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Source v. Content Effects of Judgments of News Believability

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Abstract

A between-groups 3 × 3 factorial experiment (N=516) tests effects of message type and source reputation on judgments of news believability, judgments conceptualized as source credibility (judgments about the source), and assessments of apparent reality (judgments about the message content). Three indices combining measures of source credibility and message apparent reality emerge from a factor analysis, comprising judgments of (1) source truthfulness and message accuracy, (2) source expertise and message representativeness, and (3) source bias and personal perspective. The results show that a more innocuous message results in more positive judgments of believability, but the reputation of the source has no direct effect on believability judgments, nor does it interact with message type. It is concluded that at least some publics base judgments of news believability more on judgments of the apparent reality of message content rather than on the reputation of the media source.

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... Building on Aristotle's ideas, a plethora of modern factor analytical studies of source credibility (e.g., Applbaum & Anatol, 1972;Lee, 1976;Tuppen, 1974) have uncovered slightly different dimensions of source credibility for different communicators in different situations, and researchers are not consistent in naming these dimensions. For instance, what one researcher calls "trustworthiness" (e.g., Austin & Dong, 1994), another may call "safety" (e.g., Berlo, Lemert, & Mertz, 1970), depending on the particular semantic differential scales that cluster together in any given factor analysis. ...
... Based on their research, Austin and Dong (1994) conclude, "a highly reputable source can produce an unbelievable story" (p. 979). ...
... Other critics also claim that credibility is not as much a function of the media channel as it is a function of the situation, the public's previous opinion on a subject (Günther, 1992;Robinson & Kohut, 1988), and of message content (Austin & Dong, 1994). Günther's (1992) study showed that "group membership predicted credibility judgments more systematically than any of the other variables measured" (p. ...
... Perceived news quality also determines message effectiveness, as it affects the degree to which readers accept or reject the information in the news (Slater & Rouner, 1996). As a result, scholars have extensively examined which features of news affect the perceived quality of news and why (Austin & Dong, 1994;Gladney, Shapiro, & Castaldo, 2007;Grabe, Zhou, Lang, & Bolls, 2000;Sundar, 1998). ...
... Scholars have discussed elements of a good news story, focusing primarily on two dimensions: content quality and stylistic quality. Accuracy, objectivity, believability, sincerity, bias, informative-ness, readability, fairness, truthfulness, and writing quality have been identified as the key attributes of a high-quality news story (Austin & Dong, 1994;Slater & Rouner, 1996). More recent studies suggest that the traditional criteria of news quality remain important in the digital era (Gladney et al., 2007;Sundar, 2000). ...
... Perceived quality of news was assessed using an 11-item scale, based on Sundar (2000) as well as on the common elements of traditional measurement of news quality (Austin & Dong, 1994;Burgoon, Burgoon, & Atkin, 1982;Slater & Rouner, 1996). Participants were asked to evaluate the quality of a news story they read by indicating how well each of the following words described the news story on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 ¼ Described very poorly to 7 ¼ Described very well: accurate, believable, clear, comprehensive, factual, fair, informative, important, objective, wellwritten, and biased (reverse coded). ...
Article
This study examines how social media metrics, as compared to the credibility of news organizations, affect online news evaluations. In a 2 x 2 between-subjects experiment (N = 202), participants read a news story that was reported either by a high credibility or a low credibility news organization, with either an absence or presence of social media metrics. The results indicate that (a) social media metrics reduce the effects of media credibility on online news evaluations; (b) the effects of social media metrics on online news evaluations hold only when the news story is from a low credibility news organization; and (c) the personal relevance of the issue moderates the effects of media credibility and social media metrics. These findings suggest that social media metrics may work as an updated alternative to the two-step flow model of communication. The findings also reemphasize the need for media organizations to maintain their credibility in the generational shift of news consumption.
... Starting from Hovland and Weiss' (1951) inquiries of source credibility in acceptance of persuasive messages, credibility research has been a primary concern in the communication research field for decades. Message credibility (Austin and Dong 1994), and medium or channel credibility (Bucy 2003;Johnson and Kaye 1998;Kiousis 2001) are regarded as important components of credibility. Newhagen and Nass (1989, 3) defined credibility as "the degree to which an individual judges his or her perceptions to be a valid reflection of reality" (p. ...
... These are all important dimensions in news credibility judgement (Gaziano and McGrath 1986;Metzger et al. 2003;Meyer 1988;Meyer 1974;Sundar 1999). According to the cognitive theory, how an individual judges credibility could be based on many factorschannel, source, content, context, motives of the source, situation, and time, or any combination of these (Austin and Dong 1994;Delia 1976). However, many existing cognitive methods employed to differentiate the relative value of information may not be applied to the Internet. ...
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By administering an online experiment, this study examined how source and journalistic domains affect the perceived objectivity, message credibility, medium credibility, bias, and overall journalistic quality of news stories among an adult sample (N = 370) recruited using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) service. Within the framework of the cognitive authority theory, the study found auto-written news stories were rated as more objective, credible (both message and medium credibility), and less biased. However, significant difference was found between a combined assessment condition (news stories with source and author information) and a message only assessment condition (news stories without source and author information) in the ratings of objectivity and credibility, but not bias. Moreover, significant differences were found in the objectivity and credibility ratings of auto-written and human-written news stories in the journalistic domains of politics, finance and sports news stories. In auto-written news stories, sports news stories were rated more objective and credible, while financial news stories were rated as more biased. In human-written stories, financial news stories were rated as more objective and credible. However, political news stories were rated as more biased among human-written news stories, and in cases where auto-written and human-written stories were combined.
... The dependent variable was a series of judgments made in responding to an 18-item scale where readers rate credibility and "realness" of news articles, created by Weintraub and Dong (1994), which is shown in Appendix B. People's trust in the media is linked with perceptions of media being unbiased, accurate, fair, and able "to tell the whole story" (Meyer 1988;Iyengar and Kinder 1985;Weintraub and Dong 1994;Wanta and Hu 1994;Miller and Wanta 1996;Miller and Krosnick 2000;Johnson and Kaye 2002). After reading each news ...
... The dependent variable was a series of judgments made in responding to an 18-item scale where readers rate credibility and "realness" of news articles, created by Weintraub and Dong (1994), which is shown in Appendix B. People's trust in the media is linked with perceptions of media being unbiased, accurate, fair, and able "to tell the whole story" (Meyer 1988;Iyengar and Kinder 1985;Weintraub and Dong 1994;Wanta and Hu 1994;Miller and Wanta 1996;Miller and Krosnick 2000;Johnson and Kaye 2002). After reading each news ...
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This study explores how increased knowledge of media ownership may affect judgments of credibility in responding to print news. An experiment was conducted with 80 undergraduate journalism students. Subjects were randomly exposed to either an informational article about the pros and cons of consolidation in media ownership or poetry. Then subjects read and analyzed four news stories, analyzing each using a credibility scale that includes judgments of truth, superficiality, general accuracy and completeness. Results show statistically significant differences in judgments of general accuracy and superficiality, suggesting that exposure to informa-tional print about media ownership may promote modest increases in critical responses to news media.
... Through reputation and direct experience, media users learn which sources to trust and which ones to question (Fogg et al., 2003). Indeed, media credibility is strongly linked to individual difference in media experience for information gathering, and media users often judge their preferred media as the most credible (Austin and Dong, 1994). That is, as media users' reliance on the Internet increases, credibility ratings for the Internet will increase. ...
... Finally, the data suggested that information-gathering acquaintance as a critical predictor toward online message perceptions. With the concurrence of previous studies (Austin and Dong, 1994;Johnson and Kaye, 1998), this study validated that online media users with more information-gathering experiences would be able to discern whether online messages were factual. The study further confirmed that blog use was another significant predictor toward online message perceptions, but this significance was less meaningful than information-gathering acquaintance. ...
... A rich canon of literature has explored news credibility and the related but distinct concept of news trust (e.g., Austin & Dong, 1994;Gaziano & McGrath, 1986;Hovland et al., 1959), making it a seminal topic for journalism research. Research has examined organizational credibility (Gass & Seiter, 1999), website credibility (Q. ...
... Essentially, even if these story-level transparency efforts could work as heuristics of credibility, people may not necessarily think about the news outlet when reading a particular story. Indeed, in an early study, Austin and Dong (1994) found that people assess news stories without thinking about the source. Therefore, adding transparency cues intended to signal credibility to a story might influence other factors, such as whether people perceive the story as well written, interesting, and fair, as Karlsson and colleagues (2014) found, yet have no influence on credibility perceptions of the news outlet itself. ...
Article
This study extends the literature on how transparency influences news credibility perceptions by examining trust signals at the news outlet level, rather than at the story level, as earlier research has done. Experiments in the United States ( n = 1,037) and Germany ( n = 1,000) found that exposure to trust signals in a Google search about a known news brand, rather than an unknown brand, and the German cultural context increased news credibility perceptions. Participants were more likely to click on trust signals that gave background about the news brand or offered ways to engage with a news outlet.
... In addition to the corrective power of the information provided, we are also interested in evaluations of that information. Credibility is an important evaluation to consider, as it shapes the way people respond to messages (Austin & Dong, 1994). The more credible a message is, the more likely people are to accept it as true, and the more likely they will therefore be affected by the message itself (Austin & Dong, 1994). ...
... Credibility is an important evaluation to consider, as it shapes the way people respond to messages (Austin & Dong, 1994). The more credible a message is, the more likely people are to accept it as true, and the more likely they will therefore be affected by the message itself (Austin & Dong, 1994). For our purposes, messages deemed more credible should be more effective at correcting misperceptions, suggesting a causal mechanism by which algorithmic and social correction on social media function. ...
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Social media are often criticized for being a conduit for misinformation on global health issues, but may also serve as a corrective to false information. To investigate this possibility, an experiment was conducted exposing users to a simulated Facebook News Feed featuring misinformation and different correction mechanisms (one in which news stories featuring correct information were produced by an algorithm and another where the corrective news stories were posted by other Facebook users) about the Zika virus, a current global health threat. Results show that algorithmic and social corrections are equally effective in limiting misperceptions, and correction occurs for both high and low conspiracy belief individuals. Recommendations for social media campaigns to correct global health misinformation, including encouraging users to refute false or misleading health information, and providing them appropriate sources to accompany their refutation, are discussed.
... Beyond DTCA, other researchers have likewise found the perceived quality, characteristics, and tactics of message content are more influential on overall credibility than source reputation (Austin and Dong 1994;Campbell and Kirmani 2008;Slater and 24 J. Ball et al. Rouner 1996). ...
... In addition, inference cues are selected based on relative salience and relevance to the judgment task (Gilbert, Jones, and Pelham 1987). Consumers are especially likely to rely on message content as the most concrete and available basis for ad evaluations when the nature of a message source is ambiguous or relatively unknown (Austin and Dong 1994). To the extent that consumers are unfamiliar with pharmaceutical companies, unclear about their role in constructing prescription drug ads, or lack a strong association between pharmaceutical companies and DTCA, the ad messages would be the most familiar and salient cue for inferring trustworthiness. ...
Article
Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) is believed to empower consumers, but national surveys indicate declining trust in DTCA. Given the unique characteristics of this category, it is unclear what the likely consequences are of reduced trust in these ads. Furthermore, previous research is inadequate to discern the basis of trust in DTCA. To address this issue, a model of the antecedent and consequent factors connected to trust in DTCA was developed based on prior empirical findings and relevant theory. This paper presents survey findings testing the model. Results show trust is predicted by perceptions of mediated health information sources, advertising in general, pharmaceutical companies, and the perceived value and informativeness of prescription drug ads. Regarding outcomes, results were mixed for the relationship of trust with attention, attitudes, and behavioural intent. Overall, findings suggest trust plays a complex role in shaping consumer reactions to prescription drug ads. Online access: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/R5Z8NtkwyUjeeev9JKx2/full
... Finally, news coverage on Al Jazeera TV (M = 4.36) and Al Arabiya TV (M = 4.13) are both highly rated because of their well-trained reporters. These findings are consistent with prior research that found perceptions of news credibility could be affected by the content of news reports (Austin and Dong, 1994) and even by the news anchors delivering the report (Markham, 1968). Alterman (1998) notes that most of Al Jazeera's senior staff live(d) or were educated in the West. ...
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... Health behavior responses to COVID-19 is a matter of death-and-live, and hence, peoples are likely to evaluate credibility of information, and situational motivation could influence them to adopt favorable as well as hygienic behavior to COVID-19. However, this empirical result partly validates the theoretical statement of Austin and Dong (1994) who noted that credibility evaluation can shape the way public respond to messages. ...
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The spread of misinformation on social networking conduit regarding COVID-19 pandemic poses deleterious consequences on public health. The author advance the body of knowledge on tackling misinformation to generate positive health behavior responses by proposing a conceptual framework based on the theory of persuasion and behavior change. Furthermore, as a belief antecedent, conspiracy theory is also used in this study. The author, using structural equation modeling technique, explored the three hundred seventy-three participants’ belief in conspiracy theory and religious misinformation and their influence on intention and behavior. Those direct relationships were tested by the joint moderating role of situational motivation and credibility evaluations. The study revealed that the situational motivation and credibility evaluation jointly and individually (in some cases) weaken the strong positive relationship between misinformation (conspiracy theory and religious misinformation) and health belief, health belief and intention, and intention and health behavior regarding COVID-19. The findings of this study offer guideline for policymakers to generate favorable health behavior regarding COVID-19 and any other epidemic or pandemic. Directions for researchers to any further extensions are also placed.
... Research that looks at correction of misperceptions more broadly, rather than specifically in the social media context, often relies on expert correction (e.g., Garrett et al., 2013;Lewandowsky et al., 2012;Nyhan & Reifler, 2010). Such an approach has its roots in credibility research, which suggests that expertise is an important component of credibility-and that such credibility tends to heighten the persuasive impact of the communication (Austin & Dong, 1994;Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994;Eastin, 2001;Hovland & Weiss, 1951). Moreover, credibility cues are particularly relevant when people are not motivated to process information, and this heuristic route tends to dominate online (Chaiken, 1980;Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994;Metzger, 2007;Metzger et al., 2010). ...
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This study tests whether the number (1 vs. 2) and the source (another user vs. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) of corrective responses affect successful reduction of misperceptions. Using an experimental design, our results suggest that while a single correction from another user did not reduce misperceptions, the CDC on its own could correct misinformation. Corrections were more effective among those higher in initial misperceptions. Notably, organizational credibility was not reduced when correcting misinformation, making this a low-cost behavior for public health organizations. We recommend that expert organizations like the CDC immediately and personally rebut misinformation about health issues on social media.
... Johnson & Kayes study demonstrated that credibility is connected to objectivity, fairness and balance (Johnson & Kaye, 2004). More recently, researchers found media message features and characteristics were considered important factors influencing readers perceptions of credibility (Austin & Dong, 1994;Wathen & Burkell, 2002). Besides source and medium credibility, channel credibility is another important dimension of credibility. ...
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The “civility crisis” has been a big concern in the U.S. and abroad at least since the 1990s. Evidence suggested that uncivil attacks in political discourse have a negative impact on political trust. Administering an online survey with an experiment embedded in it, the study seeks to find out whether source and uncivil commentary in a news story have an effect on the level of credibility of a news story. A 3 (Source: newspaper, blog, student's class writing) × 2 (Incivility: civil and uncivil) mixed subjects design online survey was administered via Qualtrics on a sample of students (N = 438) in a large Midwestern State University. The data suggested incivility was a significant predictor of news credibility, including message credibility and news organization credibility. A negative association was found between perceived incivility and news credibility.
... The study applied a credibility measurement scale used by previous studies (Ganahl, 1994;Meyer, 1988;Ohanian, 1991;Wanta & Hu, 1994) to explore the attitudes towards credibility and objectivity of news TV services held by Arab audiences in Arab Gulf states. A number of studies have examined source credibility and audiences (Austin & Dong, 1994;Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1994;Hovland et al., 1953;Johnson & Kaye, 1998;Slater & Rouner, 1996;Sundar, 1998). Hovland et al. (1953), for example, identified objectivity and trustworthiness as components of credibility. ...
... A number of studies have examined the impact of source credibility on communication effectiveness (Abel and Wirth 1977;Armstrong and McAdams 2009;Austin and Dong 1995;Johnson and Kaye 1998;Westley and Severin 1964). Prior studies have found that an audience perceives news differently depending on the type of media in which it is found, such as a newspaper or on the Internet. ...
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This article explores the factors affecting college students’ willingness to participate in a Facebook page promoting a specific social cause: binge drinking prevention. The study examined the effects of the interactions between medium credibility (trustworthiness toward Facebook) and perceived advertisers’ motives (sponsored by a beer company versus nonprofit organization) on willingness to participate in the Facebook page through an experimental design. Also, motivational factors influencing medium credibility were examined. When students trusted Facebook, they were more likely to participate in the binge drinking prevention Facebook page. Students less engaged with the social cause varied significantly in their willingness to participate the Facebook page, depending on their perception of advertisers’ motives in supporting social causes but not depending on the perceived trustworthiness toward the Facebook page. However, highly engaged students notably altered their behavioral intention based on the perceived trustworthiness of the Facebook page but not depending on the perceived advertisers’ motives. Further implications and future studies are discussed.
... This is particularly relevant if an individual has no knowledge of a particular source. Such cues could be the credentials of a source (e.g., Austin and Dong 1994) or other well-known credibility cues (e.g., visual cues; Lowry, Wilson, and Haig 2014). Third, credibility judgments depend on the message that is attributed to the source itself. ...
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This study examines how news consumers evaluate the use of digital sources in the journalistic news production process. It also assesses to what extent credibility judgments depend on whether consumers learn that journalists have visibly verified the information they have obtained from a certain source. Using a scenario study, we found that scenarios picturing online sourcing techniques, such as using information from Twitter and Facebook, are perceived as non-credible. This negative judgment is not mitigated by visible verification.
... Trustworthiness might come without expertise, and perceived expertise can occur without trustworthiness. Other researchers treat credibility as a multidimensional concept, consisting of these following dimensions; accuracy, believability, bias, completeness, and trustworthiness (Austin and Dong, 1994;Flanagin and Metzger, 2000;2007;Gaziano, 1988;Metzger, Flanagin, and Zwarun, 2003;Rimmer and Weaver, 1987;West, 1994). In this study, credibility is defined as the extent to which a traveler perceives a message from online word-of-mouth or recommendation as believable, true, trustworthy, and factual (Cheung et al. 2009;Flanagin & Metzger 2000;McKnight & Kacmar 2007). ...
... Garis panduan yang boleh dibuat adalah merupakan sesuatu yang akan menyaran agar seseorang blogger menjadi seorang pemblog yang profesional, berwibawa, mempunyai integriti, boleh dipercayai dan tidak menimbulkan sebarang masalah kepada masyarakat mahupun negara. Austin dan Dong (1994) mengesahkan bahawa seseorang individu akan meletakkan kepercayaan bahawa sumber yang bereputasi boleh menghasilkan suatu cerita yang dipercayai. Sistem perkongsian yang mudah dan cepat di samping ruangan luas yang dibekalkan juga telah menyebabkan blog menjadi pilihan ramai masa kini. ...
... Attribution theory predicts that information salience is influenced by evaluation of credibility of the source (Kelley & Michela, 1980). Expert sources are generally perceived as more credible and people often ignore news sources that they do not perceive as credible (Austin & Dong, 1994). The evolution of the Internet as a publishing platform has enabled virtually anyone with online access to setup online presence and become a potential source of information. ...
Article
This study examines four factors affecting perceptions of privacy breach among smartphone application users. The four factors drawn from psychological contract theory are: the type of information perceived to be misappropriated by the application, the presence of a legal agreement giving application developers rights to use the information, the source of information suggesting that a privacy breach may have occurred and the application type (free or paid). An experimental examination of these factors indicates that perceptions of misappropriation of financial information are more distressing than perceived misappropriation of geo-location data. In addition, the existence of legal contracts giving application developers rights to information only partially attenuates perceptions of privacy breach among application users. This study offers a novel theoretical perspective toward understanding perceptions of privacy breaches and it shows that privacy breach perceptions vary according to the characteristics of the breach. At the methodological level, this study offers a new focal construct to measure perceived privacy breach. At a practical level, the empirical results highlight the limitations of legal contracts in preventing perceptions of privacy breach.
... En Ciencias de la Comunicación, la credibilidad puede entenderse como el resultado de un proceso en el que el encuestado examina y evalúa subjetivamente a un medio (Gunther, 1992;Austin & Dong, 1994;Slater & Rouner, 1996;Meyen & Schwer, 2007). Se trata, por tanto, de una categoría cognitiva y emocional para la evaluación de la información (Meyen & Schwer, 2007: 287). ...
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La credibilidad es un tema central en el debate sobre los medios. Sus implicaciones sobre la calidad de los medios y su posible asociación con los comportamientos de las personas en el consumo de noticias justifican su estudio. Este artículo examina la opinión de los españoles sobre cuál es medio con mayor credibilidad. Se explora su asociación con el género, edad, nivel de estudios, medio preferido para informarse, nivel de exposición a las noticias, nivel de diversidad de la dieta mediática-informativa y patrón de consumo habitual de noticias de los encuestados. Se analizan datos de una encuesta suministrada en 2010 a una muestra representativa (n= 1.205) de la población española. Los resultados esclarecen que, para la mayoría de los españoles, la televisión es el medio más creíble. Sin embargo, los resultados varían según las características individuales de las personas estudiadas. La opinión sobre cuál es el medio más creíble está asociada principalmente al nivel de estudios. Las personas con mayor formación creen que el medio con mayor credibilidad es la prensa. La asociación con el patrón de consumo habitual de noticias y el medio preferido para informarse sugieren que los encuestados atribuyen más credibilidad a los medios que consumen habitualmente, por tanto, la credibilidad relativa refleja en mayor medida el grado de afectividad por un medio que un juicio comparativo sobre la veracidad de los contenidos.
... Source credentials have long been considered an important cue for the audience to judge information quality in traditional settings (Austin & Dong, 1994;Rieh & Belkin, 1998;Wathen & Burkell, 2002). In a survey of Twitter users, whether a user had an official Twitter account verification seal was ranked as one of the most important credibility feature (Morris, Counts, Roseway, Hoff, & Schwarz, 2012). ...
Article
The spread of non-credible health and safety information on microblog sites may lead to serious consequences when people use such sites as the basis for critical decisions. This study investigated the factors influencing Chinese microblog users’ perception of the credibility of health and safety information. Credibility cues related to the source (source credentials), the message (claim extremity and claim type), and the distribution in personal networks (type of comments, source of comments, and the number of reposts of a message) were examined. Three experiments were conducted on a mocked up Weibo system with 80 participants. The results show that objective claims with low extremity increased perceived information credibility when the participants were highly involved with the issue and had enough prior knowledge. When the participants had insufficient prior knowledge, the source credentials positively influenced the information’s credibility. Negative comments from personal networks decreased perceived credibility significantly, and this effect was slightly more pronounced when the comments came from close friends. For credible information, a large number of reposts added to the credibility, whereas for less credible information, a large number of reposts may induce greater skepticism and decrease perceived credibility.
... Kiousis (2001) noted that one could separate credibility into medium, source and message paradigms, each of which affect attitude change as it relates to credibility. Austin and Dong (1994) studied the sender along with the message to determine if either would have an effect on the overall credibility of the information. ...
... Studies of mainstream media have consistently unveiled the relationship between media reliance and perceptions of its credibility. It has been found that, the more people rely on the mass media for news and information, the more they will judge that information as credible (Austin & Dong, 1994; Wanta & Hu, 1994). For example, Kiousis's (2001) study demonstrated that Internet use and online news credibility were positively associated, although the correlation was marginal. ...
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This study aims at evaluating media credibility in contemporary China and exploring what factors influence people's perceptions of media credibility. A survey was conducted in Beijing (N = 376) and showed that the professional media outlets have evolved into a strong competitor of the traditional party-organ news media and were viewed as more credible than the party mouthpiece. However, in terms of online journalism, the news websites operated by the official news organizations were considered more credible than the news websites operated by the commercial companies. This study also found that political variables such as people's political concern and political knowledge play a significant role in predicting media credibility. [China Media Research. 2014; 10(3): 64-73]
... Factors commonly found to influence where individuals turn for information include credibility, trust, and familiarity with the channel. [16][17][18] Recognizing the communication challenges that develop during an emerging disease event, and the diversity of message channels used, it is important to understand how diverse populations, especially those most at risk, access information during an emerging disease outbreak, so public health officials can communicate most effectively with those most vulnerable to the emerging threat. ...
Article
Emerging disease threats like Zika pose a risk to naïve populations. In comparison to chronic diseases, there is scientific uncertainty surrounding emerging diseases because of the lack of medical and public health information available as the threat emerges. Further complicating this are the multiple, diverse channels through which people get information. This article used bivariate and multivariate analysis to first describe the breadth of information sources individuals accessed about the Zika virus, and then describe individuals' primary sources of information for Zika using a nationally representative pooled cross-sectional data set collected at 3 time points in 2016 (N = 3,698). The analysis also highlights how 3 subgroups-high-education, high-income adults; Hispanic women of childbearing age; and retirees over the age of 65 with less than a high school education-varied in their use of information. Results suggest individuals accessed multiple sources, but TV and radio were the primary sources of Zika information for the public, followed by print news. Demographic variation in primary source of information means public health officials should consider alternative channels to reach target groups in an emerging event. Without an understanding of how information has reached people, and who individuals engaged with regarding that information, public health practitioners are missing a key piece of the puzzle to improving public health campaigns during a future event like Zika. This analysis aims to inform the public health community about the message channels the US population uses during an emerging disease event and the most prevalent channels for different demographic groups, who can be targeted with particular messaging.
... Apart from social and political backgrounds, some studies recognized the importance to consider the roles of scepticism and cynicism of an audience in perceiving news (Lee, 2005;Lee, 2010), while others ask why audiences keep watching news they distrust (Tsfati & Cappella, 2005). On the other hand, at the medium side, trusted information might be related to the medium type and the storytelling structure (Fico, Richardson & Edwards, 2004), topical salience in news (Watts et al., 1999), source and apparent quality (Austin & Dong, 1994;Burgess, et al., 2011), and user-generated content in the form of comments (Houston, Hansen, & Nisbett, 2011). Because of the inclination of existing research using a single-category of predictor, this research intends to reveal that several factors might predict the tendency of voters in (dis)-believing disinformation. ...
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Some studies, with regards to the salience of digital disinformation, have focused on investigating the tendency to believe disinformation by looking at a single cluster of factors. This study reveals factors ranging from multiple clusters, such as socioeconomic status, political partisanship, diversity of media exposure, trust in the media, and the digital fluency of the voters. The Gubernatorial Election of DKI Jakarta during 2016-2017 provided a context for examining the correlation between these factors and the (dis)-belief of digital political disinformation among the voters. In the election, the incumbent governor, Basuki Tjahja Purnama, was falsely accused of being a communist, which is still a dirty word in Indonesia, by his opponent. A survey was conducted for this research, collecting completed questionnaires from 191 citizens of DKI Jakarta who had voting rights and could access the online and digital disinformation. The null hypothesis was that socioeconomic status, political partisanship, diversity of media exposure, trust in the media and digital fluency did not influence the citizens’ perceptions towards digital political information. However, the regression analysis found that the null hypothesis should be rejected. Of those predictors, political partisanship had the highest significant correlation with those perceptions.
... This, in theory, could be effective because people (at least in the USA) are actually fairly good at distinguishing between low-and high-quality publishers [92]. However, experimental evidence on emphasizing news publishers is not very encouraging: Numerous studies find that making source information more salient (or removing it entirely) has little impact on whether people judge headlines to be accurate or inaccurate [37,[93][94][95][96][97] (although see [98,99]). ...
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We synthesize a burgeoning literature investigating why people believe and share false or highly misleading news online. Contrary to a common narrative whereby politics drives susceptibility to fake news, people are ‘better’ at discerning truth from falsehood (despite greater overall belief) when evaluating politically concordant news. Instead, poor truth discernment is associated with lack of careful reasoning and relevant knowledge, and the use of heuristics such as familiarity. Furthermore, there is a substantial disconnect between what people believe and what they share on social media. This dissociation is largely driven by inattention, more so than by purposeful sharing of misinformation. Thus, interventions can successfully nudge social media users to focus more on accuracy. Crowdsourced veracity ratings can also be leveraged to improve social media ranking algorithms.
... Source credibility, the most frequently studied form of credibility, is the one that most users seem to focus on when developing credibility judgments (Austin and Dong 1994;Xie et al. 2011;Luo et al. 2013;Sparks et al. 2013). In a research context, source credibility is a multi-dimensional, and complex construct. ...
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Online health communities (OHCs) are a common and highly frequented health resource. To create safer resources online, we must know how users think of credibility in these spaces. To understand how new visitors may use cues present within the OHC to establish source credibility, we conducted an online experiment (n = 373) manipulating cues for perceptions of two primary dimensions of credibility—trustworthiness and expertise—by manipulating the presence of endorsement cues (i.e., likes) and of moderators’ health credentials (i.e., medical professional) using a fake OHC. Participants were predominantly male (60.4%) and Caucasian (74.1%). Our findings showed that moderators with health credentials had an effect on both dimensions of source credibility in OHCs, however, likes did not. We also observed a correlation between the perceived social support within the community and both dimensions of source credibility, underscoring the value of supportive online health communities. Our findings can help developers ascertain areas of focus within their communities and users with how perceptions of credibility could help or hinder their own assessments of OHC credibility.
... For example, additional research is required to understand what particular gaps citizen journalism content fills. Representativeness is "the extent to which an individual perceives there exist other important aspects than the media have portrayed about an individual or issue" (Austin & Dong, 1994). A common theme that reoccurs in the literature is that citizen journalism fills a perceived gap in news coverage left by shrinking news resources or biases (Metzgar, Kurpuis, & Rowley, 2011). ...
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The emergence of citizen journalism has prompted the journalism field and scholars to readdress what constitutes journalism and who is a journalist. Citizen journalists have disrupted news-media ecosystems by challenging the veracity and representativeness of information flowing from mainstream news-media newsrooms. However, the controversy related to the desired level of citizen involvement in the news process is a historical debate that began before the citizen-journalism phenomenon. As early as the 1920s, journalist and political commentator Walter Lippman and American philosopher John Dewey debated the role of journalism in democracy, including the extent that the public should participate in the news-gathering and production processes. This questioning of citizen involvement in news reemerged as an issue with the citizen journalism phenomenon around the late 1990s. People with no news-media organizational ties have taken advantage of the convenience and low cost of social computing technologies by publishing their own stories and content. These people are referred to as citizen journalists. Scholars have assessed the quality and credibility of citizen-journalism content, finding that citizen journalists have performed well on several standards of traditional news-content quality. Levels of quality differ dependent upon citizen journalists’ goals and motivations, such as serving the public interest, increasing self-status, or expressing their creative selves. As it is an emerging area of study, unarticulated theoretical boundaries of citizen journalism exist. Citizen-journalism publications emphasize community over conflict, advocacy over objectivity, and interpretation over fact-based reporting. In general, citizen journalists have historically acted when existing news-media journalists were not fully meeting their community’s informational needs. Scholars, however, vary in how they label citizen journalists and how they conceptually and empirically define citizen journalism. For example, researchers have shifted their definitional focus on citizen journalists from one of active agents of democratic change to people who create a piece of news content. The mapping of the citizen-journalism literature revealed four types of citizen journalists based on their levels of editorial control and contribution type: (1) participatory, (2) para, (3) news-media watchdog, and (4) community. Taken together, these concepts describe the breadth of citizen-journalist types. For those of us interested in journalism studies, a more targeted approach in the field of citizen journalism can help us build community around scholarship, understand citizen journalists’ contributions to society and practice, and create a more a stable foundation of knowledge concerning people who create and comment on news content.
... Expertise is an important component of building credibility in communication (Austin & Dong, 1994;Eastin, 2006;Garrett et al., 2013;Lewandowsky et al., 2012;Nyhan et al., 2014). Scholars point out that an expert's knowledge is usually deeper and also structured differently than a layperson's (Bromme & Jucks, 2001;Keil, 2010;Thon & Jucks, 2017). ...
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This study shows how research on misinformation correction on social media must be contextualized by an understanding of race, class, and local culture. Using an inductive analysis of focus group data, we find that correction of misinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic on the US/Mexico border is multilayered between the family and community institutions. It is also structured by information poverty, local Latinx border practices, and cultural constructs such as chisme and a culture of skepticism. Trust in expert correction is mediated by medical paternalism and distrust of city leadership. Local leaders in the Latinx border community are wary of communicating with the general public and hesitant to correct misinformation in online mediums. Nevertheless, correction of misinformation does occur in the intimate networks of family and friends in online group chats, discussions around the television, and interpersonal communication.
... As references for assessing credibility, heuristics might mitigate biased assimilation for two reasons; first, when heuristic cues suggest the information as credible, people are more likely to pay attention to it and accept it. As Austin and Dong (1994) suggested, the more people perceived a message as credible, the more likely they were to accept it and be affected by the message. When the source of the information was perceived as credible, recipients would also have a more favorable attitude about the message content (Wu et al., 2016). ...
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Focusing on debunking misinformation about genetically modified (GM) food safety in a social media context, this study examines whether source cues and social endorsement cues interact with individuals’ preexisting beliefs about GM food safety in influencing misinformation correction effectiveness. Using an experimental design, this study finds that providing corrective messages can effectively counteract the influence of misinformation, especially when the message is from an expert source and receives high social endorsements. Participants evaluate misinformation and corrective messages in a biased way that confirms their preexisting beliefs about GM food safety. However, their initial misperceptions can be reduced when receiving corrective messages.
... In cases where a simple Bayesian model that assumes a user takes data at "face value" seems clearly inappropriate, such as when a data source is well known to not be trustworthy, Bayesian modeling can help visualization researchers arrive at a more precise understanding of influences external to the data. Factors that shape data reception, like the influence of one's a priori trust in the data source, the interaction between the specific parameter estimate and one's beliefs about the source [7,15], the tendency to reject one's beliefs entirely upon realizing one was misinformed, or the tendency for people to diverge from a Bayesian's tendency to form posterior beliefs with less variance than their prior or the likelihood even cases where the prior and likelihood would seem disparate are all fair game for including in more sophisticated Bayesian models in the form of "hyperpriors" (distributions over parameters of the priors). We believe such "pseudo-Bayesian" models could provide the basis for understanding a large class of cognitive biases that affect judgments from visualizations. ...
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A Bayesian view of data interpretation suggests that a visualization user should update their existing beliefs about a parameter's value in accordance with the amount of information about the parameter value captured by the new observations. Extending recent work applying Bayesian models to understand and evaluate belief updating from visualizations, we show how the predictions of Bayesian inference can be used to guide more rational belief updating. We design a Bayesian inference-assisted uncertainty analogy that numerically relates uncertainty in observed data to the user's subjective uncertainty, and a posterior visualization that prescribes how a user should update their beliefs given their prior beliefs and the observed data. In a pre-registered experiment on 4,800 people, we find that when a newly observed data sample is relatively small (N=158), both techniques reliably improve people's Bayesian updating on average compared to the current best practice of visualizing uncertainty in the observed data. For large data samples (N=5208), where people's updated beliefs tend to deviate more strongly from the prescriptions of a Bayesian model, we find evidence that the effectiveness of the two forms of Bayesian assistance may depend on people's proclivity toward trusting the source of the data. We discuss how our results provide insight into individual processes of belief updating and subjective uncertainty, and how understanding these aspects of interpretation paves the way for more sophisticated interactive visualizations for analysis and communication.
... The traditional journalistic routines and practices are a clear disadvantage for ordinary citizens to get a voice in the news (Lewis, Wahl-Jorgensen, and Inthorn 2004;Reich 2015). Driven by the need for credibility, which elite news sources have more than ordinary citizen sources (Miller and Kurpius 2010) and the consideration that elites' opinions have a much greater societal impact, journalists rather turn to official sources, representatives and experts (Austin and Dong 1994;Bennett, Lawrence, and Livingston 2007;Cottle 2000;Gans 1979). However, several reasons have been coined why ordinary people would be used in television news nonetheless (Hopmann and Shehata 2011;Vliegenthart and Boukes 2018). ...
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Typically, ordinary people are not the main target sources on television newsmakers’ radars. Power and higher expertise make other types of sources safer and more attractive to them, although journalists may have commercial and/or idealistic reasons to use ordinary people in the news nonetheless. This study tries to map the use of ordinary citizens in the news across Europe, looking for similarities and differences and tries to link the findings to some of the reasons that may lead to (more) inclusion of ordinary citizens in the news. Three different types of ordinary citizens are distinguished and compared between countries, taking into account various types of news topics and the type of broadcaster (public or private). To answer these questions, we use a large dataset containing 28,756 (speaking) actors appearing in news items from 1096 news broadcasts from 41 television news broadcasters in 20 (mostly European) countries, taken from a 28-day constructed sample (2016), identical for all 41 broadcasters. Findings reveal rather large differences, mainly between countries, while also broadcaster types and topics influence the presence of ordinary citizens in the news. Generally, national contexts seem to matter (even) more than the commercial nature of broadcasters.
... Self-reported trust in message source has been examined in other fields to understand the influence of message credibility, message believability, or attention spent on online messages (Wiener and Mowen, 1986;Austin and Dong, 1994); however, these have never been examined concurrently to evaluate how individuals appraise health misinformation. Individuals' evaluation of trust in message source may impact perceptions of credibility in the health message, resulting in acceptance of (mis)information. ...
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Growing evidence points to the significant amount of health misinformation on social media platforms, requiring users to assess the believability of messages and trustworthiness of message sources. This mixed methods experimental study fills this gap in research by examining social media users' (n = 53) trust assessment of simulated cancer-related messages using eye-tracking, surveys, and cognitive interviews. Posts varied by information veracity (evidence-based vs. non-evidence-based) and source type (government agency, health organization, lay individual); topics included HPV vaccination and sun safety. Among sources, participants reported trusting the government more than individuals, regardless of veracity. When viewing non-evidence-based messages, participants reported higher trust in health organizations than individuals. Participants with high trust in message source tended to report high message believability. Furthermore, attention (measured by total fixation duration) spent on viewing the source of the post was not associated with the amount of trust in the source of message, which suggests that participants may have utilized other cognitive heuristics when processing the posts. Through post-experiment interviews, participants described higher trust in government due to reputation and familiarity. Further verification of the quality of information is needed to combat the spread of misinformation on Facebook. Future research should consider messaging strategies that include sources that are already trusted and begin to build trust among other credible sources.
... Many studies have found that source credibility can affect judgments of accuracy or believability (Baum & Groeling, 2009;Landrum et al., 2017;Berinsky, 2017;Swire et al., 2017;Knight Foundation, 2018;Kim et al., 2019). Yet, others (Austin & Dong, 1994, Pennycook & Rand, 2019b, Jakesch et al., 2018 have failed to demonstrate that assessments of news stories are changed by source information. ...
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Survey experiments with nearly 7,000 Americans suggest that increasing the visibility of publishers is an ineffective, and perhaps even counterproductive, way to address misinformation on social media. Our findings underscore the importance of social media platforms and civil society organizations evaluating interventions experimentally rather than implementing them based on intuitive appeal.
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A Bayesian view of data interpretation suggests that a visualization user should update their existing beliefs about a parameter's value in accordance with the amount of information about the parameter value captured by the new observations. Extending recent work applying Bayesian models to understand and evaluate belief updating from visualizations, we show how the predictions of Bayesian inference can be used to guide more rational belief updating. We design a Bayesian inference-assisted uncertainty analogy that numerically relates uncertainty in observed data to the user's subjective uncertainty, and a posterior visualization that prescribes how a user should update their beliefs given their prior beliefs and the observed data. In a pre-registered experiment on 4,800 people, we find that when a newly observed data sample is relatively small (N=158), both techniques reliably improve people's Bayesian updating on average compared to the current best practice of visualizing uncertainty in the observed data. For large data samples (N=5208), where people's updated beliefs tend to deviate more strongly from the prescriptions of a Bayesian model, we find evidence that the effectiveness of the two forms of Bayesian assistance may depend on people's proclivity toward trusting the source of the data. We discuss how our results provide insight into individual processes of belief updating and subjective uncertainty, and how understanding these aspects of interpretation paves the way for more sophisticated interactive visualizations for analysis and communication.
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Restaurant inspection reports are an important source of information for the public to evaluate food safety practices at restaurants. This study examined the effect of information source and reporting format on consumer responses to restaurant inspection reports. The study employed a three (information source: local health department, newspaper, or consumer blog) x three (reporting format: numeric, letter grade, or narrative) full-factorial experimental design. Results showed that perceived source credibility was significantly different among the information sources but consumer responses to the inspection results from the three sources were similar. In addition, the reporting format had a significant effect on both message strength and consumer responses. Restaurant inspection results reported in a narrative format elicited the strongest perceived message strength and consumer responses.
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Recent advances in technology for hyper-realistic visual effects provoke the concern that deepfake videos of political speeches will soon be visually indistinguishable from authentic video recordings. Yet there exists little empirical research on how audio-visual information influences people's susceptibility to fall for political misinformation. The conventional wisdom in the field of communication research predicts that people will fall for fake news more often when the same version of a story is presented as a video as opposed to text. However, audio-visual manipulations often leave distortions that some but not all people may pick up on. Here, we evaluate how communication modalities influence people's ability to discern real political speeches from fabrications based on a randomized experiment with 5,727 participants who provide 61,792 truth discernment judgments. We show participants soundbites from political speeches that are randomly assigned to appear using permutations of text, audio, and video modalities. We find that communication modalities mediate discernment accuracy: participants are more accurate on video with audio than silent video, and more accurate on silent video than text transcripts. Likewise, we find participants rely more on how something is said (the audio-visual cues) rather than what is said (the speech content itself). However, political speeches that do not match public perceptions of politicians' beliefs reduce participants' reliance on visual cues. In particular, we find that reflective reasoning moderates the degree to which participants consider visual information: low performance on the Cognitive Reflection Test is associated with an underreliance on visual cues and an overreliance on what is said.
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In recent years, some media organizations have begun to use a new type of animation in news reports that is melodramatic and emotion-laden. These have successfully drawn considerable numbers of viewers to their online news reports. The use of such techniques is controversial and has sparked debate over its appropriateness. An experiment with 153 college students as participants was conducted to compare the perceived credibility of news reports with and without melodramatic animation. The results show that the animation format neither enhances nor dampens news credibility. However, they also show that sound effects reduce the credibility of news reports using melodramatic animation. The perceived credibility was also related to the credibility of the news organization and the medium dependency of the viewer. Implications for animated news media, future research directions, and ethical issues of using such technique are discussed.
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This study employs an online survey of politically interested Internet users to examine the degree to which Internet experience predicts reliance on the World Wide Web (Web) and Web credibility. Respondents in this study represent an experienced group of Internet users. The average user had been online 6.2 years. However, they regularly engaged in only 9.4 of 22 possible online activities, suggesting they regularly visit a core group of sites. Although years online and number of online activities emerged as distinct measures of Internet experience, neither strongly predicted Web reliance or Web credibility. Neither Internet experience variable predicted any of the six measures of Internet credibility. Number of activities did not influence Web reliance and years online was negatively related, indicating that those who had been online for a shorter time were more likely to rely on the Web than veteran users.
Chapter
This chapter offers an empirical test of the Professor Pundit approach to political coverage. We used two survey embedded experiments on national population samples to test reaction to academics featured in television news coverage of political events. Our expectation is that audiences will have a generally positive impression of these academics when they cite findings from scholarly research (and without making partisan references). In relating these findings, academics put their expertise forward in the service of audience understanding of politics—thereby fulfilling our view of how academics can rehabilitate punditry’s use and reputation. Across analysis from both experiments, the news stories featuring academics referencing research findings received substantially more positive response from audiences than academics offering what might be best termed “conventional punditry.”
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This research explores indicators and methods for an enterprise to measure and evaluate user satisfaction with enterprise social media for knowledge management. This paper presents qualitative indicators, including three service levels of enterprise social media for knowledge management (KM) from a techno-social perspective. This research puts forward a synthetic evaluation model mixed with linguistic variables, consistent fuzzy preference relations (CFPR) and cloud model for measuring and evaluating user satisfaction. The synthetic evaluation model can transform linguistic variables into quantitative data to obtain user satisfaction levels and determine the distance between the expected satisfaction level and actual performance. This research can help an enterprise to improve the service ability of its social media to meet users’ requirements for knowledge management.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted educational institutions around the world. Public health authorities have been at the forefront of the crisis launching public health campaigns to convey health messages and educate the public about the virus. This study used simple random sampling (N = 1,773) to examine information-seeking behaviors and the credibility of COVID-19 information among college students. The study further examined the association between the Health Belief Model (HBM), perceived threat, and the credibility of COVID-19 information. Results revealed the most and least likely communication channels students used to access COVID-19 information and the credibility of each channel. Students first went to public health authorities’ communication channels and sources for information. Traditional media channels ranked low in usage. Public health authorities ranked high in credibility, and the credibility of sources predicted a slight increase in the HBM and the perceived threat mean scores. Findings should help college administrators better communicate critical health information to students during a health crisis.
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Media outlets strategically frame news about violent events using sensationalist labels such as "terrorist" or "Islamist" but also more subtle wording choices that affect the overall article tone. We argue theoretically and show empirically using a conjoint experiment that, contrary to existing studies, the effect of these two framing devices on readers' perceptions of terrorist events should be carefully separated. Even though article tone transports no factual information, in our experiment negative and sensational wording choices carried a greater impact on threat perceptions than the explicit "terrorist" and "Islamist" labels. In a realistic news article setting, which varied other salient context cues such as proximity or event size, subtle shifts in article tone still subconsciously influenced threat perceptions. This highlights the potential dangers of media coverage fueling otherwise unjustified fears by injecting unnecessary editorial tone.
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Grounded on persuasive communications theory, the impact of source credibility and message variation on response behaviour towards a mail survey on a sample of the general public are examined. An experimental design comprising three levels (high, medium and low) of these variables is employed. Source credibility and the interaction of message variation (i.e. usefulness of the study) and source credibility have a significant impact on response rate. Overemphasising the usefulness of a study is found to be counterproductive. For sources that are arguably average or lower in credibility, a strongly worded message (in terms of usefulness) was less effective than more modest objectives.
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The practice of aggregating news content—repurposing content created by other news organizations—raises questions about credibility. This experimental study suggests that news organizations can boost credibility of aggregated content by more clearly identifying originating sources than by increasing or decreasing the use of aggregation. Relationships between levels of aggregation and credibility showed little or no significance, while relationships between credibility and receivers’ confidence in identifying originating sources were significant.
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After viewing identical samples of major network television coverage of the Beirut massacre, both pro-Israeli and pro-Arab partisans rated these programs, and those responsible for them, as being biased against their side. This hostile media phenomenon appears to involve the operation of two separate mechanisms. First, partisans evaluated the fairness of the media's sample of facts and arguments differently: in light of their own divergent views about the objective merits of each side's case and their corresponding views about the nature of unbiased coverage. Second, partisans reported different perceptions and recollections about the program content itself; that is, each group reported more negative references to their side than positive ones, and each predicted that the coverage would sway nonpartisans in a hostile direction. Within both partisan groups, furthermore, greater knowledge of the crisis was associated with stronger perceptions of media bias. Charges of media bias, we concluded, may reflect more than self-serving attempts to secure preferential treatment. They may result from the operation of basic cognitive and perceptual mechanisms, mechanisms that should prove relevant to perceptions of fairness or objectivity in a wide range of mediation and negotiation contexts.
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Cartoon-like portrayals of common occupations were presented to 237 children in a small midwestern city. Their knowledge of these roles and abilities to rank them were assessed. The occupations were selected to represent three learning sources: personal contact, television, and the general culture. Role knowledge increased linearly with age. Males and females showed no significant differences, where each had the same opportunity to observe the roles directly or via television, but boys knew more about the less "visible" occupations. Upper- and middle-class children knew more about the roles than lower-class youngsters. In general, the ability to rank the occupations followed similar patterns. The television data suggest that the medium is an important source for "incidental" learning about the labor force. A substantial "homogenization effect" was noted regarding children's knowledge of the world of work, apparently resulting from the stereotyped ways in which TV portrays occupations.
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The relationship specified by the cultivation hypothesis was elaborated by using a concept of perceived reality that included the dimensions of Magic Window, Instruction, and Identity. As in previous studies, the cultivation effect was nonsignificant after controls for demographics were introduced. However, the cultivation effect was found in certain subgroups of subjects partitioned according to their level of perceived reality.
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A field study (627 children and 486 of their parents) tests the effects of family communication environment and parental mediation of television content on third-, sixth-, and ninth-graders' perceptions of the realism of television content and its similarity to real life and their identification with television characters. Interpersonal family communication helps children form real-world perceptions, which children intrapersonally compare with their perceptions of the television world better to assess realism. A mismatch between real-world and television-world perceptions diminishes perceptions of realism. Realism contributes to perceived similarity, which contributes to identification with television characters. Through active discussion of television content, the parent directly mediates perceptions of similarity, but not of realism.
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In a new test of the process of forgetting, the authors found that subjects, at the time of exposure, discounted material from “untrustworthy” sources. In time, however, the subjects tended to disassociate the content and the source with the result that the original scepticism faded and the “untrustworthy” material was accepted. Lies, in fact, seemed to be remembered better than truths.
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Given the general and somewhat contradictory nature of previous research examining children's perceptions of the reality in television programming, this paper attempted (1) to separate the different levels of television content, (2) to determine the extent to which personal experience with specific role and situational stereotypes influence judgments of television's presenta-tions, and (3) to examine a wide range of socioeconomic status (SES) char-acteristics within the context of the same study to facilitate direct compari-sons. The results of the study indicate that lower SES Blacks and emotion-ally disturbed children view specific role stereotypes and general situations as significantly more real than do Whites and gifted children. The implica-tions of these findings relevant to the child's maturation process were explored.
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Concludes that the public's negative attitude toward the news media is beginning to mellow. (FL)
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The seminal work that led to the "Yale Studies in Attitudes and Communication," reporting a series of experiments on communicator credibility, general persuasibility, role playing, fear arousal, order of presentation, and group norms. Much of the later work in attitude change flows directly from this early volume. Harvard Book List (edited) 1971 #487 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The research reported here extends the work of Hovland and his colleagues on source credibility by investigating the criteria actually used by receivers in evaluating message sources. Three dimensions are isolated: Safety, Qualification, and Dynamism. The authors argue that source “image” should be defined in terms of the perceptions of the receiver, not in terms of objective characteristics of the source.
Biased Press or Biased Publier Public Opinion Quarterly
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Measuring the Perceived Reality of Television: Perceived Plausibility, Perceived Superfidality and the Degree of Personal Utility
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Extremity of Attitude
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Partisan and Non-partisan Readers' Perceptions of Political Enemies and Newspapers Bias
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