Article

Effects of Xylooligosaccharides in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on the blood sugar, lipids and oxidative status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 26 outpatient subjects of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, with HbA1c levels between 7.0 and 10.0% and triglyceride <400 mg/dL were enrolled in the present study. Subjects were supplemented with 4 g/d XOS (n=12) or a placebo (n=14) for 8 wk in a randomized double-blind clinical design. The results showed that the anthropometric values and nutrient intakes did not change during the experimental period. XOS supplementation not only reduced the glucose, HbA1c and fructosamine concentrations, but also decreased the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and apolipoprotein B. The activity of catalase of the erythrocyte sample decreased in the XOS group, but not the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation with XOS for 8 wk was effective in improving the blood sugar and lipids in type 2 diabetes, indicating that XOS-containing diets might be beneficial to DM subjects.

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... The hypotriglyceridaemic action resulted from a decrease in the hepatic synthesis of TG [10]. Other explanation relates to the mechanism proposed for hypotriglyceridaemic effect by inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis in animals fed diet containing inulin-type fructans [69]. The present results revealed that the DA and DO diets supplemented 10% FOS (g/kg diet) resulting significant decrease in sera TG levels may be due to high content of FOS [44]. ...
... At least part of the triglyceride-lowering action of FOS due to reduction of de novo fatty acid synthesis in the liver, through the inhibition of fatty acid synthase activity [27,44,45]. Similar results were obtained by other investigators [19,27,69]. On the contrary [16,69], found that FOS and XOS supplementation in animal diets for 8 weeks showed no influence on glucose, TG and TC levels. ...
... Similar results were obtained by other investigators [19,27,69]. On the contrary [16,69], found that FOS and XOS supplementation in animal diets for 8 weeks showed no influence on glucose, TG and TC levels. ...
Article
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Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are dietary fibers found naturally at high concentrations in Cynara scolymus and Allium cepa used as natural sources of FOS. FOS have a prebiotic effects which stimulate gut microflora, hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects. Chemical analysis of dry artichoke and onion revealed the presence of different amounts (g/100g DM) of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids (83.4, 90.3% and 7.5, 6.9% and 1.61, 1.74% respectively). Quantitative and qualitative analysis revealed the presence of kestose, nystose and fructosylnystose as major components. Rats were divided into three groups one fed with control (HCD) and two experimental groups fed with dry artichoke (DA) and dry onion (DO) diets supplemented with 10% FOS/kg diet for 8 weeks. The results showed a high, significant decrease in glucose and lipid profile in sera of rats fed with the two supplemented diets (DA and DO) diets compared with control. Another beneficial effect was the lowering of liver lipids and glycogen content. Thus the FOS supplementation in diets has hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic effects and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
... FOS: Fructooligosaccharide. [63][64][65][66]. ...
... content, including SOD and glutathione peroxidase. [64,65] However, one study of FOS administration yielded an improvement in the growth of intestinal microbia, such as fecal bacteria, prausnitzi, and bifidobacteria, but did not change the metabolism of glucose. [66] Shu et al. evaluated the beneficial effects of 8-week XOS supplements on the glucose response of 26 T2DM patients in Taiwan. ...
... However, anthropometric values and dietary intake of nutrients remained stable during the experimental evaluation. [65] Similar results have been reported by Yamashita et al., in which FOS administered for 14 days lead to a significant reduction in FBS in T2DM patients. [68] Studies were also conducted on healthy volunteers to address the involvement of FOS in the metabolism of glucose under normal conditions. ...
Article
Background and aims: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic heterogenic disease characterized by the deregulation of the metabolism of insulin and glucose. The aim of this review has been to evaluate the efficacy of medical plant-based carbohydrates, excluding monosaccharides, to manage glycemic response in clinical trials. Methods: The range of literature presented was compiled by searching electronic databases, including Scopus, PubMed and Cochrane library, from their inception through to June 2018. Only clinical-based studies were considered for this review. Dietary carbohydrates were investigated, especially those containing fiber possessing beneficial effects in the management of hyperglycemia. The most common oligosaccharides, including xylooligosaccharide, isomaltooligosaccharide, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, and sucrose, were able to manage glycemic and insulin metabolism in clinical trials. Results: In light of 77 selected papers, several plant-based oligosaccharides and polysaccharides have been shown to significantly improve the management of glucose and insulin metabolism in healthy and diabetic patients. Conclusions: Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides derived from plants possess promising hypoglycemic potential, similar to and even more effective than current synthetic drugs, with no deleterious side effects. Abbreviations: AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; AX: Arabinoxylan; CAT: Catalase; CFDA: Chinese food and drug administration; DM: Diabetes mellitus; FBS, Fasting blood glucose; FDA: United States food and drug administration; FOS: Fructooligosaccharide; G6Pase: Glucose-6- phosphatase; GCK: glucokinase; GD: Gestational diabetes; GI: Glycemic index; GL: Glycemic load; Glut4: Glucose transporter 4; GOS: Glucooligosaccharide; GPx: glutathione peroxidase; GRAS: generally regarded as safe HCF: high-carbohydrate, high fiber diet; HNF1α: Hepatic nuclear factor 1 alpha, HNF4α: Hepatic nuclear factor 4α; HNF1β: Hepatic nuclear factor 1β; II: Insulinemic index; IOS: Isomaltooligosaccharides; KGM: Konjac glucomannan; LBP: L. barbarum polysaccharide; MODY: Maturity onset diabetes of the young; PECK: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; RDS: Rapidly digestible starch; RS: Resistant starch; SBOS: Soybean oligosaccharides; SDS: Slowly digestible starch; SNP: Single nucleotide polymorphism; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; T1DM: Type 1 diabetes; T2DM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus; TBARS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; XOS: Xylooligo-saccharide.
... A meta-analysis of serum lipid profile was performed among studies that reported CHOL (Figure 6), 39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59][60]62 LDL-c (Figure 7), 39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59][60]62 HDL-c (Figure 8), 39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59]62 and TAG (Figure 9). 38,39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59][60]62 Microbial therapies reduced total serum CHOL by 10.10 mg/dL (95%CI, À13.56 to À6.64; P < 0.001) ( Figure 6A). ...
... A meta-analysis of serum lipid profile was performed among studies that reported CHOL (Figure 6), 39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59][60]62 LDL-c (Figure 7), 39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59][60]62 HDL-c (Figure 8), 39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59]62 and TAG (Figure 9). 38,39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59][60]62 Microbial therapies reduced total serum CHOL by 10.10 mg/dL (95%CI, À13.56 to À6.64; P < 0.001) ( Figure 6A). ...
... A meta-analysis of serum lipid profile was performed among studies that reported CHOL (Figure 6), 39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59][60]62 LDL-c (Figure 7), 39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59][60]62 HDL-c (Figure 8), 39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59]62 and TAG (Figure 9). 38,39,[42][43][44][45][46][47]50,[55][56][57][58][59][60]62 Microbial therapies reduced total serum CHOL by 10.10 mg/dL (95%CI, À13.56 to À6.64; P < 0.001) ( Figure 6A). Conversely, individually prebiotic and probiotic treatment types did not decrease CHOL ( Figure 6B and 6C) but synbiotics did ( Figure 6D); synbiotics reduced CHOL by 14.89 mg/dL (95%CI, À17.34 to À12.44; P < 0.001), although only 2 synbiotic studies reported CHOL. ...
Article
Context: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent and underdiagnosed comorbidity of many chronic diseases that is associated with altered intestinal bacterial communities. This association has prompted research into alternative treatments aimed at modulating intestinal microbiota. Given the novelty of these treatments, scarce evidence regarding their effectiveness in clinical populations exists. Objective: This meta-analysis sought to systemically review and quantitatively synthesize evidence on prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic therapies for patients with NAFLD in randomized controlled trials. Data sources: PRISMA guidelines ensured transparent reporting of evidence. PICOS criteria defined the research question for the systematic review. A systematic keyword search in PubMed and EMBASE identified 25 studies: 9 assessed prebiotic, 11 assessed probiotic, and 7 assessed symbiotic therapies for a total of 1309 patients. Data extraction: Basic population characteristics, the primary variables of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (utilized for NAFLD diagnosis), and the secondary variables of body mass index (BMI), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglyceridges (TAG) were extracted. Pooled effect sizes of these variables were calculated by meta-analysis. No publication bias was identified using Begg's and Egger's tests or Cochrane bias assessment tool. Results: Meta-analysis indicated that microbial therapies significantly reduced BMI (-0.37 kg/m2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.46 to -0.28; P < 0.001), hepatic enzymes (ALT, -6.9 U/L [95%CI, -9.4 to -4.3]; AST, -4.6 U/L [95%CI, -6.6 to -2.7]; γ-GT, -7.9 U/L [95%CI, -11.4 to -4.4]; P < 0.001), serum cholesterol (-10.1 mg/dL 95%CI, -13.6 to -6.6; P < 0.001), LDL-c (-4.5 mg/dL; 95%CI, -8.9 to -0.17; P < 0.001), and TAG (-10.1 mg/dL; 95%CI, -18.0 to -2.3; P < 0.001), but not inflammation (TNF-α, -2.0 ng/mL; [95%CI, -4.7 to 0.61]; CRP, -0.74 mg/L [95%CI, -1.9 to 0.37]). Subgroup analysis by treatment category indicated similar effects of prebiotics and probiotics on BMI and liver enzymes but not total cholesterol, HDL-c, and LDL-c. Conclusion: This meta-analysis supports the potential use of microbial therapies in the treatment of NAFLD and sheds light on their potential mode of action. Further research into these treatments should consider the limitations of biomarkers currently used for the diagnosis and progression of NAFLD, in addition to the inherent challenges of personalized microbial-based therapies.
... XOS cannot be digested and absorbed by the animal gastrointestinal tract but can be fermented and utilized by beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacteria in the intestine in the large intestine and produce a large number of organic acids such as short-chain fatty acids (146). It was found that type 2 diabetic patients had significantly lower blood sugar levels after 8 weeks of XOS intake (147). The intake of 5% . ...
... Many studies have shown that XOS could effectively reduce the lipid levels of obese people. For example, it was found that after 8 weeks of continuous intake of 4 g/d xylose, fat in patients with type 2 diabetes decreased significantly (147). XOS could reduce the levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and increase the level of high-density lipoprotein in obese mice with a high-fat diets (146). ...
... XOS also have antioxidant activity (154). The antioxidant activities of XOS are mainly reflected in increasing the content of non-enzymatic antioxidant substances and improving the activity and level of antioxidant enzymes (147). It was found that XOS could significantly reduce the levels of oxidized glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, heart and liver of high-fat diet mice, and normal mice (146). ...
Article
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Xylooligosaccharide (XOS) are functional oligosaccharides with prebiotic activities, which originate from lignocellulosic biomass and have attracted extensive attention from scholars in recent years. This paper summarizes the strategies used in the production of XOS, and introduces the raw materials, preparation methods, and purification technology of XOS. In addition, the biological characteristics and applications of XOS are also presented. The most commonly recommended XOS production strategy is the two-stage method of alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis; and further purification by membrane filtration to achieve the high yield of XOS is required for prebiotic function. At the same time, new strategies and technologies such as the hydrothermal and steam explosion have been used as pre-treatment methods combined with enzymatic hydrolysis to prepare XOS. XOS have many critical physiological activities, especially in regulating blood glucose, reducing blood lipid, and improving the structure of host intestinal flora.
... Prebiotics have been defined by FAO/WHO as "non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacterial species already established in the colon, and thus improve the host health" [21]. The putative prebiotic xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are sugar oligomers made up of xylose units, which were found to increase the fecal Bifidobacterium populations [22], and also have the potential to improve the management of blood sugars and cholesterol [23,24]. ...
... XOS is considered to be novel prebiotics, which has been suggested to improve gut health and stimulate the animals' immune response [34,35]. XOS consumption has been found to result in increased Bifidobacterium populations in human and animal studies [24,36,37]. Studies with XOS also indicate the potential to improve the management of glucose metabolism [25,26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gut dysbiosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD) may result in low-grade inflammation leading to diverse inflammatory diseases. The beneficial effects of probiotics and prebiotics on obesity have been reported previously. However, their benefits in promoting human health and the underlying mechanisms still need to be further characterized. This study is aimed at understanding how probiotic Bacillus licheniformis Zhengchangsheng® (BL) and prebiotic xylooligosaccharides (XOS) influence the health of a rat model with HF (60 kcal %) diet-induced obesity. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed a normal fat diet (CON) or an HFD with or without BL and XOS supplementation for 3 weeks. Lipid profiles, inflammatory biomarkers, and microbiota composition were analyzed at the end of the experiment. Rats fed an HFD exhibited increased body weight and disordered lipid metabolism. In contrast, combined BL and XOS supplementation inhibited body weight gain and returned lipid metabolism to normal. Furthermore, BL and XOS administration changed the gut microbiota composition and modulated specific bacteria such as Prevotellaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, and Ruminococcaceae. In addition, supplements of combined BL and XOS obviously reduced the serum LPS level, which was significantly related to microbial variations. Our findings suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota as a result of probiotic BL and prebiotic XOS supplementation has a positive effect on HFD-induced obesity in rats.
... Moreover, XOS also exhibited plasma glucose-modulating effect and decreased other diabetes-related risk factors, including HbA1c, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B, fructosamine concentrations, and catalase activity, in type 2 diabetes subjects after supplementation with XOS for 8 weeks (Sheu, Lee, Chen, & Chan, 2008). However, the possible mechanisms of XOS on blood glucose modulation remain unclear. ...
... Similarly, our present study exhibits the beneficial effects of RH-XOS on fasting plasma glucose level, triglyceride, cholesterol, and HOMA-IR in HFD-STZ-induced T2DM rats. In a clinical study, the administration of XOS (4 g/day) for 8 weeks showed beneficial effects on blood sugar, HbA1c, fructosamine, and lipid profile in T2DM (Sheu et al., 2008). These data support the assertion that RH-XOS has antihyperglycemia and antihyperlipidemia effects and improves insulin resistance. ...
Article
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Rice husk (RH) is an agricultural waste obtained from rice milling process. Our previous study demonstrated the optimized process of extracting xylooligosaccharides (XOS), a prebiotic that can support the growth and activity of beneficial gut microbiota, from RH. Accumulated evidences indicate that the composition of gut microbiota is involved in the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes. This study aims to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect and putative mechanisms of RH-XOS using a diabetic rat model induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection. Diabetic rats were randomly assigned to receive vehicle (DMC), XOS (DM-XOS), metformin (DMM), and a combination of XOS and metformin (DMM-XOS). An additional group of rats were fed with normal diet plus vehicle (NDC) and normal diet plus XOS (ND-XOS). Supplementation with RH-XOS for 12 weeks successfully decreased the fasting plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and LPS levels in DM-XOS compared with DMC. Likewise, the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake assessed by in vitro study was significantly enhanced in DM-XOS, DMM, and DMM-XOS. The diminished protein expressions of GLUT4 and pAktSer473 as well as pAMPKThr172 were significantly modulated in DM-XOS, DMM, and DMM-XOS groups. Interestingly, RH-XOS supplementation reversed the changed gut permeability, elevated the number of beneficial bacteria, both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp., and increased SCFAs production. Taken together, the results confirm the efficacy of RH-XOS in achieving good glycemic control in diabetes by maintenance of gut microbiota and attenuation of endotoxemia. The findings reveal the benefits of RH-XOS and open an opportunity to improve its value by its development as a nutraceutical for diabetes.
... Rather, XB is hydrolyzed by intestinal microbiota [25]. Administration of XOS has been reported to lower both blood glucose and serum lipid levels [26,27]. In addition, XOS has been shown to increase the production of short chain fatty acids in the colon and to mediate bifidogenic properties, thereby supporting a healthy environment in the gut [28,29]. ...
... XB is a major component of XOS and has 30% the sweetness of sucrose [37]. Studies on the health effects of XOS have suggested that it lowers TG, cholesterol, and glucose levels in blood [26,27]. XOS is considered to be a prebiotic since it helps to generate short chain fatty acids in the colon and it improves microbiota balance in the intestine [28,38]. ...
Article
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Obesity is a public concern and is responsible for various metabolic diseases. Xylobiose (XB), an alternative sweetener, is a major component of xylo-oligosaccharide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of XB on obesity and its associated metabolic changes in related organs. For these studies, mice received a 60% high-fat diet supplemented with 15% d-xylose, 10% XB, or 15% XB as part of the total sucrose content of the diet for ten weeks. Body weight, fat and liver weights, fasting blood glucose, and blood lipids levels were significantly reduced with XB supplementation. Levels of leptin and adipokine were also improved and lipogenic and adipogenic genes in mesenteric fat and liver were down-regulated with XB supplementation. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines, fatty acid uptake, lipolysis, and β-oxidation-related gene expression levels in mesenteric fat were down-regulated with XB supplementation. Thus, XB exhibited therapeutic potential for treating obesity which involved suppression of fat deposition and obesity-related metabolic disorders.
... Improvements in laxation were noted by Childs et al. [34], Chung et al. [35], Iino et al. [40], and Tateyama et al. [41]; the latter was a study in constipated pregnant women. Studies by Childs et al. [34], Na and Kim [39], and Sheu et al. [42] observed improvements in triglyceride and cholesterol levels, at doses as low as 2.8 g/d, whereas Yang et al. [43] did not observe changes in triglycerides when dosing XOS at 2 g/d (2.8 g/d of a 70% purity product). Yang et al. [43] observed a tendency towards a reduction in OGTT insulin in prediabetes patients dosed with 2.8 g/d of 70% XOS, but no effect on blood glucose, unlike Na and Kim [39], who noted a reduction in blood glucose at a XOS dose of 2.8 g/day. ...
... Yang et al. [43] observed a tendency towards a reduction in OGTT insulin in prediabetes patients dosed with 2.8 g/d of 70% XOS, but no effect on blood glucose, unlike Na and Kim [39], who noted a reduction in blood glucose at a XOS dose of 2.8 g/day. Sheu et al. [42], in a trial with diabetic patients receiving 4 g/d of XOS, observed a statistically significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA1C. ...
... [4] Structure and properties of XOS may vary due to variation in their degree of polymerization, methods used for extraction, and type of linkages present. XOS have remarkable potential of being novel prebiotics and shows various benefits such as increase in absorption of calcium to increase its biological activity, [97] cytotoxic activity on leukemia, [98] improvement in bowel function, [99] minimizing chance of colon cancer, [99] site-specific action on type II diabetes mellitus, [100] and anti-oxidant properties. [101] Figure 4 shows the mechanistic depiction of action of oligosaccharides using as prebiotics on human health. ...
... [121] Other significant beneficial effects XOS may have a significant effect on reducing blood sugar lipids eventually affecting in type 2 diabetes mellitus. [100] Birchwood xylan obtained from acidic XOS showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, and Bacillus cereus. [122] Xu et al. [123] reported that XOS can be added in the formulation of fish feed (Carassius auratus gibelio). ...
Article
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Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is the renewable feedstock for the production of fuel/energy, feed/ food, chemicals, and materials. LB could also be the versatile source of the functional oligosacchar-ides, which are non-digestible food ingredients having numerous applications in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical industries, and others. The burgeoning functional food demand is expected to be more than US$440 billion in 2022. Because of higher stability at low pH and high temperature, oli-gosaccharides stimulate the growth of prebiotic bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are major constituents of oligosaccharides consisting of 2-7 xylose monomeric units linked via b-(1,4)-linkages. XOS can be obtained from various agro-residues by thermochemical pretreatment, enzymatic or chemoenzymatic methods. While thermochemical methods are fast, reproducible, enzymatic methods are substrate specific, costly, and produce minimum side products. Enzymatic methods are preferred for the production of food grade and pharmaceutically important oligosaccharides. XOS are potent prebiotics having antioxidant properties and enhance the bio-adsorption of calcium and improving bowel functions, etc. LB can cater to the increasing demand of oligosaccharides because of their foreseeable amount and the advancements in technology to recover oligosaccharides. This paper summarizes the methods for oligosaccharides production from LB, classification, and benefits of oligosaccharides on human health.
... XOS are utilized in human gut microbiota and show various beneficial effects on human health [4,5]. XOS as a dietary supplementation improv the blood sugar and lipids in type-2 diabetes mellitus [6]. XOS from birchwood xylan show a favorable effect on human intestinal flora [7]. ...
Article
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Red alga dulse possesses a unique xylan, which is composed of a linear β-(1→3)/β-(1→4)-xylosyl linkage. We previously prepared characteristic xylooligosaccharide (DX3, (β-(1→3)-xylosyl-xylobiose)) from dulse. In this study, we evaluated the prebiotic effect of DX3 on enteric bacterium. Although DX3 was utilized by Bacteroides sp. and Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bacteroides Ksp. grew slowly as compared with β-(1→4)-xylotriose (X3) but B. adolescentis grew similar to X3. Therefore, we aimed to find the key DX3 hydrolysis enzymes in B. adolescentis. From bioinformatics analysis, two enzymes from the glycoside hydrolase family 43 (BAD0423: subfamily 12 and BAD0428: subfamily 11) were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli. BAD0423 hydrolyzed β-(1→3)-xylosyl linkage in DX3 with the specific activity of 2988 mU/mg producing xylose (X1) and xylobiose (X2), and showed low activity on X2 and X3. BAD0428 showed high activity on X2 and X3 producing X1, and the activity of BAD0428 on DX3 was 1298 mU/mg producing X1. Cooperative hydrolysis of DX3 was found in the combination of BAD0423 and BAD0428 producing X1 as the main product. From enzymatic character, hydrolysis of X3 was completed by one enzyme BAD0428, whereas hydrolysis of DX3 needed more than two enzymes.
... XOS are a mixture of oligosaccharides containing xylose residues linked by β-1,4 bonds [16]. It has been demonstrated that XOS mitigate oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia through decreasing the levels of low-density lipoproteins and total cholesterol and increasing the levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) [17,18]. Only few recent studies have revealed that some functional oligosaccharides or prebiotic mixtures could influence positively the gut-brain axis and improve cognitive dysfunction and locomotor behavior through influencing some of the mentioned mechanisms [19][20][21]. ...
Article
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Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized with decreased microbial diversity. Gut microbiota is essential for the normal physiological functioning of many organs, especially the brain. Prebiotics are selectively fermentable oligosaccharides [xylooligosaccharides (XOS), galactooligosaccharides, etc.] that promote the growth and activity of gut microbes and influence the gut–brain axis. Aerobic exercise is a non-pharmacological approach for the control of diabetes and could improve cognitive functions. The potential beneficial effect of XOS and/or aerobic training on cognition, the lipid profile and oxidative stress markers of experimental rats were evaluated in this study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups and a control group. Some of the rats, either on a XOS treatment or a standard diet, underwent aerobic training. The results showed that the aerobic training independently lowered the total cholesterol levels compared to the sedentary diabetic rats ( p = 0.032), while XOS lowers the malondialdehyde levels in the trained diabetic rats ( p = 0.034). What is more the exercise, independently or in combination with XOS beneficially affected all parameters of the behavioral tests. We conclude that aerobic exercises alone or in a combination with the prebiotic XOS could ameliorate the dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and cognitive abilities in experimental type 1 diabetic animals.
... [1][2][3] XOS, in particular, has been identified as an unique, high-value prebiotic with a very promising market. [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] Utilization of waste xylan for XOS production ensures not only proper waste disposal, but also provides an additional economical advantage for the viscose fiber industry. [13] XOS are generally obtained by chemical, enzymatic, and a combination of methods. ...
Article
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) were prepared by selective hydrolysis of the waste xylan, obtained from viscose fiber plants, using concentrated acetic acid. The influences of acetic acid concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time on the yield and component profiles of XOS product were investigated. These results were further ascertained by designing orthogonal experiments. The hydrolysis of xylan residue was selective, since mainly xylooligosaccharide components were formed, with hardly any impure ingredients, except for a small amount of xylose and traces of furfural, in the hydrolyzed product. Reaction temperature was found to be the most significant factor, influencing the XOS yield. Accurate HPAEC–PAD analysis of component profiles indicated that a maximum XOS yield of 45.86% was achieved on hydrolysis of 33.77 g/L waste xylan using 20% acetic acid for 20 min at 140°C. The main XOS components obtained were xylobiose, xylotriose, and xylotetraose, which were more than xylopentaose and xylohexaose.
... XOS, an oligosaccharide with prebiotic potential has been shown to improve the balance of gut microbiota as well as to benefit individuals with metabolic abnormalities (Li et al., 2015;Li et al., 2014;Sheu, Lee, Chen, & Chan, 2008). However, little is known about specific mechanisms (Kellow, Coughlan, & Reid, 2014). ...
Article
Xylooligosaccharide (XOS), an oligosaccharide with great prebiotic potential, has been shown to modulate the gut microbiota. Our aim was to determine the effects of dietary XOS supplementation on body composition, lipid metabolism and intestinal microbiota using a mouse model. Our data showed that XOS dietary supplementation at 2.1 and 7.0% significantly changed the gut microbial composition. A decrease in visceral fat depots, concentration of inflammatory cytokine MCP-1, and abundance of the two most important obesity associated gut microbial phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were observed with 7% XOS supplementation. No change in blood or liver lipids was observed with both XOS doses. The production of SCFAs in the cecum was increased and relative abundance of Actinobacteria was decreased with supplementation of both doses of XOS. To conclude, XOS supplementation reduced adiposity through decreasing gene expression of markers of adipogenesis and fat synthesis and induced changes in intestinal microbial composition.
... It is also known to act as a plant growth regulator. It has multidimensional applications as antioxidant and gelling agent in food products, beneficial for diabetes, in treatment of arteriosclerosis, reduces total cholesterol and LDL in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in colon cancer (Chung et al. 2007;Sheu et al. 2008;Lecerf et al. 2012;Moure et al. 2006;Katapodis and Chistakopoulos 2008;Madhukumar and Muralikrishna 2010). Figure 4 is a diagrammatic representation of applications of XOS. ...
Article
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This article reviews the varied sources of oligosaccharides available in nature as silent health promoting, integral ingredients of plants as well as animal products like honey and milk. The article focuses on exotic and unfamiliar oligosaccharides like Galactooligosaccharides, Lactulose derived Galactooligosaccharides, Xylooligosaccharides, Arabinooligosaccharides and algae derived Marine oligosaccharides along with the most acknowledged prebiotic fructooligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides are named as on the grounds of the monomeric units forming oligomers with functional properties. The chemical structures, natural sources, microbial enzyme mediated synthesis and physiological effects are discussed. An elaborate account of the different types of oligosaccharides with special reference to fructooligosaccharides are presented. Finally, the profound health benefits of oligosaccharides are rigourously discussed limelighting its positive physiological sequel.
... As a class of prebiotics, XOS has been demonstrated to exhibit a great number of health benefits for humans and rodents [10], such as the improvement of bowel function and mineral absorption, the regulation of intestinal microbiota, the reduction in colon cancer risk as well as the enhancement of antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial functions [11,12]. Furthermore, XOS has also been reported to be effective in regulating lipid metabolism, for e.g., reducing the cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic rats [13,14], whereas Sheu et al. noted an improvement in blood glucose and serum lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [15]. Studies in adult humans show that the effective daily dose of XOS is only 1.4 g/day as compared to fructooligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides, which have a minimum effective dose of 10.0 g/day [16][17][18]. ...
Article
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In order to investigate the effect and appropriate dose of prebiotics, this study evaluated the effect of two levels of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) in cats. Twenty-four healthy adult cats were divided into three groups: no-XOS control diet with 1% cellulose; low XOS supplementation (LXOS) with 0.04% XOS and 0.96% cellulose; and high XOS supplementation (HXOS) with 0.40% XOS and 0.60% cellulose. Both XOS groups increased blood 3-hydroxybutyryl carnitine levels and decreased hexadecanedioyl carnitine levels. Both XOS treatments displayed an increased bacterial abundance of Blautia, Clostridium XI, and Collinsella and a decreased abundance of Megasphaera and Bifidobacterium. LXOS groups increased fecal pH and bacterial abundance of Streptococcus and Lactobacillus, decreased blood glutaryl carnitine concentration, and Catenibacterium abundance. HXOS group showed a more distinct microbiome profile and higher species richness, and an increased bacterial abundance of Subdoligranulum, Ruminococcaceae genus (unassigned genus), Erysipelotrichaceae genus, and Lachnospiraceae. Correlations between bacterial abundances and blood and fecal parameters were also observed. In conclusion, XOS could benefit feline gut health by altering microbiota; its effects dependant on the dose. The higher-dose XOS increased bacterial populations that possibly promoted intestinal fermentation, while the lower dose altered populations of carbohydrate-metabolic microbiota and possibly modulated host metabolism. Low-dose prebiotics may become a trend in future studies.
... The oxidative status of the patients, including TBARS in the plasma and the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the erythrocyte sample were measured as previously described (22). In the Tables, the data for SOD, catalase and GSH-Px activities are expressed as units/g protein. ...
Article
Background/aim: Evidence exists that oxidative stress and oxidative damage play a pivotal role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) extracted from grape seeds have been shown to exhibit antioxidant capabilities greater than those of vitamin C and E. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of OPCs on antioxidant status and lung function in patients with COPD. Patients and methods: Patients were supplemented with 150 mg/day OPC (n=13) orally or with a placebo (n=14) for 8 weeks in a randomized double-blind clinical design. Changes in anthropometric values, lung function, oxidative state, and lipid profiles were assessed after OPC or placebo treatment for 8 weeks. Results: The results showed that OPC supplementation significantly reduced the concentration of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio. The concentration of HDL-C significantly increased in the OPC-treated group. The plasma triglyceride, TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values and the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase also decreased, but did not significantly differ between the OPC- and placebo-treated groups. Lung function was not significantly different between the two groups after 8 weeks. Conclusion: OPC supplementation was effective in increasing the antioxidant capacity, in addition to improving the lipid profiles in patients with COPD.
... (Gobinath et al., 2010 andManisseri andGudipati, 2010), Lactobacillus spp., L. brevis (Moura et al., 2008), L. fermentum and L. acidophilus (Chapla et al., 2012). They also aid in enhancing the biological availability of calcium by improving its absorption (Mussatto and Mancilha, 2007), improvement in bowel function and reducing the risk of colon cancer (Swennen et al., 2006), having cytotoxic effects on human leukemia cells (Ando et al., 2004), positive effects on the type II diabetes mellitus (Sheu et al., 2008) and acting as antioxidants (Chen et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) act as prebiotics because they are not digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract and increase the population of beneficial gut microflora like Lactobacilli and Biofidobacteria. XOS with these importances are emerging as important oligosaccharide with rise in demand worldwide. For use of xylanase in the production of XOs, xylanolytic fungi were isolated from degraded corn cobs, screened for enhanced xylanase production with cultural and nutritional conditions optimized using one factor at a time approach. It was found that among the 11fungal isolates, isolate SKF-4 which was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus produced highest level of xylanase and lowest level of -xylosidase i.e. 143.0 IU/ml and 0.01 IU/ml respectively. The selected fungus A. fumigatus SKF-4 produced enhanced level of xylanase with wheat bran and proteose peptone as carbon and nitrogen source respectively at pH 5.0 and temperature 30°C. The partially purified enzyme from A. fumigatus SKF-4 showed highest xylanase activity at pH 5.0 and temperature 45°C. Partially purified xylanase of A. fumigatus SKF-4 could produce 1.44±0.4 mg/ml of xylobiose and low amount of xylose 0.25±0.1 mg/ml from beechwood xylan after 24hr. Xylanase from A. fumigatus SKF-4 found to be promising for xylooligosaccharides production.
... XOS is approximately half as sweet as sucrose and has shown to have various physiologic effects in humans, such as reduction of cholesterol levels and suppression of precancerous colon lesions [41]. In a randomized double-blind clinical trial with type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan, XOS supplementation was administered for eight weeks, and this treatment was effective in reducing the blood lipid profile and blood glucose levels [42]. XOS also exhibits hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic properties, and complications in kidney tissues improve by regulation of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats [43]. ...
Article
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Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB) consists of two molecules of D-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via microRNA expression in db/db mice. For six weeks, C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice received 5% XB as part of the total sucrose content of their diet. XB supplementation improved glucose tolerance with reduced levels of OGTT AUC, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Furthermore, XB supplementation decreased the levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-C. The expression levels of miR-122a and miR-33a were higher and lower in the XB group, respectively. In the liver, expressions of the lipogenic genes, including, fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1C), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), ATP-binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and sterol 12-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP8B1), as well as oxidative stress markers, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase, were also regulated by XB supplementation. XB supplementation inhibited the mRNA expressions levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). These data demonstrate that XB exhibits anti-diabetic, hypolipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects via regulation of the miR-122a/33a axis in db/db mice.
... These data suggest that other mechanisms of action, other than β-glucan, could have contributed to the observed cholesterol reduction. Similar to β-glucan, other fibers or prebiotics, which do not form viscous gels within the intestinal tract, have been shown to lower blood cholesterol, though these prebiotics including the fructans, xylooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides and resistant starch have not received the same attention from the scientific community as β-glucans (Park et al., 2004;Beylot, 2005;Sheu et al., 2008;Vulevic et al., 2013). In parallel, a number of human feeding studies with well-powered cohorts of hypercholesteroleamic individuals have demonstrated that probiotics selected for bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity lower plasma cholesterol levels to a similar extent to oats and β-glucan (Jones et al., 2012a,b). ...
Article
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Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RTC) have confirmed the hypocholesterolaemic effect of oats and oat based fibers. However, the mechanisms by which oats or oat fractions lower cholesterol is not totally clear. Recognizing the important role of the gut microbiome in metabolism and metabolic disease risk, we examined the impact of whole grain oat Granola (WGO) on the human gut microbiota and cardio-metabolic risk factors using a randomized crossover dietary intervention in at risk individuals (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01925365). We randomized 32 individuals at risk of developing cardio-metabolic disease by virtue of mild hypercholesterolaemia or glucose intolerance, into two groups consuming either 45 g of WGO or non-whole grain (NWG) breakfast cereals daily for two 6-week intervention periods separated by a 4-week wash out period in a randomized, controlled, crossover, double-blinded design. Confirming the cholesterol lowering effect of WGO, we observed a significant time by treatment interaction, for total cholesterol (TC) (P = 0.0001) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.02) compared to NWG. A significant time by treatment interaction was also observed for the relative abundance of fecal bifidobacteria (P = 0.0001), lactobacilli (P = 0.001) and total bacterial count (P = 0.008), which were all elevated after consumption of WGO. Daily consumption of WGO resulted in a prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota composition and significant reductions in TC and LDL-C concentrations. Prebiotic modulation of the human gut microbiota may thus constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism contributing to the hypocholesterolaemic effects of whole grain oat Granola.
... Moreover, XOS supplementation was found to have effects on markers of immune function in healthy adults [25]. Studies with XOS also indicate the potential to improve the management of blood sugars and cholesterol [26,27]. Beta-glucan is a long-chain, soluble, viscous fiber that has physiological health benefits for cholesterol and glycemic control [28]. ...
Article
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Recently, the concept of prebiotics has been revisited to expand beyond non-digestible oligosaccharides, and the requirements for selective stimulation were extended to include microbial groups other than, and additional to, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Here, the gut microbiota-modulating effects of well-known and novel prebiotics were studied. An in vitro fermentation screening platform (i-screen) was inoculated with adult fecal microbiota, exposed to different dietary fibers that had a range of concentrations (inulin, alpha-linked galacto-oligosaccharides (alpha-GOS), beta-linked GOS, xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) from corn cobs and high-fiber sugar cane, and beta-glucan from oats), and compared to a positive fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) control and a negative control (no fiber addition). All dietary fibers displayed prebiotic activity, with beta-glucan showing more distinct effects on the microbial composition and metabolism compared to the other fibers. Beta-glucan induced the growth of Prevotella and Roseburia with a concomitant increase in propionate production. Inulin and both forms of GOS and XOS had a strong bifidogenic effect on the microbial composition. A dose-response effect was observed for butyrate when exposed to beta-glucan and inulin. The findings of this study support the potential for alpha-GOS, XOS, and oat beta-glucan to serve as novel prebiotics, due to their association with the positive shifts in microbiome composition and short-chain fatty acid production that point to potential health benefits.
... Compared with other oligosaccharides, XOS is the most difficult to digest for people, but it has a unique advantage, which is that XOS can stimulate the reproduction of intestinal Bifidobacterium to improve intestinal flora structure. XOS can significantly reduce the blood glucose concentration of diabetic patients and effectively control the development of complications such as impaired liver and kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients (Carvalho et al., 2013;Sheu et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Diabetes is a common and frequently occurring endocrine and metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia with genetic tendency. At present, the drugs for diabetes include metformin, glimepiride, and acarbose. Although these drugs are effective, long‐term usage will produce secondary symptoms, such as Cushing's syndrome, limb hypertrophy, and even the risk of hypoglycemia. Many natural products have been found to treat diabetes, among which oligosaccharides are the most valuable. Oligosaccharides are low‐level oligosaccharides formed by the linkage of 2–10 monosaccharides through glycosidic bonds. Common oligosaccharides include chitosan oligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, konjac glucomannan, and brown algae oligosaccharides. It has the effects of reducing blood glucose, blood pressure, antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, immune regulation, antiallergy, promoting the growth of bifidobacteria, and improving body health. With the continuous exploration of the medicinal value of natural oligosaccharides, more and more attention has been paid to their research. This review introduces some representative oligosaccharides with hypoglycemic effects, including their structural characteristics and hypoglycemic mechanism, as well as the application status and future development trend of oligosaccharides. This review introduces some representative oligosaccharides with hypoglycemic effects, including their structural characteristics and hypoglycemic mechanism, as well as the application status and future development trend of oligosaccharides.
... In this study, Cellulase SS and Cellulase XL-531 seemed to have cleaved the polymer chain into fragments containing more than 2 units of sugar and breakdowned into some di-saccharides. It has been reported that xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) and AXOS activate an immune response in human and promoted growth of lactic acid bacteria in human intestine (Sheu et al., 2008;Chung et al., 2007;Okazaki et al., 1990). Moreover, cellobiose was found to have a potential to improve intestinal microflora conditions (Sanz, Gibson and Rastall, 2005). ...
Article
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The ability of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment to intensify the digestibility of lignocellulosic from rice straw (RS), rice husk (RH), and defatted rice bran (DRB) for cello-oligosaccharides and xylo-oligosaccharides productions using commercial cellulases was investigated. Initially, 10 g of biomass was soaked with 300 mL of 2% NaOH for 6 days at room temperature. The total pentosan contents of NaOH-pretreated rice straw (NP-RS), rice husk (NP-RH), and defatted rice bran (NP-DRB) were measured and compared to non-treated biomass showing increases from 21.74 to 26.42%, 19.89 to 28.00%, and 11.33 to 19.94%, respectively, while the percentage yield mass after NaOH-pretreated biomass decreased from 100 to be 44.8, 68.7, and 24.3, respectively. In addition, the NaOH pretreatment strongly affected the arabinose/xylose ratio (A/X) of DRB which was decreased from 1.08 to 0.82. Moreover, arabinoxylan contents were increased from 11.0 to 18.3% for RS, 11.5 to 18.6% for RH, and 5.8 to 14.3% for DRB. After mentioned processes, non-treated biomass and NaOH-pretreated biomass were used to produce oligosaccharides at 50 °C for 4 h by using Cellulase SS and Cellulase XL. The results exhibited that non-treated biomass was less hydrolyzed by both enzymes. Cellulase SS showed greater hydrolysis effect on NP-RS, NP-RH, and NP-DRB than Cellulase XL. High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography results confirmed that the hydrolysates from both cellulolytic enzymes had similar sugar patterns mainly found as cellobiose and xylobiose. Moreover, the component with an arabinose substituted onto xylose backbone was found in a small content. Hence, this study has confirmed the capability of cellulolytic enzymes for production of mixed oligosaccharides which could be further used for the prebiotic properties.
... In a dose of 2 g/day for 8 weeks, XOS improved insulin sensitivity and reduced prediabetic gut microbiota in prediabetic patients [19]. The administration of 4 g/day XOS for 8 weeks has decreased blood glucose, HbA1c, and fructosamine concentrations, as well as total cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and apolipoprotein B in diabetic patients [20]. XOS have improved triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL levels, and regulated mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A1 (CPT-1, PPAR-α, and CYP7A1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and lipoprotein lipase in mice fed with a high-fat diet [21]. ...
Article
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It has been recently proven that xylooligosaccharides (XOS) with prebiotic properties have diverse beneficial biological effects including immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. The present article focused on the chemical and biological evaluation of corn-derived commercially available XOS and aimed to elucidate their cytotoxicity and inhibitory potential against tumor cells. Spectrophotometric chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses were performed. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and hydroxyl radical averting capacity. In vitro cytotoxicity assays with human cell lines derived from normal and tumor tissues, assessments of ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential specific staining, cytokine assays, and molecular docking were used to evaluate the biological activity of XOS. The sample showed significant antioxidant activity, and it was determined that most xylose oligomers in it are composed of six units. XOS exhibited antitumor activity with pronounced inhibitory effect on lysosomes, but mitochondrial functionality was also affected. The production of proinflammatory cytokines by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated U-937 cells was reduced by XOS treatment, which suggested the involvement of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling in the mechanism of XOS action. Molecular docking analyses confirmed the potential inhibitory interaction between the sample and TLR4. In addition, XOS treatment had significant tumor-cell-specific influence on the glutathione antioxidant system, affecting its balance and thus contributing to the inhibition of cellular viability. The present study elucidated the tumor-inhibitory potential of commercially available XOS that could be utilized in pharmaceutical and food industry providing disease-preventive and therapeutic benefits.
... XOS are stable at low pH and high temperature up to 100°C (Carvalho et al. 2013;Singh et al. 2015). XOS shows the function as the decrease in blood sugar, lipids and oxidative status in type-2 diabetes mellitus (Gobinath et al. 2010;Sheu et al. 2008). In addition, XOS are known as prebiotics showing various bene cial effects on human health (Okazaki et al. 1990;Zhu et al. 2015). ...
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Red alga dulse has xylan with the structure containing β(1→3)/β(1→4)-linkage. We previously prepared xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from dulse xylan, however, the product contains many D-xylose and less XOS having β(1→3)-linkage. To improve the efficiency of XOS production, we prepared two recombinant endo-xylanases from Streptomyces thermogriseus (StXyl10 and StXyl11). Comparing the k cat / K m value for dulse xylan, the value of StXyl10 was approximately two times higher than that of StXyl11. We then determined the suitable condition for XOS production. As a result, the dulse XOS was prepared by the successive hydrolysis of 10 mg/ml of dulse xylan by 0.5 µg/ml StXyl10 for 4 h at 50°C and then 2.0 µg/ml StXyl11 for 36 h at 60°C. The xylan was converted into 95.8% of XOS, including 59.7% of XOS having β(1→3)-linkage, and 0.97% of X1. Our study provide useful information for the production of XOS having β(1→3)-linkage.
... XOSs are stable at low pH and high temperatures up to 100 °C (Carvalho et al. 2013;Singh et al. 2015). XOSs function by decreasing blood sugar, lipids and oxidative status in type two diabetes mellitus (Gobinath et al. 2010;Sheu et al. 2008). In addition, XOSs are known as prebiotics, showing various beneficial effects on human health (Okazaki et al. 1990;Zhu et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Red alga dulse contains xylan with β(1→3)/β(1→4) linkages. We previously prepared xylooligosaccharides (XOSs) from dulse xylan; however, the product contained many d -xylose residues and fewer XOSs with β(1→3) linkages. To improve the efficiency of XOS production, we prepared two recombinant endoxylanases from Streptomyces thermogriseus (StXyl10 and StXyl11). Comparing the k cat / K m values for dulse xylan, this value from StXyl10 was approximately two times higher than that from StXyl11. We then determined the suitable conditions for XOS production. As a result, dulse XOS was prepared by the successive hydrolysis of 10 mg/mL dulse xylan by 0.5 μg/mL StXyl10 for 4 h at 50 °C and then 2.0 μg/mL StXyl11 for 36 h at 60 °C. Xylan was converted into 95.8% XOS, including 59.7% XOS with a β(1→3) linkage and 0.97% d -xylose. Our study provides useful information for the production of XOSs with β(1→3) linkages.
... Therefore, the decrease in serum lipids suggests that stachyose acts vital in protecting liver damage and maintaining liver health. The present results are in accordance with previous research that demonstrated that diets supplemented with prebiotic decrease liver lipogenesis, LDL-C and triglyceride levels in fish (Gobinath et al., 2010;Sheu et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2011). The decrease in triglycerides, LDL-C and total cholesterol trend of fish fed diets supplemented with prebiotic stachyose could be attributed to: i) disturb of lipid metabolism and flow between liver and tissue (Chang et al., 2006)., ii) The role of stachyose as natural anti-oxidant and its ability to control the peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid, avoiding the production of triglyceride as cholesterol (Ferhat et al., 2017). ...
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An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of stachyose as a prebiotic on immune parameters, antioxidant-/immune-related genes’ expression, and lipid metabolism of zebrafish. Three hundred zebrafish (0.45 ± 0.08 g) were fed four diets containing different stachyose levels at 0, 1, 2 and 4 g kg-1, respectively. After eight weeks of the feeding trial, immunity, anti-oxidant defence and lipid metabolism were tested. It was observed that the addition of stachyose to the diet induced no significant influence (P>0.05) in SOD, GPX, and CAT, gene’s expression, compared to the control diet. The inclusion of stachyose resulted in no significant changes in immune gene expression (Lyz, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF) in zebrafish (P>0.05) compared to the control diet. Total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) significantly (P<0.05) decreased with the addition of 2 and 4 g kg-1 stachyose, while fish fed the control diet and 1 g.kg-1 recorded the highest significant value of LDL (P<0.05). Fish fed diet, either control or diet supplemented with 0.5 g kg-1 stachyose, recorded the lowest HDL value (P<0.05) compared to other treatments. In conclusion, stachyose can be potentially used as a feed additive to modulate lipid metabolism. However, this prebiotic couldn’t benefit immune parameters and anti-oxidant defence.
... Therefore, the decrease in serum lipids suggests that stachyose acts vital in protecting liver damage and maintaining liver health. The present results are in accordance with previous research that demonstrated that diets supplemented with prebiotic decrease liver lipogenesis, LDL-C and triglyceride levels in fish (Gobinath et al., 2010;Sheu et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2011). The decrease in triglycerides, LDL-C and total cholesterol trend of fish fed diets supplemented with prebiotic stachyose could be attributed to: i) disturb of lipid metabolism and flow between liver and tissue (Chang et al., 2006)., ii) The role of stachyose as natural anti-oxidant and its ability to control the peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid, avoiding the production of triglyceride as cholesterol (Ferhat et al., 2017). ...
Article
An 8-week growth trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of Stachyose on immunity, antioxidant defence gene expression and lipid metabolism of Zebra fish. Three hundred Zebra fish (20.91 ± 0.11 g) were fed four diets containing different levels of Stachyose at 0, 1, 2 and 4 g kg-1 Stachyose, respectively. After eight weeks of the feeding trial, immune and antioxidant gene expression were tested. The addition of Stachyose to the diet showed no significant influence (P≥0.05) of antioxidant enzymes SOD. GPX, CAT and Lyz gene expression compared to the control diet. Inclusion of Stachyose showed no significant interaction on immune gene expression (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF) in Zebrafish (P ≥ 0.05) compared to the control diet. Total Cholestrol, triglyceride and LDL were significantly (P≤0.05) decreased with the addition of 2 and 4 g kg-1 Stachyose, while fish fed the control diet and g.kg-1 recorded the highest significant value of LDL (P≤0.05). In conclusion, Stachyose can be potentially used as a feed additive in Zebrafish to regulate anti-oxidant, immune gene expression and control lipid metabolism
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Several preclinical and clinical studies have shown the immuno‐modulatory role exerted by prebiotics in regulating immune response. In this review, we describe the mechanistic and clinical studies that decipher the cell signalling pathways implicated in the process. The prebiotic fibres are conventionally known to serve as substrate for probiotic commensal bacteria that leads to release of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the intestinal tract along with several other metabolites. Subsequently, they then act on the local as well as the systemic immune cells and the gut‐associated epithelial cells, primarily through G‐protein coupled receptor (GPCR)‐mediated pathways. However, other pathways including histone deacetlylase (HDAC)‐inhibition and inflammasome pathway have also been implicated in regulating the immunomodulatory effect. The prebiotics can also induce microbiota‐independent effect by directly acting on the gut associated epithelial and the innate immune cells through the toll‐like receptors (TLRs). The cumulative effect results in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier integrity and modulation of innate immunity through secretion of pro and anti‐inflammatory cytokines, switches in macrophage polarization and function, neutrophil recruitment and migration, dendritic cell (DC) and regulatory T‐cell differentiation. Extending these in vitro and ex vivo observations, some prebiotics have been well investigated, with successful human and animal trials demonstrating the association between gut microbes and immunity biomarkers leading to improvement of health endpoints across populations. This review discusses scientific insights on association between prebiotics, innate immunity and gut microbiome from in vitro to human oral intervention.
Article
Objective: To investigate the effect of oligosaccharides on the markers of glycemic control, including fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FBI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity index (QUICKI). Methods: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched to find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of oligosaccharide intervention on FBG, FBI, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI up to 7 June 2021. Data were pooled using weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), with a p-value ≤0.05 indicating statistical significance. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool and the quality of the literature with the new Jadad scale. Results: A total of 46 randomized controlled trials were included. Oligosaccharides significantly reduced FBG (WMD: -0.295 mmol L-1; 95% CI: -0.396 to -0.193; p < 0.001; I2 = 90.9%; 46 trials; 2412 participants), FBI (WMD: -0.559 pmol L-1; 95% CI: -0.939 to -0.178; p < 0.01; I2 = 99.1%; 29 trials; 1462 participants), HbA1c (WMD: -0.365; 95% CI: -0.725 to -0.005; p < 0.05; I2 = 86.6%; 11 trials; 661 participants), and HOMA-IR (WMD: -0.793; 95% CI: -1.106 to -0.480; p < 0.001; I2 = 96.1%; 24 trials; 1382 participants). Oligosaccharides were more beneficial for the participants with obesity or diabetes than for healthy participants. Multiple interventions per day consolidated the effectiveness of oligosaccharides. Regardless of the processing manner (starch-modified or naturally extracted) of the oligosaccharides, their intervention was overall beneficial for the patients with diabetes. Conclusions: This study is by far the most extensive systematic review to evaluate the role of oligosaccharides on the markers of glycemic control. Oligosaccharide interventions can exert beneficial effects on FBG, FBI, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR.
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Paecilomyces variotii xylanase was, produced in stirred tank bioreactor with yield of 760 U/mL and purified using 70% ammonium sulfate precipitation and ultra-filtration causing 3.29-fold purification with 34.47% activity recovery. The enzyme purity was analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) confirming its monomeric nature as single band at 32 KDa. Zymography showed xylan hydrolysis activity at the same band. The purified enzyme had optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 5.0. The pH stability range was 5-9 and the temperature stability was up 70 °C. Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ exhibited inhibition of xylanase enzyme while Cu 2+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Mn 2+ stimulated its activity. Mercaptoethanol stimulated its activity; however, Na 2-EDTA and SDS inhibited its activity. The purified xylanase could hydrolyze beechwood xylan but not carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), avicel or soluble starch. Paecilomyces variotii xylanase K m and V max for beechwood were determined to be 3.33 mg/mL and 5555 U/mg, respectively. The produced xylanase enzyme applied on beech xylan resulted in different types of XOS. The antioxidant activity of xylo-oligosaccharides increased from 15.22 to 70.57% when the extract concentration was increased from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/ mL. The enzyme characteristics and kinetic parameters indicated its high efficiency in the hydrolysis of xylan and its potential effectiveness in lignocellulosic hydrolysis and other industrial application. It also suggests the potential of xylanase enzyme for production of XOS from biomass which are useful in food and pharmaceutical industries.
Article
Xylanases are industrial enzymes with multiple applications in the food, pharmaceuticals, bio-bleaching, and textiles industries. The present study explores a putative novel bacterium Paenibacillus sp. PCH8 showing xylanolytic activity from Himalayan glacial soil. Genome sequencing and analysis revealed multiple genes encoding xylanases, cellulases, and other lignocellulolytic enzymes. The bacterium utilized oat spelt xylan substrate and showed xylanolytic activity in wide pH (4.0 to 12.0) and temperature (4 to 90 ºC). Proteomic analysis revealed 1,4-ß-xylanase, arabinan endo-1,5-α-L-arabinosidase, and 11 hypothetical proteins in partially purified protein fraction. Multi-substrate enzymatic activity (IU/mg) was observed for beechwood (21.42), oat spelt xylan (19.8), CMC (5.17), avicel (7.7), and starch (1.62) in protein fraction. The hydrolysis of xylan led to the formation of xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, and xylotetraose upon analysis by LC-MS. The xylooligosaccharides (XOS) containing hydrolysate enhanced the growth of probiotic microbes, suggesting prebiotic potential. Thus, the study provides a new source of xylanases from Paenibacillus sp. PCH8, with potential applications in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis and XOS production.
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This study investigated the protective role of lotus seedpod oligomeric procyanidins (LSOPC) and synbiotics (Bifidobacterium Bb-12 and xylo-oligosaccharide) against high fat and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Administration of LSOPC or synbiotics have no effect on blood glucose in normal mice. Treatments with LSOPC for 12 weeks markedly reduced blood glucose, FFA, endotoxin, GHbA1c and improved glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and insulin level. In addition, administration of LSOPC significantly reversed the increase of mTOR and p66Shc in liver, skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT). LSOPC significantly increased glucose uptake and glycolysis in liver, skeletal muscle and WAT, while improving heat generation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inhibiting gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in liver. Furthermore, synbiotics strengthened the improving effect of LSOPC. These findings demonstrated that LSOPC and synbiotics may regulate glucose disposal in peripheral target tissues through p66Shc-mTOR signaling pathway.
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The effects of water-unextractable arabinoxylans (WUAX) on the physicochemical properties of the dough and the final qualities of traditional Chinese youtiao were investigated. The farinographic properties of youtiao dough were slightly affected by extra WUAX, except that the water absorption increased from 56.77% to 64.93%. The extensographic properties varied complexly at different proofing time. The SEM micrographs of dough showed that the uniform starch granule structure could not be formed in youtiao dough with 4% extra WUAX. The specific volume of youtiao with 4% WUAX was only 3.68 cm3 g−1, which was 27.45% lower than that of control. The moisture content increased from 27.17% to 31.74%, and the hardness was almost four times higher than that of control. Most importantly, the total oil content of youtiao with 4% WUAX was only 12.29%, which was 37.31% lesser than the control. These results suggest that WUAX can be used in youtiao production to provide a low-fat option with improved nutrition.
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Xylan as the second most abundant indigestible carbohydrate found in nature attracts great interests of researchers, nutritionist and consumers due to its various health benefits. However, accumulated studies indicate the interactions with gut microbiota greatly affect these benefits, and significant progress has been made over the past few years to understand how microbes utilize xylan at gene level. In this review, we focused on gut xylanolytic microbes and xylan's physico-chemical features, summarized the xylanases needed for complete xylan decomposition, their substrate specificity and the presence in gut microbes, as well as microbial degradation of xylan in single strain mode and cooperation mode. Xylan utilization system were discussed with different phyla. Furthermore, the implications on intestinal homeostasis and metabolic response were reviewed with clinical effects emphasized, and highlight is placed on specific gut microbes and the complexity of xylan structure to provide a clue for the inconsistent results in human studies. Chemical compounds xylan; arabinoxylan, glucuronoxylans; glucuronoarabinoxylans; xylo-oligosaccharides; arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides.
Article
We aimed to investigate the effect of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) on the growth performances and lipid metabolism of common carp fed high‐fat diets. 192 fish were randomly distributed into 24 tanks into six groups (four replicates) and were fed with control diet, high‐fat diet (HFD) and HFD supplemented with 5, 10, 20 and 30 g/kgXOS respectively for 8 weeks. Fish fed HFD supplemented with 10 g/kg XOS obtained higher final body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio compared to those fed control diet and HFD, while feed conversion ratio showed the opposite trend. Fish fed HFD obtained higher hepatosomatic index, abdominal fat, energy intake compared to other groups, whereas the opposite was true for nitrogen retention. High plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low‐density lipoprotein and low high‐density lipoprotein were observed in fish fed HFD; opposite was true for fish fed HFD supplemented with 10–20 g/kg XOS. The transcription of lipoprotein lipase was up‐regulated, whereas that of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptors alpha, acyl‐CoA oxidase and CD36 were down‐regulated in fish fed HFD. Opposite trend was observed in fish fed HFD supplemented with 10–20 g/kg XOS as well as the control group. In conclusion, XOS inclusion can benefit the growth performance and lipid metabolism of common carp fed HFD.
Article
Scope We evaluated the effect of the prebiotic fiber xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on kidney function and gut microbiome in mice with adenine‐induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Method and results Mice were fed the control diet containing adenine for three weeks to induce CKD and switched to XOS supplemented (2 or 7%) or control diets for another 3 weeks. Mice with CKD exhibited increased BUN, creatinine and kidney histopathology. XOS significantly reversed kidney injuries in CKD mice. Analysis of cecum microbiota revealed that adenine induced CKD did not change alpha diversity, and XOS induced a decrease of alpha diversity in control mice and mice with CKD. Beta‐diversity analysis showed significant clustering according to experimental groups. Six out of nine bacterial genera enriched in CKD were significantly reduced with XOS intervention. Furthermore, XOS increased cecal short‐chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in both control and CKD mice. Cecal SCFAs and blood propionate were negatively correlated with BUN. XOS also decreased blood p‐cresol sulfate in CKD mice, likely resulting from altered microbial tyrosine metabolism. Conclusion Our results showed that XOS intervention improved kidney function in mice with CKD, and was associated with profound changes in microbial composition and metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease is nowadays highly prevalent and presents a global clinical challenge. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) on Il10-/- mice, a classic animal model of inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: Male wild type mice were as-signed to WT group, and Il10-/- mice were assigned to IL-10-KO group and XOS group, respectively. There were 6∼8 mice aged 8 weeks in each group. Mice in XOS group received 1.0g/kg/d XOS by gavage for 4 weeks. Results: Compared with mice in IL-10-KO group, Il10-/- mice with XOS intervention presented significant mild spontaneous colitis with lower disease activity index (DAI), histological scores and bowel inflammatory cytokine levels. Dietary XOS down-regulated bowel mucus bacterial penetration, which occurred as early as the onset of bowel colitis. The effect of XOS was associated with restored expression of LC3II/I and decreased expression of p62 and Beclin-1 in colon. Conclusions: Therefore, XOS decreases colonic mucus microbiota penetration with restored function of antophagy. Our findings suggest that XOS may be a potential dietary supplement or functional food for early management of inflammatory bowel disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
The use of agro-industrial residue in new processes has encouraged the development of biotechnological strategies to obtain biomolecules. Lignocellulosic materials are rich in xylan and can be used as an alternative and inexpensive source for xylooligosaccharide (XOS) production, contributing to the sustainable generation of products with high added-value. This article provides an overview of recent methodological strategies for XOS production, their health benefits as prebiotics, purification, and technological properties for industrial application. Classified as non-digestible, XOS are prebiotics and can be used as functional foods, promoting health benefits. The main advantages of XOS include the selective stimulation of beneficial microorganisms, the suppression of pathogenic bacteria and reduction of toxic compounds from the metabolism. XOS are produced from a wide diversity of lignocellulosic materials by chemical, physical and enzymatic methods, or by a combination of them. Physicochemical methods can generate undesirable by-products, and/or a large amount of monosaccharides, and result in a more difficult purification, while enzymatic hydrolysis allows milder process conditions because the reactions are specific and less pollutant residues are generated. Technological and nutritional approaches for XOS production which allow their use in different food and pharmaceutical products, and which stimulate the dissemination of researches in other technological areas, have also been discussed.
Article
The purpose of this study was to confirm the efficacy of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) on the growth performance and intestinal apoptosis of on-growing grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (167.46 ± 0.61 g). Fish were separated into six groups, which were given six different types of diet (supplemented with 0.00%, 0.002%, 0.004%, 0.006%, 0.008% and 0.010% of XOS) for 60 days. Grass carp were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila (6 days) after the growth experiment. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to report that appropriate XOS supplementation: (1) improved growth performance in fish and (2) attenuated apoptosis via the internal mitochondrial signalling pathways (JNK and p38MAPK/Cytochrome-c/caspase-9) in the proximal intestine (PI) and mid intestine (MI) and the external death receptor signalling pathways (p38MAPK/FasL/caspase-8) in the distal intestine (DI). Interestingly, XOS supplementation had no effect on the mRNA levels of factor-related apoptosis ligand (FasL) or caspase-8 in the PI and MI, Bcl-2 in the PI and JNK, caspase-9, Bax or Apaf-1 in the DI. Finally, appropriate levels of XOS supplementation based on the percentage of weight gain (PWG), feed intake (FI), and caspase-3, −8, and − 9 activities in the MI were estimated to be 51.81, 51.61, 57.15, 57.90, and 55.36 mg/kg diet, respectively.
Article
Background: Intestinal bacteria composition and prebiotics may play a role in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of prebiotics and substances with prebiotic properties on the metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers of individuals with T2DM compared with placebo. Methods: A literature search to identify articles published up to March 31, 2018, was conducted utilizing PubMed, Science Direct, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Individuals at aged 18 years or older with T2DM from randomized controlled trials investigating prebiotics or substances with prebiotic properties were included. Metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers associated with T2DM were the primary outcome measures. Results: Twenty-seven publications were analyzed. All but seven of these publications reported a beneficial effect on metabolic and/or inflammatory biomarkers. Interventions included mostly women, lasted 4 days to 12 weeks, and diabetes duration ranged from 6 months to 11 years. Nineteen publications reported improvements in glycemia, 15 in cardiovascular markers, nine in body weight, and nine in inflammatory markers. Benefits from resistant starch, resistant dextrin, and oligofructose-enriched inulin were most frequent. A smaller number of studies utilizing other substances with prebiotic properties also yielded improvements. Conclusions: Based on these results, there is fair evidence that prebiotics and substances with prebiotic properties may improve metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers related to T2DM in women aged 18 years at least. Interventions with resistant starch, resistant dextrin, and oligofructose-enriched inulin exhibited the strongest evidence for improvements due to the quantity of publications and quality grades. Other prebiotics and substances with prebiotic properties show promise but the number of studies is few. Additional studies that are longer in duration, include both sexes, and include other prebiotics or substances with prebiotic properties are needed.
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Paecilomyces variotii xylanase was, produced in stirred tank bioreactor with yield of 760 U/mL and purified using 70% ammonium sulfate precipitation and ultra-filtration causing 3.29-fold purification with 34.47% activity recovery. The enzyme purity was analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) confirming its monomeric nature as single band at 32 KDa. Zymography showed xylan hydrolysis activity at the same band. The purified enzyme had optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 5.0. The pH stability range was 5–9 and the temperature stability was up 70 °C. Fe ²⁺ and Fe ³⁺ exhibited inhibition of xylanase enzyme while Cu ²⁺ , Ca ²⁺ , Mg ²⁺ and Mn ²⁺ stimulated its activity. Mercaptoethanol stimulated its activity; however, Na 2 -EDTA and SDS inhibited its activity. The purified xylanase could hydrolyze beechwood xylan but not carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), avicel or soluble starch. Paecilomyces variotii xylanase K m and V max for beechwood were determined to be 3.33 mg/mL and 5555 U/mg, respectively. The produced xylanase enzyme applied on beech xylan resulted in different types of XOS. The antioxidant activity of xylo-oligosaccharides increased from 15.22 to 70.57% when the extract concentration was increased from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/mL. The enzyme characteristics and kinetic parameters indicated its high efficiency in the hydrolysis of xylan and its potential effectiveness in lignocellulosic hydrolysis and other industrial application. It also suggests the potential of xylanase enzyme for production of XOS from biomass which are useful in food and pharmaceutical industries.
Article
Red alga dulse (Palmaria sp.) has xylan with a small amount of cellulose and less lignin, hence these characteristics may provide some advantages in the enzymatic production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS). To evaluate dulse xylan as XOS source, we prepared xylan rich fraction (DXRF) and attempted XOS production using commercial enzymes. 13.8% of xylan rich fraction (DXRF: containing 52.2% of xylan) was obtained from dried dulse powder. We then evaluated the hydrolysis products of two commercial enzymes, revealing that hydrolysate of Hemicellulase amano 90 contained less xylose. The effective XOS production by the enzyme was evaluated in terms of enzyme dose, DXRF concentration and reaction period, showing that 66.6% of XOS was obtained from DXRF with the hydrolysis rate of 82% under the following condition: 54 U Hemicellulase amano 90, 10 mg/ml DXRF, pH 4.5, 50 °C for 24 h. These results indicated that red algae xylan is suitable for XOS source.
Article
Context Nondigestible fermentable carbohydrates (NDFCs) can be fermented by microbiota, thereby yielding metabolites that have a beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its complications. However, to our knowledge, no meta-analysis has been conducted to evaluate the effects of NDFCs on obesity. Objective To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to summarize existing evidence on the effects of numerous NDFCs on adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with overweight or obesity with ≥2 weeks of follow-up. Data Sources The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. Data Extraction Seventy-seven RCTs with 4535 participants were identified for meta-analysis from the 3 databases. Data Analysis The findings suggest that increased intake of NDFCs is significantly effective in reducing body mass index by 0.280 kg/m2, weight by 0.501 kg, hip circumference by 0.554 cm, waist circumference by 0.649 cm, systolic blood pressure by 1.725 mmHg, total cholesterol by 0.36 mmol/L, and low-density lipoprotein by 0.385 mmol/L, with evidence of moderate-to-high quality. Conclusion Convincing evidence from meta-analyses of RCTs indicates that increased NDFC intake improves adiposity, blood lipid levels, and systolic blood pressure in people with overweight and obesity.
Article
T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin that widely contaminates food and has a variety of toxic effects. However, the underlying mechanism of T-2 toxin on intestinal mucin remains unclear. In present study, human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells were treated with 100 ng/mL T-2 toxin at one-quarter of the IC50 for 24 h, which caused the inhibition of MUC2 and adhesion of E. coli O157:H7. We found T-2 toxin induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and activated the IRE1/XBP1 pathway, which may be related to the inhibition of MUC2. Interestingly, T-2 toxin activated IRE1α to inhibit IRE1β, which optimized mucin production. Furthermore, overexpression of IRE1β in the cells apparently alleviated the inhibition of MUC2 caused by T-2 toxin. IRE1α knock-down blocked the down-regulation of IRE1β and MUC2 induced by T-2 toxin. We revealed the critical role of IRE1α in the inhibition of intestinal mucin. This finding was confirmed in BALB/c mice which were exposed to T-2 toxin (0.5 mg/kg bw) for 4 weeks. T-2 toxin activated the IRE1/XBP1 pathway to disrupt intestinal mucin, which lead to the imbalance of gut microbiota and an increased risk of host infection by E. coli O157:H7. T-2 toxin exposure also increased the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in mice, which might respond to IRE1α activation. Importantly, IRE1α activation was a therapeutic target for intestinal inflammation caused by T-2 toxin. This study provided a new perspective to understand the intestinal toxicity of T-2 toxin.
Article
This study evaluated the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on growth performance and lipid metabolism in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by RNA sequencing. A total of 240 healthy zebrafish were randomly distributed into two groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the treatment group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.4% FOS. The results showed that there was no significant difference in growth performance (p > 0.05). The lipid content, total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid and low‐density lipoprotein were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the liver of fish fed the 0.4% FOS diet than those of the fish fed the control diet, while the fish fed the 0.4% FOS diet had significantly higher (p < 0.05) high‐density lipoproteins than those of the control fish. Malic enzyme and fatty acid synthetase activities were significantly reduced by adding FOS. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the two pathways of steroid hormone biosynthesis and steroid biosynthesis were significantly enriched (p < 0.05). The profile of genes in these two pathways was affected by FOS in zebrafish. The results of the two pathways suggested new mechanisms underlying the lipid metabolism mechanism of FOS.
Article
Diabetes significantly affects the life quality and length of patients with diabetes, and almost half of the 4 million people who die from diabetes are under the age of 60. Because of the increasing number of patients with diabetes and the side effects of antidiabetic drugs, the search for new dietary supplementation from natural resources, especially functional oligosaccharides, has attracted much attention among scientific researchers. Functional oligosaccharides are potential antidiabetic treatments because of their nondigestible, low-calorie, and probiotic features. The antidiabetic activity of multiple functional oligosaccharides such as fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides, and xylo-oligosaccharides has been reviewed in this paper. Molecular mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic activity of oligosaccharides have been systematically discussed from multiple perspectives, including the improvement of pancreas function, α-glucosidase inhibition, the relief of insulin and leptin resistance, anti-inflammatory effects, regulation of gut microbiota and hormones, and the intervention of diabetic risk factors. In addition, the antidiabetic effects of functional oligosaccharides through the complex gut-brain-liver axis are summarized. The concepts addressed in this review have important clinical implications, although more works are needed to confirm the antidiabetic mechanisms of functional oligosaccharides, standardize safe dose levels, and clarify their metabolism in the human body.-Zhu, D., Yan, Q., Liu, J., Wu, X., Jiang, Z. Can functional oligosaccharides reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus?
Article
Background Microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs) are critical substrates for intestinal microbes; the subsequent production of SCFAs may have some potential benefits for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objectives We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effects of higher compared with lower MAC intakes on cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM patients and performed an umbrella review of RCTs to evaluate the evidence quality concerning existing dietary T2DM interventions. Methods Publications were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL. In the meta-analysis, random-effects models were used to calculate pooled estimates, and sensitivity analyses, meta-regression, subgroup analyses, and Egger's test were performed. For the umbrella review, we summarized pooled estimates, 95% CIs, heterogeneity, and publication bias. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and modified NutriGrade were used to assess the quality of evidence in the meta-analysis and umbrella review, respectively. Results Forty-five RCTs with 1995 participants were included in the meta-analysis. High MAC intake significantly reduced glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (weighted mean difference [WMD] –0.436% [–0.556, –0.315]), fasting glucose (WMD –0.835 mmol/L [–1.048, –0.622]), total cholesterol (WMD –0.293 mmol/L [–0.397, –0.190]), triglycerides (WMD –0.118 mmol/L [–0.308, –0.058]), BMI (WMD –0.476 [–0.641, –0.312]), and systolic blood pressure (WMD –3.066 mmHg [–5.653, –0.478]), with a moderate-to-high quality of evidence, compared with low intake. Region, dose, and MAC type were key variables. The umbrella review of all dietary interventions for cardiovascular risk factors in patients with T2DM included 26 meta-analyses with 158 pooled estimates. The evidence quality of MACs, dietary fiber, high-protein diet, ω-3 (n–3), viscous fiber, vitamin D, and vitamin E intake was moderate to high. Conclusions When compared with lower intake, increased MAC intake improved glycemic control, blood lipid, body weight, and inflammatory markers for people with T2DM. This trial was registered at PROSPERO (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/#recordDetails) as CRD42019120531.
Chapter
Oligosaccharides are low molecular weight carbohydrates composed of monomeric sugars. They are naturally found in milk, vegetables, and fruits, but can also be obtained by chemical or biocatalytic processes. They can be applied as prebiotics, antimicrobials, antioxidants and others. This article will focus on the biotechnological production, health benefits and applications of the main oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, chito-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides, obtained from fungi or through the action of fungal enzymes.
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Background In recent decades, there has been a very rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes globally, with serious health and economic implications. Although today there are several therapeutic treatments for this disease, these do not address the causes of the disease and have serious side effects, so it is necessary to seek new treatments to replace or complement existing ones. Among these complementary treatments, a strong link between the intestinal microbiota and diabetes has been demonstrated, which has focused attention on the use of biotherapy to regulate the function of the intestinal microbiota and thus treat diabetes. In this way, the main objective of this work is to provide a review of the latest scientific evidence on diabetes, gathering information about new trends in its management, and especially the influence of the intestinal microbiota and microbiome on this pathology. Conclusions It is possible to conclude that the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and diabetes is carried out through alterations in energy metabolism, the immune system, changes in intestinal permeability, and a state of low-intensity systemic inflammation. Although nowadays most of the experimental work using probiotics for diabetes management has been done on experimental animals, the results obtained are promising. Thus, the modification of the microbiota through biotherapy has been shown to improve the symptoms and severity of diabetes through various mechanisms related to these alterations.
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The polyol isomalt (Palatinit®) is a well established sugar replacer. The impact of regular isomalt consumption on metabolism and parameters of gut function in nineteen healthy volunteers was examined in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial with two 4-week test periods. Volunteers received 30 g isomalt or 30 g sucrose daily as part of a controlled diet. In addition to clinical standard diagnostics, biomarkers and parameters currently discussed as risk factors for CHD, diabetes or obesity were analysed. Urine and stool Ca and phosphate excretions were measured. In addition, mean transit time, defecation frequency, stool consistency and weight were determined. Consumption of test products was affirmed by the urinary excretion of mannitol. Blood lipids were comparable in both phases, especially in volunteers with hyperlipidaemia, apart from lower apo A-1 (P=0·03) for all subjects. Remnant-like particles, oxidised LDL, NEFA, fructosamine and leptin were comparable and not influenced by isomalt. Ca and phosphate homeostasis was not affected. Stool frequency was moderately increased in the isomalt phase (P=0·006) without changes in stool consistency and stool water. This suggests that isomalt is well tolerated and that consumption of isomalt does not impair metabolic function or induce hypercalciuria. In addition, the study data indicate that isomalt could be useful in improving bowel function.
Article
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Colonic fermentation of dietary carbohydrates and fiber might produce a protective effect against the development of large bowel cancer. Resistant starch, ie, starch that escapes small bowel digestion, is a candidate fermentable substrate that has been hitherto little studied. We supplemented 19 healthy volunteers with 15 g native amylomaize (Hylon-VII) three times a day, containing 28 g type II resistant starch, or with dextrins as a placebo for 7 d in a crossover design. Pre-experimentally, 11 subjects regularly produced breath methane and 8 did not. Resistant starch increased 24-h integrated excretion of breath hydrogen. The mean rise relative to placebo was 35% (P = 0.03) for all subjects and 60% for eight subjects not producing methane (P = 0.02). The 11 methane producers showed a 93% increase in breath-methane excretion on resistant starch (P = 0.03). Continued consumption of 28 g type II resistant starch/d is well tolerated and increases colonic fermentation in healthy volunteers.
Article
The digestion of xylobiose was investigated in vitro. Xylobiose was not hydrolyzed by saliva, pancreatin, gastric juice or intestinal mucosa homogenate. The fate of xylobiose was studied after oral administration. The xylobiose ingested was not excreted into feces and urine during 24h after administration. These results suggest that xylobiose is utilized in vivo not by the action of digestive enzymes but by the action of the intestinal flora.
Article
The autoxidation of pyrogallol was investigated in the presence of EDTA in the pH range 7.9–10.6. The rate of autoxidation increases with increasing pH. At pH 7.9 the reaction is inhibited to 99% by superoxide dismutase, indicating an almost total dependence on the participation of the superoxide anion radical, O2·−, in the reaction. Up to pH 9.1 the reaction is still inhibited to over 90% by superoxide dismutase, but at higher alkalinity, O2·− -independent mechanisms rapidly become dominant. Catalase has no effect on the autoxidation but decreases the oxygen consumption by half, showing that H2O2 is the stable product of oxygen and that H2O2 is not involved in the autoxidation mechanism. A simple and rapid method for the assay of superoxide dismutase is described, based on the ability of the enzyme to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol. A plausible explanation is given for the non-competitive part of the inhibition of catechol O-methyltransferase brought about by pyrogallol.
Article
Male Wistar rats were fed a bread diet containing either corn starch or 6% raw or 6% baked inulin. Furthermore, the diets were either cholesterol-free or contained 1% cholesterol and 0.1% cholic acid. Adding unprocessed or baked inulin to the cholesterol-free diets resulted in significantly lower plasma cholesterol concentrations as well as in decreased liver cholesterol concentrations, while higher daily fecal excretions of bile acids were found. The normocholesterolemic rats showed a tendency to elevated fecal excretion of neutral steroids when inulin was fed, in spite of some decrease in the coprostanol excretion. In these groups there was a significantly inverse linear relationship between liver cholesterol concentrations and daily fecal bile acid output. The results suggest that the cholesterol lowering effect of inulin in normocholesterolemic rats may be due to higher fecal steroid excretion. Moreover, these rats tended to show higher cholesterol ratios when they received one of the inulin containing diets. In the hypercholesterolemic groups no significant effect from inulin intake on the plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations was found. In these rats, fecal cholesterol excretion was significantly increased by 40% when baked or unprocessed inulin was added to the diet, but fecal coprostanol excretion was significantly decreased by 95%. As a consequence, consumption of inulin did not change total neutral steroid excretion in the hypercholesterolemic groups. Moreover, fecal bile acid output was not significantly affected by dietary treatment. The fact that inulin intake did not change total steroid output might explain why plasma cholesterol was not reduced in the hypercholesterolemic rats receiving inulin, in contrast to the results obtained with the normocholesterolemic rats. Also no effect from inulin consumption was found on the cholesterol ratio in the hypercholesterolemic animals. Including inulin in bread did not alter its effect on lipid metabolism, neither in normo- nor in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Article
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA, e.g. acetate and propionate) produced from bacterial colonic fermentation may be involved in the improvement of fasting glucose concentration observed with high dietary fibre diets. Because fasting blood glucose is related to hepatic glucose production, we have tested the effect of propionate and acetate on hepatic glucose production. The study was carried out in the Clinical Research Center for Human Nutrition. Six healthy young volunteers. The subjects received, in a random order: acetate (12 mmol/h), or propionate (4 mmol/h), or acetate+propionate (12 mmol/h + 4 mmol/h), or an isotonic sodium salt solution (saline) in 3 h gastric infusions. Blood glucose and plasma insulin was monitored. Hepatic glucose production was measured with an isotopic method using [6,6-2H2] glucose. No changes were observed in blood glucose, plasma insulin concentrations or hepatic glucose production with any of the infused solutions. An increase in free fatty acid (FFA) plasma concentration related to the fasting state was observed with the saline solution, but not with the SCFA infusions (P < 0.05). There was also an increase in beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration with the saline and the acetate solutions, but not with the propionate or acetate+propionate solutions. SCFA, administered at a rate calculated on the basis of a continuous daily fermentation of 30 g dietary fibres, do not change hepatic glucose production or fasting blood glucose. Propionate and acetate decrease plasma FFA, and further studies are needed to explore this effect on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.
Article
A simple, rapid and sensitive capillary gas chromatographic method was investigated to measure portal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). A 20-microliters sample of portal plasma was denatured with sulfosalicylic acid and then extracted with diethyl ether before the removal of protein precipitate. The resultant extract was concentrated by a transfer to 50 microliters of 0.2 M NaOH, thus avoiding tedious further concentration steps. This reduced the sample volume to one-fourth. Since the ratio of acetic acid, a major SCFA, to other acids varies widely, ranging from 10-fold to 100-fold, acrylic and methacrylic acids were used as internal standards to simultaneously measure SCFAs having a carbon number of 2-6. As a result, good recovery (90.38-103.17%) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation 0.83-8.85%) were observed over a wide range. Furthermore, portal SCFAs in rats fed various dietary fibers were determined by the present method. We showed that the amounts not only of the major acids such as acetic acid and propionic acid, but also of the minor fermented products such as n-valeric acid and n-caproic acid, could be significantly changed by dietary manipulation. Thus, the present method is simple and reliable, and requires only a small amount of sample.
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary treatment on serum and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activity of patients with Type 2 diabetes. A total of 30 patients with newly diagnosed as Type 2 diabetes were enrolled to the study. A total of 30 healthy subjects served as controls. Diabetic patients were given standard dietary treatment that was composed of 50% to 55% carbohydrate and 30% fat for 2 months. No diet was applied for controls. For both groups serum and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were obtained at first and at the end of 2 months. Diabetic patients had higher serum and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than those of controls before dietary treatment(p < 0.05). However, there was no absolute differences in erythrocyte SOD and GSH-Px (p > 0.05). At the end of 2 months of dietary treatment, while diabetics had still higher glucose and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than controls (p < 0.05), serum lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte SOD, and GSH-Px levels did not differ significantly from those of controls (p > 0.05). In diabetic patients, after 2 months of dietary treatment, whereas serum and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation decreased, erythrocyte SOD and GSH-Px activities showed significant increase (p < 0.05). Our results showed significant alteration in serum and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme status of patients with Type 2 diabetes by dietary treatment. However, whether such alterations have clinical importance for diabetic patients needs further investigation.