Article

The Effects of a Strength Training Program on the Strength and Self-Concept of Two Female Age Groups

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a strength training program on strength and self-concept in young and mature women. Forty-three subjects participated in a 12-week program of progressive weight training while 42 control subjects maintained their sedentary lifestyles. Subjects completed a psychological inventory prior to strength assessments during the first week of the study. Subjects were divided by age and randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. The mean age of the mature women and the young women were 44.4 and 21.5 years, respectively. The mature experimental (ME) and young experimental (YE) groups showed significant (p <.01) increases in strength on bench press, pulldown, and leg press as compared to the mature control (MC) and young control (YC) groups. Gains for the experimental groups ranged from 13 to 31% compared to gains of 0 to 8% for the control groups. Strength gains were similar across age groups except that the ME group gained more leg strength than the YE group. The experimental groups showed significant (p <.01) improvements on physical self, self-satisfaction, and global self-concept scores compared to the control groups in which there was no significant change. The magnitude of self-concept change was the same for the ME and YE groups, indicating that this strength program had similar effects on self-esteem regardless of age. The results of this study agree with the literature indicating that strength training in fitness programs for healthy mature women can result in increased levels of strength and can positively affect self-concept.

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... However, in studies examining the effect of exercise on global and physical self-perceptions at the same time, results have been equivocal. For example Tucker (1982) and Brown and Harrison (1986) found both global and physical self-concept improved following exercise, ...
... Six studies reported scores on the physical scale. All found significantly improved physical self-concept, including two with middle-aged adults (Brown & Harrison, 1986; using an older female sample, involving post-menopausal women (Shaw et al., 2000) in which physical self-concept and physical self-perceptions were measured using Fox and Corbin's (1989) Physical Self Perception Profile for adults (PSPP-A, Chase 1991). ...
... Of the aforementioned 19 studies, four were similar to the present study in treatment duration and intensity (i.e., 12-16 weeks at moderate intensity) and age (i.e., middle-aged or older adults). Brown and Harrison (1986) found significantly improved total and physical selfconcept in a sample of young compared to older females after 12 weeks of group weight training; Brown et al. (1995) reported significantly improved body perceptions following a group walking treatment (40-50 years); Stoll and Alfermann (2002), in a 82% female sample (50 + years) reported significantly enhanced body perceptions in response to 14 weeks of moderate-intensity group exercise; Perri and Templer (1985) found significantly improved self-concept following a group walk/jog treatment in older adults (60-79 years). ...
... Strength training has several physiological benefits for women, including increasing muscular strength (Brown & Harrison, 1986;Chilibeck, Calder, Sale, & Webber, 1998;CuUinen &Caldwell, 1998;Wilmore, 1974) and lean body mass (Butts & Price, 1994;Chilibeck etal., 1998;Chilibeck, Calder, Sale, & Webber, 1996;Cullinen&Caldweil, 1998;Wilmore, 1974), and decreasing percent body fat (Butts & Price, 1994;Cullinen & Caldwell, 1998;Prabhakaran, Dowling, Branch, Swain, & Leutholtz, 1999;Wilmore, 1974) in both young and middle-aged women. In older women, strength training helps prevent sarcopenia by increasing the strength, mass, power, and quality of skeletal muscle, and it may also help prevent age-related losses in bone mineral density (Hurley & Roth, 2000). ...
... In addition to the physiological benefits of strength training, there are numerous psychological benefits for women who strength train, Among young women, strength training has been found to result in improvements in self-esteem (BrazeII-Roberts & Thomas, 1989-1990Melnick&Mookerjee, 1991;Trujillo, 1983), self-concept (Brown & Harrison, 1986), emotional well-being (Tucker & Maxwell, 1992), body image (Tucker & Maxwell, 1992), bodycathexis (Mehiick & Mookeijee, 1991), and state anxiety (O'Connor, Bryant, Veltri, & Gebhardt, 1993). Further, participation in a strength training program results in improved self-concept in middle-aged women (Brown & Harrison, 1986) and improved psychological health in older women (Tsutsumi etal., 1998). ...
... In addition to the physiological benefits of strength training, there are numerous psychological benefits for women who strength train, Among young women, strength training has been found to result in improvements in self-esteem (BrazeII-Roberts & Thomas, 1989-1990Melnick&Mookerjee, 1991;Trujillo, 1983), self-concept (Brown & Harrison, 1986), emotional well-being (Tucker & Maxwell, 1992), body image (Tucker & Maxwell, 1992), bodycathexis (Mehiick & Mookeijee, 1991), and state anxiety (O'Connor, Bryant, Veltri, & Gebhardt, 1993). Further, participation in a strength training program results in improved self-concept in middle-aged women (Brown & Harrison, 1986) and improved psychological health in older women (Tsutsumi etal., 1998). ...
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This investigation examined college-age women s perceived benefits and barriers to strength training. Women were classified as strength trainers (ST. N = 50) or non-strength trainers (NST, N = 50) on the basis of an exercise participation questionnaire. Benefits and barriers were measured using the Benefits and Barriers to Exercise (BBE) Questionnaire, which was modified to deal specifically with strength training issues. It was predicted that ST would report more benefits and less barriers when compared to their NST counterparts, while NST would report more barriers and less benefits than their ST counterparts. There were no differences between ST and NST on perceived benefits of strength training, suggesting that both are aware of the benefits of strength training. Of the perceived benefits, body image and health were both higher than psychological and social, which were not different. NST re-ported significantly higher .scores on all four barrier factors relative to their ST counter-parts. For NST, time-effort was the highest of the barriers, with physical, social, and specific being slightly lower STwere virtually free from any perceived barriers to strength training. Based on these results, it appears that both ST and NST are aware of the benefits of strength training; however, NST have yet to overcome their perceived barriers to strength training. As such, future interventions should concentrate on overcoming barriers to exercise, specifi-cally time management. The American College of Sports Medicine (2000) recently highlighted the importance of strength training, along with aerobic and flexibility exercises, as key elements to a "well-rounded training program" for healthy adults. Interestingly, gender differences were not high-lighted as a possible moderating factor for deriving benefits from strength training, suggesting that both men and women should participate in strength training. Additionally, various inves-tigations have shown that women can benefit both physiologically and psychologically from a strength training program (Ebben & Jensen, 1998; Fleck, 1998; Freedson, 2000; Marble, 1997). However, despite the benefits associated with strength training, the number of women who participate in strength training programs is low (Ebben & Jensen, 1998). Strength training has several physiological benefits for women, including increasing muscular strength (Brown & Harrison, Wilmore, 1974) in both young and middle-aged women. In older women, strength training helps prevent sarcopenia by increasing the strength, mass, power, and quality of skeletal muscle, and it may also help prevent age-related losses in bone mineral density (Hurley & Roth, 2000). Among women of all ages, strength training also enhances the ability to carry out activities of daily living (American College of Sports Medi-cine, 2000).
... Hemmling, 1994). Beide Ansätze haben jedoch den Nachteil, dass die Bestimmung der Trainingslast Tests erfordert, die aufgrund fehlender standardisierter Testprotokolle meist mittels Versuch-und-Irrtum durchgeführt werden (Anderson & Kearney, 1982;Brown & Harrison, 1986;Gottlob, 2003a;Hoeger et al., 1990;Hortobagyi, Katch & LaChance, 1989;Kraemer & Fry, 1995;Kuramoto & Payne, 1995;Radlinger et al., 1998;Trunz et al., 2002). Aus Gründen der Reliabilität und Validität können solche Tests erst nach einer längeren Gewöhnungsphase durchgeführt werden (vgl. ...
... Übertraining sowie zur kontinuierlichen, langfristigen Leistungssteigerung empfehlen sie die Anwendung der Individuellen-Leistungsbild-Methode (ILB-Methode), welche ein zentraler Bestandteil der Traineraus-und -fortbildung der BSA-Akademie 1 darstellt. Harrison, 1986;Gottlob, 2003a;Hoeger et al., 1990;Hortobagyi, Katch & LaChance, 1989;Kraemer & Fry, 1995;Kuramoto & Payne, 1995;Radlinger et al., 1998;Trunz et al., 2002). Bedingungen, die insbesondere im Fitness-und Gesundheitssport die Effizienz dieser testabhängigen induktiven Verfahren zur Belastungsbestimmung in Frage stellen. ...
... Among randomized trials, a positive effect of strength training alone on overall self-esteem has been observed in younger and older healthy adults as well as patient groups, including those with cancer and depression. 40,41,101,[120][121][122] Improvements in overall self-esteem also have accrued when strength training was added to outpatient rehabilitation performed by cardiac patients. 123 The evidence from at least 6 randomized trials supports the conclusion that strength training alone is associated with improvements in overall self-esteem. ...
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This review summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials to examine whether strength training influences anxiety, chronic pain, cognition, depression, fatigue symptoms, self-esteem, and sleep. The weight of the available evidence supported the conclusion that strength training is associated with reductions in anxiety symptoms among healthy adults (5 trials); reductions in pain intensity among patients with low back pain (5 trials), osteoarthritis (8 trials), and fibromyalgia (4 trials); improvements in cognition among older adults (7 trials); improvements in sleep quality among depressed older adults (2 trials); reductions in symptoms of depression among patients with diagnosed depression (4 trials) and fibromyalgia (2 trials); reductions in fatigue symptoms (10 trials); and improvements in self-esteem (6 trials). The evidence indicates that larger trials with a greater range of patient samples are needed to better estimate the magnitude and the consistency of the relationship between strength training and these mental health outcomes. Plausible social, psychological, and neural mechanisms by which strength training could influence these outcomes rarely have been explored. This review revealed the high-priority research need for animal and human research aimed at better understanding the brain mechanisms underlying mental health changes with strength training.
... ,Berger e Mcinman (1993) 50 eBoutcher (1993) 51 , quando afirmam que o exercício físico proporciona benefícios em parâmetros emocionais, prevenindo alterações de humor. O exercício físico ainda está associado com a oportunidade de esquecer os problemas cotidianos por um período de tempo; sentir-se em controle da experiência; sentir-se competente e eficaz; aumentar as interações sociais; fortalecer o autoconceito, a autoestima e o bom humor; diminuir a ansiedade, a hostilidade e a agressividade[52][53][54][55][56][57] .Biddle (1995) 58 ,Petruzzello et al. (1991) 14 ,Raglin (1990) 59 e Raglin e Morgan (1987) 60 relatam que os efeitos agudos da atividade física proporcionam melhora dos sintomas ansiosos, após um único episódio de exercício com duração de algumas horas e até um dia após o exercício. Além disso, tem sido demonstrado que sessões agudas de atividade física promovem uma melhoria no estado de humor, como a diminuição de tensão/ansiedade, depressão e raiva e aumento do vigor, que podem durar horas após o exercício físico e que a repetição destes efeitos em longo prazo traria efeitos positivos para a saúde[61][62][63][64] .Ainda, de acordo comMorgan (1985) 65 , North et al. (1990) 66 eRansford (1982) ...
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OBJETIVO: Analisar a efetividade da hidroginástica, como auxiliar terapêutico à redução do nível de ansiedade, em mulheres diagnosticadas com transtorno de ansiedade. MÉTODOS: Este ensaio clínico teve a participação de pacientes com ansiedade, sendo a depressão a comorbidade existente, do programa de Residência Médica em Psiquiatria do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, todas em tratamento com medicamentos (n = 16: grupo experimental = 8; grupo-controle = 8). O experimento foi realizado na piscina aquecida do Departamento de Educação Física da Universidade Estadual de Maringá. O delineamento do estudo foi elaborado com duas sessões de hidroginástica por semana, durante 12 semanas. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: o Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck (BAI) e o Perfil de Estado de Humor (POMS). Para análise estatística, foram utilizados o teste de Friedman, o Teste de Wilcoxon, o Teste de Mann-Whitney e Comparações Múltiplas, adotando significância em 5%. RESULTADOS: Os escores do transtorno de ansiedade tiveram redução no grupo experimental, após 12 semanas de intervenção (19,12 ± 3,12 para 8,37 ± 4,60 pontos, P = 0,0005*), e no grupo-controle (17,87 ± 14,32 para 12,12 ± 9,58 pontos, P = 0,254). Para o perfil do estado de humor, o grupo experimental evidenciou perfil de saúde mental positiva, enquanto o grupo-controle demonstrou perfil negativo de estado de humor. CONCLUSÕES: Portanto, as pacientes do grupo experimental evidenciaram significativa redução do nível de ansiedade em relação às pacientes do grupo-controle, que utilizaram apenas o tratamento convencional com medicamentos. Para o perfil do estado de humor, foram encontradas alterações no decorrer do estudo; o grupo-controle experimentou alteração negativa de humor durante o ensaio clínico, enquanto os pacientes do grupo experimental evidenciaram perfil positivo de estado de humor com redução da tensão, depressão, raiva, confusão e aumento do vigor.
... ,Berger e Mcinman (1993) 50 eBoutcher (1993) 51 , quando afirmam que o exercício físico proporciona benefícios em parâmetros emocionais, prevenindo alterações de humor. O exercício físico ainda está associado com a oportunidade de esquecer os problemas cotidianos por um período de tempo; sentir-se em controle da experiência; sentir-se competente e eficaz; aumentar as interações sociais; fortalecer o autoconceito, a autoestima e o bom humor; diminuir a ansiedade, a hostilidade e a agressividade[52][53][54][55][56][57] .Biddle (1995) 58 ,Petruzzello et al. (1991) 14 ,Raglin (1990) 59 e Raglin e Morgan (1987) 60 relatam que os efeitos agudos da atividade física proporcionam melhora dos sintomas ansiosos, após um único episódio de exercício com duração de algumas horas e até um dia após o exercício. Além disso, tem sido demonstrado que sessões agudas de atividade física promovem uma melhoria no estado de humor, como a diminuição de tensão/ansiedade, depressão e raiva e aumento do vigor, que podem durar horas após o exercício físico e que a repetição destes efeitos em longo prazo traria efeitos positivos para a saúde[61][62][63][64] .Ainda, de acordo comMorgan (1985) 65 , North et al. (1990) 66 eRansford (1982) ...
Article
Full-text available
OBJETIVO: Analisar a efetividade da hidroginástica, como auxiliar terapêutico à redução do nível de ansiedade, em mulheres diagnosticadas com transtorno de ansiedade. MÉTODOS: Este ensaio clínico teve a participação de pacientes com ansiedade, sendo a depressão a comorbidade existente, do programa de Residência Médica em Psiquiatria do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, todas em tratamento com medicamentos (n = 16: grupo experimental = 8; grupo-controle = 8). O experimento foi realizado na piscina aquecida do Departamento de Educação Física da Universidade Estadual de Maringá. O delineamento do estudo foi elaborado com duas sessões de hidroginástica por semana, durante 12 semanas. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: o Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck (BAI) e o Perfil de Estado de Humor (POMS). Para análise estatística, foram utilizados o teste de Friedman, o Teste de Wilcoxon, o Teste de Mann-Whitney e Comparações Múltiplas, adotando significância em 5%. RESULTADOS: Os escores do transtorno de ansiedade tiveram redução no grupo experimental, após 12 semanas de intervenção (19,12 ± 3,12 para 8,37 ± 4,60 pontos, P = 0,0005*), e no grupo-controle (17,87 ± 14,32 para 12,12 ± 9,58 pontos, P = 0,254). Para o perfil do estado de humor, o grupo experimental evidenciou perfil de saúde mental positiva, enquanto o grupo-controle demonstrou perfil negativo de estado de humor. CONCLUSÕES: Portanto, as pacientes do grupo experimental evidenciaram significativa redução do nível de ansiedade em relação às pacientes do grupo-controle, que utilizaram apenas o tratamento convencional com medicamentos. Para o perfil do estado de humor, foram encontradas alterações no decorrer do estudo; o grupo-controle experimentou alteração negativa de humor durante o ensaio clínico, enquanto os pacientes do grupo experimental evidenciaram perfil positivo de estado de humor com redução da tensão, depressão, raiva, confusão e aumento do vigor.
... Several studies have shown that women can especially benefit physically and mentally from strength training. [2][3][4] Physiological benefits of strength training for women include increased muscular strength, [5][6][7] increased lean body mass, [6][7][8][9] decreased body fat percentage, 8,10,11 and increased ability to carry out activities of daily living. 12 Psychological benefits include improvements in self-esteem, [13][14][15] self-concept, 5 emotional well-being, and positive body image. ...
Article
Purpose: Due to numerous health benefits, national recommendations call Americans to participate in muscle-strengthening activities at least two days/week. However, college-aged women tend to fall short of recommendations. This study sought to examine correlates of college women meeting strength training recommendations using the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM). Methods: Undergraduate women (n=421) completed surveys measuring strength training, demographics, and IBM constructs. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS 19. Results: Respondents were on average 20.1 years old, 79.3% were white, and 66.3% did not meet strength training recommendations. Bivariate correlations revealed significant relationships (p≤.01) between strength training and attitude, descriptive norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A logistic regression model revealed self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were predictive of college women meeting U.S. strength training recommendations. Conclusion: This study supports using the IBM to understand strength training behavior among college women. Further research is needed to better understand mediating effects among IBM constructs.
... Several controlled and uncontrolled studies have confirmed the hypothesis that regular APA increases selfesteem and physical self (Fox, 2000). They have shown that regular and optimized activity (especially endurance activity) improves the self-perceptions of physical ability, with positive consequences for physical self-worth and global self-esteem (Trujillo, 1983; Sonstroem, 1984; Brown and Harrisson, 1986; Morgan and Sonstroem, 1989; Brown et al., 1993; Desharnais et al., 1993; King et al., 1993; Leith, 1994; Palmer, 1995; Talbot and Taylor, 1998). This impact is assumed to be most powerfully felt in the concrete physical subdomains specifically related to physical abilities. ...
Article
This study explored the intraindividual level and variability of global self-esteem and physical self-worth in adults with spinal cord injury over three consecutive periods, 4 weeks at home, 1 week in an adapted skiing program, and 4 weeks at home. Ten participants responded twice a day over a period of 9 weeks with the Physical Self Inventory, a six-item questionnaire with a visual analogue scale. The results showed that the program significantly increased the level of global self-esteem, physical self-worth, and three subdomains. The variability of the physical condition, sport competence, and physical strength subdomains was diminished after the program. The changes are discussed in terms of impact of a specific adapted physical activities program on physical self conceived as a complex system.
... The exploratory study by Smith et al 13 hypothesised that the apparent prevalence of exercise dependence in bodybuilding is related to the fact that weight training can significantly enhance self esteem. [15][16][17][18][19] They predicted that some people begin bodybuilding training because they suVer from poor body image and low self esteem, 11 20 21 and they may become dependent on it to feel good about themselves. Preliminary evidence 20 22 supports a possible relation between bodybuilding experience and personality changes. ...
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To investigate psychological correlates of exercise dependence in experienced and inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters. Secondary objectives included measuring social physique anxiety, bodybuilding identity, and social support among bodybuilders and weightlifters. Thirty five experienced bodybuilders, 31 inexperienced bodybuilders, and 23 weightlifters completed the bodybuilding dependence scale, a bodybuilding version of the athletic identity measurement scale, the social physique anxiety scale, and an adapted version of the social support survey-clinical form. A between subjects multivariate analysis of variance was calculated on the scores of the three groups of lifters for the four questionnaires. Univariate F tests and follow up tests indicated that experienced bodybuilders scored significantly higher than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters on bodybuilding dependence (p<0.001), social identity and exclusivity subscales of bodybuilding identity (p<0.001), and social support scales (p<.001), and significantly lower on social physique anxiety (p<0.001). Experienced bodybuilders exhibit more exercise dependence, show greater social support behaviour, and experience less social physique anxiety than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters.
... Guided by the results of Okonor et al. (O'Connor et al., 2010), complacency, as a global concept of an individual's perception of self, shows relative stability in relation to other parameters of mental health. However, the very positive effects of strength training precisely on this ability have been established in several studies conducted on a sample of third-age individuals (both men and women) (Brown et al., 1986). Furthermore, ten weeks of combined aerobictype training and strength training lead to a statistically signifi cant improvement in self-esteem, total mood, reducing fatigue and depression in a third-age person group (Anessi and Westcoot, 2004). ...
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This chapter summarized knowledge about the physical SC, a variable that has assumed great importance in studying how self-esteem is related to physical activity participation. It discussed the advantages of employing component scales such as physical SCs, and reviewed research and theory on the development of the physical SC, age and sex differences, and relationships with life adjustment. Skill development and self-enhancement research were summarized. Leading physical SC scales were briefly reviewed. A thesis of the chapter is that SE and its associations with physical activity participation can be studied best by the employment of models that are hierarchical in their structure, and which contain SC components ranging from very specific to very broad constructs. This has implications for item and inventory selection and for an ultimate understanding of how physical activity leads to mental and emotional benefits.
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To determine the effects of participation in selected physical activities on scores of self-concept, body-cathexis and four items of health-related fitness, 88 women in university physical education service classes participated 3 hr. per week for 8 wk. in one of five activities (aerobic dance, jogging for fitness, swimming for fitness, life saving, and weight training). A total of 108 subjects participated in the study, with 20 students in health science classes serving as the controls. Few differences were noted between the activity groups and the controls on the posttest with pretest scores controlled. Specifically, joggers and aerobic dancers performed significantly more situps than did the controls, and joggers, aerobic dancers, weight trainers, and those in the lifesaving group displayed significantly greater flexibility on the sit and reach test than did the controls, on the posttest. None of the activity groups differed from the controls regarding self-esteem, body cathexis, body fat, or the step test scores at posttest.
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Our meta-analysis examined the impact of exercise interventions on body image; and participant, intervention, and design features associated with larger effects. We identified 57 interventions (with pre-and post-data for the exercise and control groups) examining the effects of exercise on body image. A small random effect indicated that exercise intervention conditions had improved body image compared to control conditions; and that participant (age), design (year of publication), and intervention (exercise frequency and specificity) features moderated the effect size. Research examining the mechanisms and the exercise dose-response required for body image change is needed.
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Peráčková, J. a kol., 2016. Telesné sebaponímanie školskej športujúcej a nešportujúcej populácie. [Physical self-perception among school based sport active and sport inactive population] Abstrakt slovensky a Abstract english Predkladáme čitateľovi príspevky, ktoré sa venujú telesnému sebaponímaniu a vznikli s podporou grantu VEGA č. 1/0971/15: Peráčková, J.: Ukazovatele a indexy telesného rozvoja školskej športujúcej a nešportujúcej populácie z Bratislavy a z iných oblastí Slovenska. Riešené v rokoch 2015 – 2016. Peráčková a Peráček zistili, že športujúce adolescentky a športujúci adolescenti vnímajú lepšie svoje telo ako nešportujúce adolescentky a nešportujúci adolescenti. Sú spokojnejší s jednotlivými časťami tela. Najbližšie k svojej ideálnej postave sa približovali športujúci chlapci, nasledovali športujúce dievčatá, nešportujúci chlapci a nešportujúce dievčatá. Zo šiestich oblastí pri vnímaní a pociťovaní svojho tela mali signifikantne lepšie pocity športujúci v porovnaní s nešportujúcimi a športujúci dosahovali aj vyššie hodnoty v sebahodnotení než nešportujúci bez rozdielu pohlavia. Zistili, že chlapci vnímajú lepšie svoje telo ako dievčatá a majú k nemu vyššiu dôveru. Dievčatá prikladajú vyššiu dôležitosť svojmu vzhľadu ako chlapci. Športujúci majú vyššiu dôveru v svoje telo v porovnaní s nešportujúcimi, hodnotia pozitívnejšie veľkosť svojho tela. Mnoho z týchto výsledkov telesného sebaponímania dosiahlo štatistickú významnosť. Plevková a Peráčková na základe 6 týždňového experimentu so 14 žiačkami vo veku 16 až 17 rokov zisťovali vplyv aerobiku na percepciu subjektívnej pohody žiačok. Zaznamenali štatistický významné rozdiely u škály Pozitívny postoj k životu (p<0,05), u škály Sebaocenenie (p<0,01), ktorá hovorí, že sa jednotlivec cíti byť cenený a od iných oceňovaný. Vplyvom aerobiku docielili zmeny k lepšiemu v percepcii subjektívnej pohody. Pačesová zisťovala a porovnávala telesné sebaponímanie a spokojnosť s telom u adolescentov z hľadiska druhu vykonávanej športovej activity, z hľadiska pohlavia a na základe vecnej analýzy zistila, že v rámci pozitívnej miery telesného sebaponímania boli výsledky v súbore chlapcov pomerne vyrovnané. V súbore dievčat zaznamenala pozitívnu mieru telesného sebaponímania v najvyššej miere v skupine dievčat vykonávajúcich silové športy. Bez ohľadu na druh vykonávanej športovej aktivity jej zistenia preukázali, že chlapci sú viac spokojní so svojim telom ako dievčatá. Jej výsledky priniesli zaujímavé zistenia, ktoré nekorešpondujú s výsledkami, ktoré zistili autori zaoberajúci sa touto problematikou v rôznych častiach sveta. Balga na vybranom súbore dokázal, že úroveň BMI žiačok základných škôl neovplyvňuje štatisticky významne ich postoje k telesnej a športovej výchove. Veríme, že táto publikácia obohatí problematiku body image na Slovensku a že čitatelia si nájdu poznatky, ktoré ich zaujmú a podporia v ďalšom výskumnom sledovaní. Abstract To the readers we present eight contributions that are dedicated to physical self-perception of school-based sport active and sport inactive population and were created with the support of the VEGA grant no. 1/0971/15: Peráčková, J.: Indicators and indexes of physical development of school-based sport active and sport inactive population from Bratislava and other regions of Slovakia. The grant has been worked out during the years 2015 and 2016. Peráčková and Peráček found that sport active female adolescents (n=582) and sport active male adolescents (n=401) perceive their bodies better than sport inactive female adolescents (n=372) and sport inactive male adolescents (n=276). They were also more satisfied with the selected body parts. The closest thoughts to the ideal own body presented sport active male adolescents, followed with sport active female adolescents, then sport inactive male adolescents and sport inactive female adolescents. Six areas of perception and feelings of the body were significantly better taken among sport active in comparison to sport inactive and sport active adolescents reached better scores in self-evaluation than sport inactive adolescents, both without regard to gender. Peráčková and Peráček have found that boys perceive their bodies better than girls and had greater confidence in the own body. Girls ascribed higher importance to own appearance than boys. Sport active adolescent population had greater confidence in their bodies than sport inactive adolescent population. Sport active adolescent population evaluated their body size more positively than sport inactive adolescents. Many of these results of physical self-perception have achieved statistical significance. Plevková and Peráčková, based on 6-week pedagogical experiment with 14 female adolescents aged 16-17 years, investigated the impact of aerobics on the perception of subjective well-being of girls. They recorded statistically significant differences in the Positive attitude scale (p<0.05), the Self-esteem scale (p<0.01). By 6-week aerobics program they have reached changes to a better perception of subjective well-being. Pačesová surveyed and compared physical self-perception and satisfaction with the body among adolescents in terms of type of sporting activity and in terms of gender. She found out that within the positive range of physical self-perception were results in the group of boys fairly balanced. She recorded most positive level of self-perception in a group of girls who performed strength sports. Regardless of the kind of sport performed, her findings have shown that boys are more satisfied with their body than girls. Results of her study had brought interesting findings that do not coincided with the results found out by authors dealing with this issue in different parts of world. Her results showed higher level of satisfaction in group of sport inactive female and male adolescents in comparison to sport active female and male adolescents. Balga proved on the selected sample, that Body mass index of the elementary school female pupils does not statistically influenced attitudes towards physical education lessons. We believe that this publication will enhance body research in Slovakia and the readers will find the knowledge that will attract them and will support them in further research.
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ХАРКІВСЬКА ДЕРЖАВНА АКАДЕМІЯ ФІЗИЧНОЇ КУЛЬТУРИ Кафедра важкої атлетики та боксу ТУПАХІН ДЕНИС ІГОРОВИЧ ПАРАМЕТРИ ІНТЕНСИВНОСТІ ТРЕНУВАЛЬНИХ НАВАНТАЖЕНЬ ВАЖКОАТЛЕТОК НА ЕТАПІ ПІДГОТОВКИ ДО ВИЩИХ СПОРТИВНИХ ДОСЯГНЕНЬ Магістерська робота Спеціальність: Кваліфікація: Науковий керівник – ______________ доц. Галашко М.І. (підпис) (посада, науковий ступінь, наукове звання, ініціали, прізвище) Рецензент – ______________ к.фіз.вих., доц. Саєнко В.Г. (підпис) (посада, науковий ступінь, наукове звання, ініціали, прізвище) Харків – 2016
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Microfiche (negative) Eugene : Microform Publications, College of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Univ. of Oregon, 1976. -- 1 sheet ; 10.5 x 15 cm. Thesis (M.S.)--Brigham Young University. Bibliography: leaves 29-30.
Article
Nine different weight training programs were compared to determine which were more effective in improving strength. The experiment was conducted with the bench press lift for a period of 12 weeks with approximately 20 subjects in each weight training program. Subjects were tested for the 1 RM on the bench press lift at the beginning of training and at three-week intervals. Training took place three times weekly with the variations in programs involving one, two, and three sets, and two, six, and ten repetitions per set. The results showed that three sets and six repetitions per set were best for improving strength.
Article
Thesis (M.A.)--San Diego State University, 1983. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 110-115).
Article
The Tennessee self concept scale was administered to college women (N = 460) athletes and nonathletes, physical education majors and general college students, and participants and nonparticipants in high school competitive athletic programs to determine whether differences existed among these groups in self concept scores. Women physical education majors and participants in high school competitive athletic programs were found to have significantly higher self concept scores than all other groups, nonphysical education majors, athletes, nonathletes, and non high school participants. Only one significant difference was found between athletes and nonathletes, with nonathletes scoring higher in the category of family self. All groups scored highest for internal frames of reference in identity, followed by behavior, and lowest in self satisfaction. For the external frames of reference, all groups scored highest in family self and lowest in personal self.
Article
Forty-seven women and twenty-six men volunteered to participate in a 10-week program of intensive weight training, with an average attendance of two days per week, 40 minutes per session. Assessments of strength, body composition and anthropometric girths, diameters and skinfolds were made at the beginning and at the conclusion of the study period. Both groups made similar relative gains in strength and absolute gains in body composition. The men were stronger than the women for all strength measures, although the women exhibited a greater leg strength when expressed relative to lean body weight. Muscular hypertrophy evident in both groups, was confined basically to the upper extremity, and was of substantially greater magnitude in the males. Correlations between absolute strength and girth size indicate a probable relationship between muscle size and strength, but hypertrophy is not a predominant consequence of increasing total body or individual muscle strength. (C)1974The American College of Sports Medicine
Article
It must be stressed that there have been few advances in understanding the relationship between exercise and self-esteem over the last fifteen years. Psychological theory, with its consideration of situational and transitory self-concept, would hold that a majority of the positive results can be explained by alternative interpretations and experimental limitations. At this time it is not known why or in what manner exercise programs affect self-esteem, or which people are responsive. Because of the pervasiveness of self-esteem in human functioning, it would seem that a rudimentary understanding of these interactions would lead to the delivery of more effective services. Exercise science has laid the foundation for various health advances over the past fifteen years. The early, extensive study of psychological variables when planning exercise studies is a way of enlarging those advances.
Fitnessfor life: An individualized approach
  • P E Allsen
  • M Harrison
  • B Vance
Allsen, P. E., Harrison,]. M., & Vance, B. (1984). Fitnessfor life: An individualized approach (3rd ed.), Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Company.
The effects of weight training on strength, power, muscular endur-ance, and anthropometric measures on a select group of college women
  • E K Capen
  • A Bright
  • P Line
Capen, E. K., Bright,]. A., & Line, P. (1961). The effects of weight training on strength, power, muscular endur-ance, and anthropometric measures on a select group of college women. Journal of the Association for Physical and Mental Rehabilitation, 15(6), 169-73.
Manual: Tennessee Self-Concept Scale The female athlete: Strength, endur-ance and performance Toward an Understanding of Human Performance
  • W H Fitts
  • D V Brown And Harrison Harris
Fitts, W. H. (1965). Manual: Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. Counselor Recordings and Tests. Nashville, TN. RESEARCH QUARTERLY FOR EXERCISE AND SPORT, VOL. 57, No.4 BROWN AND HARRISON Harris, D. V. (1982). The female athlete: Strength, endur-ance and performance. In Burke, E. (Ed.) Toward an Understanding of Human Performance. 2nd ed. Ithaca, NY: Movement Publications.
Body composition and strength de-velopment Author Notes This study served as Dr. Brown's doctoral dissertation. Thanks are extended to Shannon Murphy and Laurie Stanley for their assistance in gathering the data, to Arnold Nelson for his assistance with the statistical analysis
  • H Wilmore
Wilmore,j. H. (1975). Body composition and strength de-velopment. Journal of Physical Education and Recreation, 46(1), 38-40. Author Notes This study served as Dr. Brown's doctoral dissertation. Thanks are extended to Shannon Murphy and Laurie Stanley for their assistance in gathering the data, to Arnold Nelson for his assistance with the statistical analysis, and to Melissa Peterson for typing the manuscript.
is an assistant professor in the Department of Health and Physical EducationD. is a professor in the Department of Physical Education
  • Rebecca D Brown
Rebecca D. Brown, Ed.D. is an assistant professor in the Department of Health and Physical Education, Keene State College, Keene, New Hampshire. Joyce M. Harrison, Ed.D. is a professor in the Department of Physical Education, Brigham Young University. Address correspondenceto Joyce M. Harrison, Ed.D., 221 Richards Building, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. RESEARCH QUARTERLY FOR EXERCISE AND SPORT, VOL. 57, No.4
  • Wilmore J. H.