a case study of Head Start teachers’ uptake of the Getting Ready school readiness intervention, intended to strengthen professionals’ capacity to support parental engagement in young children’s development and learning. The qualitative method of document review was used in scrutinizing home visit reports and classroom newsletters as a source of authentic evidence about teachers’ implementation and generalization of an early intervention model. Home visits were a focus of training and coaching, and the analysis provided strong evidence of treatment group teachers implementing Getting Ready strategies of collaborative planning and problem-solving with parents around academic learning and social-emotional goals. In contrast, newsletters were not the focus of the intervention; their analysis provided clear evidence of spontaneous change (hence, generalization) made by teachers on their own as they sought to strengthen home-school collaboration, form strong and trusting relationships, and spotlight and acknowledge child and parent competence. Beyond finding evidence of teachers’ uptake and generalization of the Getting Ready strategies, the study suggests the utility of analyzing teachers’ everyday documents to uncover patterns of behavior change of teachers seeking to implement an early childhood school readiness intervention.
... O envolvimento parental na escolaridade das crianças e adolescentes foi medido de diversa forma, incluindo o interesse mostrado relativamente aos eventos promovidos na escola (Stevenson & Baker, 1987), à leitura em casa (Morrow, 1989) e à ajuda nos trabalhos de casa (Walberg, 1984). Tem aumentado o consenso de que o envolvimento parental não pode ser concebido como um fenómeno unitário (Cone, Delawyer & Wolfe, 1985;Epstein, 1990a) Num outro estudo, Grolnick et al (1997), examinam factores que predizem os tipos de envolvimento dos pais na escola, usando uma perspectiva ecológica transdisciplinar em que a acção é enquadrada no seu meio contextual e institucional (Bronfenbrenner, 1986;Wertsch, 1991 Consideramos, neste nível, as práticas de envolvimento dos pais levadas a cabo pelos professores. ...
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... With respect to parenting, Zeleke (2000) stated that child rearing practices played a significant role in shaping the behavior of children, and families of low socio-economic status were likely to have low expectations from their children's academic performance. Walberg (1984) contended that family educational culture included academic guidance, occupational aspirations, expectations from their children, the provision of adequate health, nutritional conditions and physical settings in the home conducive to academic work. As most of the studies discussed in this section are within the context of the country, the students' academic and social behaviors, and the parents' socio-economic status might also have certain influences on the students' academic performance in Ethiopia. ...
... We now know that the particular ways that family members interact with their children are much more powerful predictors of children's school achievement than family status variables (e.g., income, parental educational level) or family structure variables (e.g., intact or divorced family) alone. Walberg (1984), for example, found that while only 25% of the variance in student reading achievement was explained by social class or family structure configuration (e.g., intact or divorced family), 60% of the variance in reading achievement was explained by the particular interactions that family members engaged in with their children. ...
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This article presents an overview of a research-informed family resilience framework, developed as a conceptual map to guide school counselors’ preventive and interventive efforts with students and their families. Key processes that characterize children's and families’ resilience are outlined along with recommendations for how school counselors might apply this family resilience framework in their work.
... Enable all to contribute service to the community. Figure 1: Six types of parent involvement participation, students do not achieve at acceptable levels (Walberg, 1984). Myers and Monson (1992) offered a number of recommendations aimed at encouraging and nurturing parent involvement in middle schools. ...
... In the ancient time before the 18th century, children spend only 13 percent (13%) of their time in school, but recently an increment in these percentages surfaces, and children are concluded to be spending more time in school. There are rigid reasons for the claim that the role of parents in ensuring the academic success of their offspring is about 87% (Walberg, 1984). There is certainly profit in the involvement of parents in their children's education according to the literature of the parental involvement in children's life Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (1995) debate that there is a relationship between parent's involvement in education with compatibility and the progress of children in school. ...
... Entre las primeras se suele incluir el nivel de estudios, el nivel profesional, el estatus marital, los ingresos económicos, el lugar de residencia, el tipo de vivienda y las variables de constelación familiar. Las variables de proceso, denominadas por Walberg (1984) el «currículum del hogar», han sido agrupadas por Christenson et al. (1992b) en cinco categorías: expectativas y atribuciones de los padres, ambiente afectivo del hogar, estilo disciplinario de los padres, estructura de aprendizaje en el hogar e IP. Sin embargo, aunque unas y otras influyen en los resultados escolares, el grado en que lo hacen continúa siendo motivo de discrepancias (Milne, 1989). ...
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Researchers and educators raise the question of whether student educational performance can be improved through parental involvement in academic activities. The main objective of the following research is to verify whether parental involvement in school activities have an influence on the impressions teachers form of children's academic results. The sample used is of 150 seventh grade students, who completed intellegence tests; their parents, who answered a self-report questionaire about family and educational matters; and their tutors, who were asked to fill out a questionaire on student school evaluation and impressions of the family. The results, verified through the analysis of structural equations, demonstrate that the teacher's impression of a child's educational results is directly influenced by the cultural level of the family and the child's I.Q., but is indirectly influenced by parental involvement in school activities and the child's family status. Special attention is paid to the importance parental involvement has on the teacher's impression of the child's educational achievement.
... We refer to this approach as "covariate adjustment" and note that it is vulnerable to overestimating schools' role and underestimating the importance of the nonschool environment. Walberg (1984) reminds us that the average 18-year-old American has spent just 13 percent of their waking hours in school. The nonschool environment, therefore, represents a hefty confounder when attempting to isolate school effects. ...
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Children’s social and behavioral skills vary considerably by socioeconomic status (SES), race and/or ethnicity, and gender, yet it is unclear to what degree these differences are due to school or nonschool factors. We observe how gaps in social and behavioral skills change during school and nonschool (summer) periods from the start of kindergarten entry until the end of second grade in a recent and nationally representative sample of more than 16,000 children (the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 2010–11). We find that large gaps in social and behavioral skills exist at the start of kindergarten entry, and these gaps favor high-SES, white, and female children. Over the next three years, we observed that the gaps grow no faster when school is in than when school is out. In the case of social and behavioral skills, it appears that schools neither exacerbate inequality nor reduce it.
... The most significant family variable that predicts student achievement includes what Walberg (1984) refers to as the curriculum of the home-parents discussing everyday events with their children, supervising and jointly analyzing television programs, expressing affection, showing interest in their child's academic performance, and encouraging delayed gratification. Walberg concludes that the presence of those behaviors is considered a better predictor of student achievement than variables such as the family's socioeconomic status or configuration. ...
... froru a,sssssyn.enr. Prompt and descriptive feedback greatly enhances good teaching and learning (Walberg 1984;Chickering and Gamson 1987). There are clearly limitations on giving individual feedback with a large class, but there are a range of options nonetheless. ...
... Wang, Heartel and Walberg (1993) identify the home environment as a major causal influence to student learning. Although the home environment comprises several motivational variables, the most salient involve the parents (Bandura, 1997;Chao, 2001;Eccles & Harold, 1993;Walberg, 1984). Research concurs that parent(s) provide psychological support and cognitive stimulation (Brutsaert, 1999;Eccles & Harrold, 1993;Nash, 1997;Zirpoli, & Melloy, 2000) and influence the quality and level of educational resources within the home (Campbell & Wu, 1994) which are critical to effective student learning. ...
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Utilizing the top three scoring European countries in mathematics achievement from the TIMSS-R Study, the researchers sought to identify specific parental and pedagogical variables that contribute to high mathematics achievement. These predictor variables were also analyzed by commonalties and disparities by country and gender. This study extracted data from approximately 12,000 eighth-grade students from Belgium-Flemish, Netherlands, and Slovak Republic. The results disclosed for both genders in all three countries that student self-concept in mathematics was the strongest predictor of high mathematics achievement. Additional significant positive predictors for both males and females in all three countries include a positive attitude towards mathematics and home educational resources. Pedagogical and parental factors were also key influences to high mathematics achievement. Majority of the students reported that at least one of their parents attended and/or completed a university program and they had an ample supply of reference books in their home. In addition, their teachers stressed critical thinking and problem solving skills in the classroom. Both genders within all three countries evinced negative significance with respect to owning or having access to all three educational aids (a computer, a personal study desk, and a dictionary) in their home. In addition, general outside-study time was not significant for both genders in Belgium-Flemish and the Netherlands and negatively significant in Slovakia. Student reports on hours spent studying mathematics or doing mathematics homework was not significant for both genders in the Netherlands and male students in Belgium-Flemish; however, both genders in Slovakia and female students in Belgium-Flemish evinced negative significance, which implies that these students do not complete tasks involving their mathematical assignments outside of school. Although negligible differences were found by gender within all three countries on the mathematics achievement tests, the number of females entering the
... First, children are influenced in important ways by both their families and their schools, so how do we separate the two? The average 18-year-old in the United States has spent just 13 percent of their waking hours in school (Walberg 1984), highlighting the importance of non-school environments. Children are not randomly distributed to schools, so it is difficult to know whether outcome differences between schools are a function of school processes or the widely disparate homes and neighborhoods where children spend most of their time. ...
Article
In the half century since the 1966 Coleman Report, scholars have yet to develop a consensus regarding the relationship between schools and inequality. The Coleman Report suggested that schools play little role in generating achievement gaps, but social scientists have identified many ways in which schools provide better learning environments to advantaged children compared to disadvantaged children. As a result, a critical perspective that views schools as engines of inequality dominates contemporary sociology of education. However, an important body of empirical research challenges this critical view. To reconcile the field’s main ideas with this new evidence, we propose a refraction framework, a perspective on schools and inequality guided by the assumption that schools may shape inequalities along different dimensions in different ways. From this more balanced perspective, schools might indeed reproduce or exacerbate some inequalities, but they also might compensate for others—socioeconomic disparities in cognitive skills in particular. We conclude by discussing how the mostly critical perspective on schools and inequality is costly to the field of sociology of education.
Book
Conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) strengthens collaboration between children's most critical learning environments - school and home - for improved academic, behavioral, and social-emotional skills. The reader-friendly, 2nd edition of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation: Promoting Family-School Connections and Interventions offers innovative applications of CBC as an ecological, evidence-based approach. In this new edition, the authors combine best practices in consultation and problem-solving for interventions that promote and support children's potential, teachers' educational mission, and family members' unique strengths. Important features in this new edition include: · A step-by-step framework for developing and maintaining family/school partnerships takes readers from initial interviews through plan evaluation. · Chapters include discussion on core interpersonal skills, including building trust, managing conflict, and communicating effectively. · Practical strategies illustrate working with diverse families and school personnel, improving family competence, promoting joint responsibility, and achieving other collaborative goals. · Case studies demonstrate CBC as implemented in traditional school, Head Start, pediatric health, and response-to-intervention (RtI) contexts. · In-depth research review explains the efficacy of CBC. The progressive model of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation has a great deal to offer school psychologists, special educators and other school-based professionals as well as mental health practitioners. In addition, its accessibility makes this volume a suitable graduate text or training manual for those planning to work with children and families in these growing fields. © 2007, 1996 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved.
Article
The Equality of Educational Opportunity Study (1966)—the Coleman Report—lodged a key takeaway in the minds of educators, researchers, and parents: Schools do not strongly shape students’ achievement outcomes. This finding has been influential to the field; however, Coleman himself suggested that—had longitudinal data been available to him—decomposing the variance in students’ growth rates rather than their levels of achievement would have provided a clearer insight into school effects. Inspired by an intriguing finding from an earlier study conducted in 1988 by Bryk and Raudenbush, we take up Coleman’s suggestion using data provided by NWEA, which has administered over 200 million vertically scaled assessments across all 50 states since 2008. We replicated Bryk and Raudenbush’s surprising finding that most of the variation in student learning rates lies between rather than within schools. For students moving from Grades 1 through 5, we found 75% (math) to 80% (English language arts) of the variance in achievement rates is at the school level. We find similar results in preliminary analyses of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class 1998-99 (ECLS-K:99). These results are intriguing because they call into question one of the dominant narratives about the extent to which schools shape students’ achievement; however, more research is needed. Our goal is to invite other scholars to conduct similar analyses in other data contexts. We delineate four key dimensions along which results need to be further probed, first and foremost with an eye toward the role of test score scaling practices, which may be of central importance.
Article
What is schools’ role in the stratification system? One view is that schools are an important mechanism for perpetuating inequality because children from advantaged backgrounds (white and high socioeconomic) enjoy better school learning environments than their disadvantaged peers. But it is difficult to know this with confidence because children’s development is a product of both school and nonschool factors, making it a challenge to isolate school’s role. A novel approach for isolating school effects is to estimate the difference in learning when school is in versus out, what is called impact. Scholars employing this strategy have come to a remarkable conclusion—that schools serving disadvantaged children produce as much learning as those serving advantaged children. The empirical basis for this position is modest, however, and so we address several shortcomings of the previous research by analyzing a nationally representative sample of about 3,500 children in 270 schools from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort of 2011. With more comprehensive data and better scales, we also find no difference in impact on reading scores across schools serving poor or black children versus those serving nonpoor or white children. These patterns challenge the view that differences in school quality play an important role shaping achievement gaps and prompt us to reconsider theoretical positions regarding schools and inequality.
Article
RÉSUMÉ Les relations entre les parents et l'école ont beaucoup évolué durant ce dernier quart de siècle en Europe et outre-Atlantique, et de nombreuses recherches ont accompagné ce mouvement. Ce texte présente en première partie des travaux récents réalisés dans ce domaine, qui traitent des relations entre parents et enseignants, de l'implication des parents dans la scolarité de leur enfant, de leur participation à la gestion de l'enseignement scolaire, ainsi que du choix de l'école par les parents. Une deuxième partie expose certaines des questions soulevées par l'analyse du rapport entre les parents et les enseignants, notamment celle de la division du travail entre les deux institutions.
Chapter
Throughout the world, participation numbers and student demographics in higher education are changing, with an increasing number of first-generation students being accepted into higher education. The educational background of these students varies from being well prepared in the appropriate skills, concepts, and academic experience, to being seriously underprepared. This poses a range of challenges for the students, lecturers, and the institutions. In widening participation and extending opportunities, inequalities of experience and outcomes can either be reproduced or challenged. This chapter examines the key elements and dynamics at play in the successful model developed at a South African university. The model engages with factors that contribute towards students’ sense of being ‘on the border’ and addresses the needs, strengths, and issues involved in widening participation to students and achieving more equality in the culture of learning. The programme embraces complexity; develops multiple approaches and interventions; and actively promotes academic and affective factors that will contribute towards affirming students’ identity, harnessing their agency, fostering a sense of belonging to a learning community, and shifting away from a homogenised view of ‘disadvantage’ and the notion of simply ‘assimilating’ students into the university. This has provided genuine space for students to change and transform how we as academics think about our practice, challenge our ‘taken-for-granted’ assumptions, and provide a rich tapestry for classroom practice and beyond.
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This study evaluated the influence of psycho-personal variables on Students' Performance in Agricultural Science in public secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. It was a survey research that employed multi-stage sampling technique in the selection of the respondents. Influence of personality variables Questionnaire (IPVQ) with reliability index of 0.84 was administered on 100 Senior Secondary School Agricultural Science Students. Collected data were analysed through the use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Independent T-test at 0.05 level of significance. Results showed that significant positive relationships existed between vocational instinct, attitude and performance in agriculture. The study also showed that there was a negative but significant relationship between parental influence and student's performance in agricultural science. Among the recommendations made were that Government should make provision for training teachers; organize induction courses, seminars, conferences and workshops on new Agricultural science teaching methods. Students should develop a positive self-concept about self with the assistance of their parents and caretakers and teachers who should not use abusive words on them but encourage them with love.
Article
Research Findings: The objective of this study was to understand how instructional book-reading style and emotional quality of reading interact and relate to cognitive skills in a sample of at-risk infants and toddlers. Participants were 81 parents and their children participating in Early Head Start programs in the rural Midwest. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that parental book-reading instructional style and emotional quality interact and relate to changes in children’s cognitive scores for culturally and linguistically diverse families. Results included that there were variations in how book-reading qualities interacted and related to changes in child cognitive scores for families whose primary home languages were either English or Spanish. Practice or Policy: The results of this study are discussed in conjunction with findings from a previous study published in this journal that examined concurrent relationships in the same sample of Early Head Start families. Combined, findings of these studies underscore a need to further explore potentially complex patterns of relationships among parental literacy behaviors and child knowledge, concurrently and across time, for culturally and linguistically diverse families. Better understanding these patterns could inform the development and implementation of culturally sensitive intervention approaches designed to support high-quality parent–child book reading.
Article
While he celebrated higher education as the engine of progress in every aspect of American life, George Keller also challenged academia's sacred cows and entrenched practices with provocative ideas designed to induce "creative discomfort." Completed shortly before his death in 2007, Higher Education and the New Society caps the career of one of higher education's exceptional minds. Refining and expanding ideas Keller developed over his fifty-year career, this book is a clarion call for change. In the face of a transformed American society marked by population shifts, technological upheavals, and a volatile economic landscape, Keller urges leaders in higher education to see and confront their own serious problems. With characteristic forthrightness and inimitable wit, Keller targets critical areas where bold thinking is especially important, taking on such explosive issues as the configuration of academic disciplines, the runaway problem of big-time sports, the decline of the liberal arts, and the urgent problems of finances and costs. Keller expected this book to ignite discussion and controversy within academic circles, and he hoped fervently that it would also lead to real thinking, real analysis, and urgently needed transformation. © 2008 The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Researchers have made considerable progress in recent years when it comes to expanding the scope of studies within the Sociology of Education. This chapter presents a broad overview of recent educational trends along the lines of race, class, and gender. Next, it addresses school reform and policy developments, especially as they are related to school choice and school organization. From this point, attention is shifted to students' learning “outside of school,” focusing on early childhood, summer learning, and after‐school lessons. In contexts of high inequality and high demand for educational advantages, many scholars predict a continued intensification in supplemental education. Highlighted next is the emerging issue of disparities in students' digital and technological skills. The chapter concludes with a discussion of recent sociological findings in the realm of higher education.
Thesis
Um die Frage, ob es sich bei der Technikfeindlichkeit der Deutschen - und speziell den Jugendlichen - um eine Tatsache oder um ein Phantom handelt, ist in den letzten Jahren innerhalb der Sozialwissenschaften teilweise heftig gestritten worden. Die Datenlage ist immer noch zu unsicher, um hier eine eindeutige Antwort zu finden. Das Ziel dieser Studie ist es, weiteren Aufschluss zu geben. Technikakzeptanz hat entscheidenden Einfluss auf die soziale Diffusion und wirtschaftliche Durchsetzung neuer Technologien. Dies gilt erst recht für die Gentechnik. Vor diesem Hintergrund mag das vielfach gängige Stereotyp der technikfeindlichen deutschen Jugend alarmierend klingen. Das trifft besonders dann zu, wenn man mit R. Inglehart davon ausgeht, dass die Internalisierung grundlegender sozialer und politischer Werthaltungen mit Beendigung der späten Adoleszenzphase abgeschlossen ist. Diese Werthaltungen und die darauf aufsetzenden Einstellungen prägen das weitere Leben eines Menschen (Generationeneffekt). Mittels einer quantitativen Querschnittuntersuchung sind in den Regionen Stuttgart und Neckar-Alb 412 Schülerinnen und Schüler zufällig ausgewählter Schulklassen aus Gymnasium sowie beruflicher Schule befragt worden. Die zentralen Fragestellungen dieser Studie waren: Welches sind die wichtigsten Faktoren bei der Bildung von Einstellungen zur Gentechnik aus der Sicht von SchülerInnen und welche Rolle spielt die Schule bei der Vermittlung von Gentechnik-Einstellungen? Als bedeutsamste Ergebnisse sind zu nennen, dass einem geringen Gentechnik-Wissen ein großes Gentechnik-Interesse gegenübersteht und dass Wissen keinen Einfluss auf die Einstellung zur Gentechnik hat. Die Haupteinflussfaktoren der Einstellungsbildung sind moralische Erwägungen sowie positive und negative Vorstellungen bzgl. der Folgen des Gentechnikeinsatzes. Die Einflussnahme von Lehrerinnen und Lehren bleibt weitgehend ohne Auswirkungen auf die Gentechnik-Einstellung der Schülerinnen und Schüler.
Presentation
Presenter: Annalee Fjellbert, Ph.D., School Social Worker, District #98, Berwyn, Illinois - "School Social Workers and P.L. 94-142: What are We Doing?".
Chapter
The concept of parents as teachers represents a large and rapidly expanding volume of literature. The proliferation of research studies, reanalyses, and evaluations require extensive organization and integration to discover what is said. The problem is not a lack of information, but rather the ability to use the information we have. In addition, as Leichter (1974) has noted, “The family is a different subject for inquiry because it is so much a part of everyone’s experience that it becomes hard to avoid projecting one’s own values, beliefs and attitudes onto the experience of others” (p. 215). All of this nothwithstanding, the considerable face validity engendered by the concept of parents as teachers has been supported by powerful empirical evidence (Bronf enbrenner, 1974; Lazar, 1981) supporting the position that parent involvement in the education of the child improves the effectiveness of that education. What follows is not a comprehensive state-of-the-art paper nor a comprehensive review of the parent as teacher literature. It is, however, an attempt to respond to the literature, particularly integrative summaries, and further, to place these in a context that we interpret to be important to their synthesis. We hope by so doing to place them in proper introductory perspective to provide the foundation for what follows in other chapters of the volume.
Chapter
It seems reasonable to assert that, in the last 30 years, no social policy has been as divisive as school desegregation. And few would argue that the numbers of minority and white leaders actively pursuing the goal of desegregation has declined from a decade or more ago. But the issue will not go away, and advocacy persists for at least two general reasons. First, on balance, and even though both massive and passive resistance have been more common than genuine efforts to make it work, school desegregation has benefited most of those who have experienced it. Second, the problems that school desegregation was meant to address are still with us in many communities, and social policies likely to be more effective in remediating them are not in evidence.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among Korean early adolescents' perceived negative parenting practices, trajectories of mobile phone dependency(MPD), and self-regulated learning(SRL), while taking into account gender differences. Early adolescents are required to acquire self-regulation in Korean cultural contexts of a strong emphasis on academic achievement and recent technological advancements. The study made use of data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Study(KCYPS), and three waves of data collected from 1,953 adolescents in 7^{th}, 8^{th} and 9^{th} grade were analyzed. The results can be summarized as follows. Growth-curve longitudinal analysis indicates that their initial value of MPD through 7^{th} to 9^{th} grade had increased, but the initial value and rate of change were significantly different according to gender. Furthermore, the results of multiple group analysis revealed that some path weights appeared different according to gender. For male students, the rate of change in MPD did not have a significant effect on either SRL in 7^{th} or 9^{th} grade, whereas for female students, it predicted the existence of significant relationships with them. The implications of these findings were also discussed.
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Research Findings: The objective of this study was to understand how instructional book-reading style and emotional quality of reading interact and relate to cognitive skills in a sample of at-risk infants and toddlers. Participants were 81 parents and their children participating in Early Head Start programs in the rural Midwest. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that parental book-reading instructional style and emotional quality interact and relate to changes in children’s cognitive scores for culturally and linguistically diverse families. Results included that there were variations in how book-reading qualities interacted and related to changes in child cognitive scores for families whose primary home languages were either English or Spanish. Practice or Policy: The results of this study are discussed in conjunction with findings from a previous study published in this journal that examined concurrent relationships in the same sample of Early Head Start families. Combined, findings of these studies underscore a need to further explore potentially complex patterns of relationships among parental literacy behaviors and child knowledge, concurrently and across time, for culturally and linguistically diverse families. Better understanding these patterns could inform the development and implementation of culturally sensitive intervention approaches designed to support high-quality parent–child book reading.
Article
In this article, family—school partnerships are discussed as a viable and essential way to increase the opportunities and supports for all students to enhance their learning progress and meet the recent demands of schooling inherent in accountability systems and most notably of Title I No Child Left Behind legislation. School psychologists are encouraged to make the family-school partnership a priority by collaborating with school personnel to (a) apply principles from systems-ecological theory to children's learning; (b) maintain an opportunity-oriented, persistent focus when working with youth and families living in challenging situations; and (c) attend to the process of partnering with families. Example opportunities for school psychologists to make this partnership a priority for children's academic, social, and emotional learning are delineated.
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The spatial separation of financial classes in a city can convey understanding into the nexus of urban improvement and nature. The motivation behind this paper is to distinguish poor and rich locales in vast urban communities as indicated by the transcendent physical qualities of the locales. Significant spatial data from urban frameworks can be inferred utilizing remote detecting and GIS technique, particularly in extensive hard to-oversee urban communities where the flow of advancement results in fast changes to urban designs. In the present study high determination symbolism information for the distinguishing proof of homogeneous socio-economic zones were demarcated. Census data were used to examine the socio-economic characteristics of the region through computation of population density, cultivators, agricultural labourers, sex ratio, total labour and literates. The philosophy depicted could additionally be connected to other urban focuses, especially vast urban communities of India, which have attributes like those of the review range.
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