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Music festivals and other temporary events, such as bicycle races, lay a heavy burden on the surrounding environment. Treatment of the wastewater originating from such events is necessary if no municipal treatment plant is available. This study demonstrated that activated carbon is a performant technique for the treatment of wastewaters originating from these temporary events. Freundlich isotherms and maximum operational linear velocity (6 m/h) were determined on a lab-scale set-up. A pilot-scale set up was used to treat part (5%) of the total volume of the Dranouter Music Festival shower wastewater. On average 90% removal of COD and suspended solids concentration was obtained. Application of the activated carbon filter resulted in the fact that the local discharge limits were met without operational problems.
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Sustainable wastewater treatment of temporary events:
the Dranouter Music Festival case study
S. W. H. Van Hulle, W. Audenaert, B. Decostere,
J. Hogie and P. Dejans
ABSTRACT
S. W. H. Van Hulle
W. Audenaert
B. Decostere
J. Hogie
P. Dejans
Research Group EnBiChem,
Department of Industrial Engineering and
Technology,
University College West Flanders,
Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5,
B-8500 Kortrijk,
Belgium
E-mail: Stijn.Van.Hulle@Howest.be
Music festivals and other temporary events, such as bicycle races, lay a heavy burden on the
surrounding environment. Treatment of the wastewater originating from such events is necessary
if no municipal treatment plant is available. This study demonstrated that activated carbon is a
performant technique for the treatment of wastewaters originating from these temporary events.
Freundlich isotherms and maximum operational linear velocity (6 m/h) were determined on a lab-
scale set-up. A pilot-scale set up was used to treat part (5%) of the total volume of the Dranouter
Music Festival shower wastewater. On average 90% removal of COD and suspended solids
concentration was obtained. Application of the activated carbon filter resulted in the fact that
the local discharge limits were met without operational problems.
Key words
|
activated carbon filtration, sustainability, temporary wastewater treatment
INTRODUCTION
Music festivals and other temporary events, such as bicycle
races, lay a heavy burden on the surrounding environment.
For example, the Dranouter Music Festival (www.folkdra-
nouter.be), organised in the southwest region of West
Flanders (Belgium), accommodates 75,000 people over a
period of 3 days. The water used by these 75,000 people (on
average 400 m
3
over a period of 4 days) is currently directly
discharged to the nearby Douvebeek river because the
festival area is not connected to a wastewater treatment
plant. Obviously the water quality in the river decreases
dramatically because of the festival, as can be illustrated in
Figure 1. This Figure shows dissolved oxygen measurements
in the 2006 summer period performed by the Flemish
Environment Agency (www.vmm.be). The effect of the
Dranouter Music Festival (August 4th6th) is clearly visible.
Because of this environmental concern, treatment of
this water is necessary, yet difficult to accomplish. Conven-
tional activated sludge processes will not start-up and
operate stable on a 3 days period, reed beds are too coarse
for filtration of the water and will also not be fully
operational after 3 days. Sand filtration requires too much
control and operational equipment such as a heavy back
flush pump. Membrane filtration requires too much surface
and pumping equipment. As such only activated carbon
filtration is suited for treating festival wastewater. The goal
of this paper is to evaluate this technique for treatment of
wastewater originating from temporary events.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Activated carbon
Two types of activated carbon, Airpel 10 and Organosorb
10 supplied by N.V. Desotec (www.desotec.com) were
tested. Organosorb 10 is an activated carbon especially
developed for the purification of wastewater. Airpel 10 is an
activated carbon developed for the purification of air, but
was tested in this study because of its structure. It was
doi: 10.2166/wst.2008.530
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expected, because of the unknown composition of the
wastewater, that less clogging would occur with Airpel 10,
consisting of extruded pellets, than with Organosorb 10,
which consists of granular activated carbon. An overview of
the characteristics (Thomas & Crittenden 1998) of both
activated carbon types is presented in Table 1. Data in this
table was made available by N.V. Desotec.
A Freundlich isotherm (Metcalf & Eddy 1991) for the
adsorption of festival wastewater was determined at 208C
for both activated carbon types. For the this experiment real
shower water was used with a COD concentration of
221 mgCOD/l.
Optimal residence time determination
A lab scale activated carbon filter with a diameter of 2.54 cm
and an activated height of 1.5 m was used to determine
the optimal residence time in the activated carbon filter.
The filter was operated at different residence times and
corresponding filter velocities by altering the recycle pump
flow rate. Real shower water was used with a COD
concentration of 221 mgCOD/l.
Pilot scale set-up
For the pilot scale tests at the Dranouter Music Festival 2
activated carbon filters with a diameter of 31 cm and an
activate height of 1.5 m were used. One filter was filled with
Organosorb activated carbon, the other was filled with
Airpel activated carbon. A flow rate of 400 l/h per filter was
maintained during the festival. As such about 5% of the total
festival wastewater was treated. A schematic overview of
the experimental pilot scale set-up is presented in Figure 2.
Chemical analysis
All chemical analysis were performed according to standard
methods (Standard Methods 1992)
Figure 1
|
Dissolved oxygen concentration in the wastewater receiving Douvebeek
before and during the Dranouter Music Festival (August 4th– 6th).
Table 1
|
Characteristics of activated carbon types used in this study
Parameter Organosorb 10 Airpel 10
Total BET surface (m
2
/g) 1,020 1,020
Iodine number (mg/g) 1,010 990
Methylene blue
number (mg/g)
210
CTC (%) 64
Hardness (%) 96 98
Density (g/l) 470 500
Water content (%) 3 2
Particle size (mesh) 12 £40
(1.7 –0.425 mm)
Pellet diameter 3
Figure 2
|
Schematic overview of the experimental pilot scale set-up.
Figure 3
|
Freundlich isotherms for the adsorption of festival wastewater of both
activated carbon types.
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Isotherm determination
The results of the isotherm tests are depicted in Figure 3.It
can be seen that both activated carbon types have a similar
absorption behaviour, although Organosorb has a slightly
higher capacity.
Further the Freundlich isotherms were determined
for both activated carbon types. This isotherm expresses the
relation between the concentration of organic matter
(X, expressed as mgCOD/l) adsorbed by the activated
carbon (m, expressed as gAC) and COD equilibrium concen-
tration (c, expressed as mgCOD/l) in the wastewater:
X
m
¼acb
The Freundlich isotherm is widely used for a variety of
heterogeneous adsorption systems because it gives more
accurate results than the Langmuir isotherm (Chen &
Horan 1998). In Table 2 the Freundlich parameters a and b
are given. The obtained values are different from the ones
obtained by e.g. Amuda & Ibrahim (2006), who investigated
the adsorption efficiency of different activated carbon types
in view of removal of organic matter from industrial
wastewater. Also Shawwa et al. (2000) obtained different
parameters.
Optimal residence time
The results from the lab-scale tests are presented in Figure 4.
In this figure the effluent COD concentration of the lab-
scale activated carbon filter is related to the linear speed in
the filter. It can be seen that for a linear speed of 8 m/h a
COD removal of 97% is obtained for the Organosorb type
activated carbon, while 92% removal is obtained for the
Airpel type activated carbon. For higher linear speeds the
COD removal with the Organosorb type activated carbon
remains constant, but the COD removal with the Airpel
type activated carbon gradually increases.
Figure 4
|
Effluent COD concentrations in the lab-scale tests as function of the linear
speed in the column.
Table 2
|
Freundlich parameters for shower wastewater determined for the activated
carbon types used in this study
Parameter Organosorb 10 Airpel 10
A 0.02 0.03
B 1.6646 1.5513
Figure 5
|
Daily total flow rate of the Dranouter Music Festival wastewater (about 5% was treated in the pilot set-up).
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Increasing the linear speed in the activated carbon filter
containing Organosorb above 8 m/h induced a water layer
above the filter, indicating that the filter could not handle
the flow rate, although sufficient removal was obtained.
Because of this, a linear speed of 6 m/h through the
activated carbon filters was chosen to guarantee adequate
operation of the filter during the festival period. As such this
linear speed was adopted in the pilot scale tests at the
festival.
Pilot plant
The activated carbon filter was operated during the 4 days
festival. The daily total flow rate is presented in Figure 5.
Of this flow rate about 5% was treated in the pilot
set-up the rest of the wastewater was discharged to the
Douvebeek.
In Figure 6 the influent and effluent COD concen-
trations during the experimental period are depicted. It
can be seen that breakthrough of the activated carbon
filter containing Airpel occurred the third-day, which led to
a violation of the discharge limits. The activated carbon
filter containing Organosorb stays well below the
discharge limits. Further, no clogging occurred during
that period.
The overall removal performance of the pilot-scale set-
up in view of different discharge parameters (suspended
solids, turbidity, nitrate, COD) is presented in Table 3. It can
be seen that the performance of the activated carbon filter
containing Organosorb is superior compared to the acti-
vated carbon filter containing Airpel, because of the
breakthrough on day 3 and the fact that Organosorb is
especially designed for water treatment.
Ammonium (influent concentration ¼7 mgN/l) and
phosphate (influent concentration ¼4 mgN/l) were not
removed by the activated carbon filter. With the activated
carbon filter filled with Organosorb 90% COD removal was
obtained and the discharge limits set by the local authority
were met as presented in Table 4. As such the Dranouter
Music Festival has decided to implement a full scale
activated carbon filter for next year’s (2008) event.
CONCLUSIONS
Activated carbon has proven to be a performant technique
for the treatment of wastewaters originating from temporary
events such as music festivals. This study characterised,
designed and operated an activated carbon filter applied for
the treatment of shower wastewater of the Dranouter Music
Festival. Application of the activated carbon filter resulted
in the fact that the local discharge limits were met without
operational problems.
Figure 6
|
Influent and effluent COD concentrations during the experimental period.
Table 3
|
The overall removal performance (%) of the pilot-scale set-up in view of
different discharge parameters
Removal performance (%)
Parameter
Influent concentration
(mg/l)
p
Organosorb 10 Removal Airpel 10
Turbidity 20.8 90 37
Suspended
solids
83.7 94 52
COD 202 87 66
NO2
314 76 66
p
Turbidity is expressed in FTU (formazin turbidity units).
Table 4
|
Average festival wastewater characteristics before and after activated
carbon treatment compared to local discharge limits
TSS
mg/l
COD
mg O
2
/l
Total N
mg N/l
Total P
mg P/l
Discharge limit 35 125 15 2
Untreated
wastewater
83.7 202 9 1.3
Treated
wastewater
5.33 23 8 1.6
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was supported by the Dranouter Music Festival,
Desotec NV and the Institute for the Promotion of
Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT,
contract number 060113).
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