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Research-Based Strategies to Ignite Student Learning: Insights from a Neurologist and Classroom Teacher

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Abstract

The author of this book combs through brain research and pulls out the information that is most valid and relevant to classroom teaching. It describes how to enhance students' memory and test-taking abilities and presents ways to captivate and hold students' attention and encourage their participation and progress. This is the first book ever written by an author who is both a neurologist and a classroom teacher. Following a preface, this book comprises four chapters: (1) Memory, Learning, and Test-Taking Success; (2) Strategies to Captivate Students' Attention; (3) How Stress and Emotion Affect Learning; and (4) Assessment That Builds Dendrites. The book concludes with a Bibliography; Afterword (The Future is Now); About the Author; Related ASCD Resources: The Brain and Learning; and An ASCD Study Guide for Research-Based Strategies to Ignite Student Learning.

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... Memory is a critical factor in learning and consists of the laying down of networks of neurons that can then be accessed (Benfenati, 2007). As more and more neuronal pathways are laid down, the result is a very complex matrix (Willis, 2006). New and old pathways influence each other through activation and association (Kahneman, 2011). ...
... If we use one part of the brain more than another, say by playing the guitar for example, then those parts of the brain responsible for left and right hand fine movements become denser with neurons. The more we use different parts of our brain, the more it develops through the release of chemicals called neutrophins (Willis, 2006). Brain plasticity research (Doidge, 2007) shows that highly focused techniques targeted at specific areas of the brain assist learning. ...
... However, given what we know about how people learn then exploration, and hypothesis building and then testing enables the individual brain rather than constraining and confusing it. It is interesting that the more satisfying, engaging and perhaps exciting the education process, the more internally reinforcing it is to the learner through the release of dopamine (Willis, 2006). Emotions play a vital role in learning, memory and decision-making (Damasio, 2003; Ingleton, 1999). ...
Article
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It has been sixteen years since Chris Kenyon and I wrote the first paper on heutagogy or self-determined learning. It is an idea built on the shoulders of giants of educational theory and practice in constructivism, humanism, capability and the idea of human agency. Since then, there has been an increasing interest in the theory and practice of heutagogy across the globe. This paper seeks to examine the evolution of the idea since 2000.
... Student engagement is described as an amalgamation of the student's motivation to learn (Brophy, 2014), learning goals (Ames, 1992) and intrinsic motivation (Harter, 1982). Effective instruction means captivating student attention and resulting in students that desire to learn (Willis, 2006). Highly engaging instruction places the student as the decision maker and creates renewed focus on instructional objectives. ...
... Control of one's learning is a key component to promoting student engagement. Fostering student identification with the skill being learned and providing learning autonomy grants students the ability to learn content deeply based on their individual interests (Bachelor, Vaughan, & Wall, 2012;Marzano, 2007;Stipek, 2002;Willis, 2006). The development of student self-efficacy can be achieved through the gradual release of learning control by the teacher to the student (Mosston & Ashworth, 1985, 1990. ...
... A highly effective teacher makes a greater impact on student achievement than the hindrances imposed by low socio-economic status (Nye, Konstantopoulos, & Hedges, 2004). Many authors have worked to define the instructional practices that promote student learning (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001;Danielson, 2007;Hattie, 2008;Krathwohl, 2002;Marzano, 2007;National Research Council, 2000;Willis, 2006). Student achievement gains are directly connected to the level of content learning objectives, teachers' content knowledge and pedagogical skill, and student engagement." ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that influence student engagement in science. Increases in student engagement positively correlate to improved student achievement. This study targeted the lack of clarity regarding the relationships between the complexity of instructional objectives, teacher self-efficacy, past achievement, student grade level, and student engagement. This correlational design method uses a quantitative approach that includes observations of student engagement levels and a student self-report survey of engagement, as indicators of student engagement levels. A multiple regression analysis of each measure of student engagement instruments determine the influence of each variable to student engagement. Influencing student engagement would be a valuable tool for educators in designing student intervention and improving student achievement.
... The classroom was a place of learning, and the teacher's focus was on covering the vast information in their curriculum, so there was little time (or desire) to deal with students' emotional development. The general mindset was that students should simply "act like adults" ( Sousa, 2010), and the 'proper' learning behavior for students was to sit quietly at their desks, do what they were told by the teacher without questioning why, and report back memorized facts on tests ( Willis, 2010). Fortunately, this view has been changing over the past several decades as psychologists and researchers have begun to discover the importance of emotion on attention and learning. ...
... Such brain-imaging studies show how stress and pleasure influence the way the brain filters sensory input. For students who are in a stressed state, the information they are learning does not get through their amygdala to the higher thinking and memory centers of the brain, and thus does not get associated with previous knowledge or experience and stored for later recall effectively ( Willis, 2006). Neuroscience findings have also shown us how the varying pace of brain development helps explain the emotional behavior (and misbehavior) of children and adolescents. ...
... New learning is greatly hindered while in 'threat mode.' 4. However, if there is an ideal amount of comfort and/or stimulation, the new information gets past the filters, memory circuits are engaged, and dopamine and other chemicals are released in ideal quantities. 5. From here, the information is passed along memory circuits and connects with previously stored memories and personal experiences to form relational memories and patterns, which results in what we know as learning and retention ( Willis, 2006). ...
Conference Paper
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Learning vocabulary is an essential element of acquiring a language. However, the sheer number of words in the English language can be overwhelming for a student. Moreover, traditional vocabulary study can be monotonous and demotivating. This paper describes a workshop, conducted at LaoTESOL 2017, that discussed various vocabulary learning strategies to help students improve the effectiveness of their study, and introduced several fun activities for practicing vocabulary that: provide variety; require little time and few materials; are adaptable to different levels; and increase student motivation.
... If we use one part of the brain more than another, say by playing the guitar for example, then those parts of the brain responsible for left-and right-hand fine movements become denser with neurons. The more we use a particular part of our brain, the more it develops through the release of chemicals called neutrophins (Willis, 2006). Brain plasticity research shows that highly focused techniques targeted at specific areas of the brain can assist learning. ...
... Emotions and hormones play a vital role in learning, memory, and decision-making (Damasio, 2003;Immordino-Yang & Damasio, 2007, Ingleton, 1999, particularly dopamine. The more satisfying, engaging, and exciting the education process, the more internally reinforcing it is to the learner through the release of dopamine (Willis, 2006). When people solve a problem themselves, they release a host of neurotransmitters such as adrenaline and dopamine in the brain, which create a sense of excitement (Stahl, 2002). ...
... A great deal of learning from birth is achieved by exploring, by being engaged in doing things and discovering how the world works. The more satisfying, engaging and exciting the education process, the more internally reinforcing it is to the learner through the release of dopamine (Willis, 2006). ...
Book
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Heutagogy or self-determined learning and learner agency.
... She argues that in a differentiated classroom students must have multiple options for taking in information, processing and making sense of ideas. Willis (2006) claims that neurology has shown why material taught using several senses can lead to more effective learning. The reason is that more memory pathways are built. ...
... This allows the recall and application of information about a topic from all these areas simultaneously. Willis (2006) argues that this cross-referencing of data strengthens the data into something we have learned rather than just memorised. ...
... Tate (2011) and Caine et al. (2009) argue that we learn when learning makes sense and it is relevant. When students can see the relevance of the new knowledge to their life, the implantation of the new information in relational memory is achieved (Willis 2006(Willis , 2007. This results in longterm memory retention and improved retrieval (Willis 2007). ...
Article
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This article aims to explore what changes two Cypriot primary school teachers brought in their teaching in order to help students with learning difficulties improve in their classes. The study was qualitative and used non-participant observation in two primary classrooms in different primary schools and semi-structured interviews with the main teachers of these classes. The findings revealed that the main changes implemented by these teachers were a differentiated programme of literacy and numeracy, and opportunities to students to process information through many senses. In addition, the teachers boosted the learning of students with learning difficulties by focusing on essentials, using process-oriented praise, peer tutoring, and regular communication with parents. The article concludes with suggestions about how Cypriot primary school teachers can boost the learning of students with difficulties and how leaders can support their efforts.
... En cuanto a la memoria, Bjork (mencionado en Sundem, 2012) asegura que si estudias y esperas un rato para repasar, es más fácil que el contenido se quede en tu memoria, por ello recomienda tomar notas inmediatamente después de la clase, en lugar que durante la clase. Asimismo, se recomiendan las repeticiones en distintos escenarios para facilitar la memorización duradera y activar un conocimiento ya almacenado que permita conectar el nuevo conocimiento (Bjork mencionado en Sundem, 2012;van Kesteren et al., 2012;Willis, 2006). Los avances en la neurociencia han proporcionado nuevas perspectivas para el desarrollo de las funciones cognitivas. ...
... Se construyó un manual con las prácticas docentes que se decían aplicar en el grupo experimental. Dichas prácticas fueron tomadas de la literatura encontrada sobre el uso de los principios de las ciencias del cerebro aplicados en la educación y, en caso de ser posible, canalizadas a través de tecnologías de información (Bjork, mencionado en Sundem, 2012;Willis, 2009Willis, /2008Willis, /2006Jensen, 2004;deWinstanley y Bjork, 2002). A continuación se menciona un breve resumen de estas actividades implementadas por el profesor durante el experimento: i) Realizar algún tipo de cambio en el patrón: cambiar los muebles, llevar un objeto diferente pero atractivo a la clase, caminar de otra manera, hacer pausas misteriosas; ii) Hacer una pregunta que demuestra un enlace de utilidad entre el curso y los planes futuros del estudiante; iii) Hacer una pregunta y explicar la relevancia de este tema, pero no dar la respuesta inmediatamente sino esperar unos minutos y luego dar la respuesta; iv) Después de un trabajo, y sin importar el resultado, dar su opinión sobre el esfuerzo del estudiante y no sobre los resultados, y recordar siempre hablarle por su nombre; v) Introducir el nuevo tema de la clase en términos de un problema conocido o una anécdota personal con el que los estudiantes pueden relacionarse; vi) Diseñar una actividad de clase que involucre desafío intelectual de por lo menos 5 minutos de duración con una recompensa previamente acordada por el grupo; vii) Si se está utilizando una presentación de PowerPoint, incluir preguntas con respuestas de opción múltiple y con imágenes que no estén directamente relacionados con el tema, de tal manera de establecer relaciones no intuitivas; viii) A mitad de la sesión, presentar un video multimedia que complemente los temas vistos en clase. ...
Article
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The main objective of this work was to determine whether there is an increase in certain cognitive processes such as attention, motivation, and academic performance, for undergraduate university students, when the class sessions are conducted in an environment that is rich in teaching practices based on neuroscience principles. The research had a mixed methodology design. The experiment was developed with two groups of the same course and with the same professor. In the experimental group, the novel practices were implemented and in the control group, a traditional academic environment was structured. As data collection tools, non-participant observation, two standardized tests and a weekly survey to measure levels of motivation were used. The results showed that the three dependent variables analyzed (attention, motivation, and academic performance), had a positive impact in the experimental group. The academic performance of the students increased as well. These findings suggest the inclusion of neuroscience matters in the educational research agenda.
... However, it would be valuable if other teacher-researchers tried and evaluated some of these approaches, particularly those from educational neuroscience, where recommendations are based on relatively recent research findings. Part 1 will focus on two approaches rooted in cognitive psychology: Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) and Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE); part 2 will focus on approaches from educational neuroscience: The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model (Hardiman, 2012) and Research-Based Strategies to Ignite Student Learning (Willis, 2006). ...
... If Sam had received adequate INSET in using CASE, I believe both his delivery and experience of the approach (and his pupils') would have been more positive and ultimately more beneficial. Part 2 will examine two different teaching approaches that incorporate educational neuroscience into their pedagogy: The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model (Hardiman, 2012), and Research-Based Strategies to Ignite Student Learning (Willis, 2006). ...
Article
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This article is the first of a two-part series that explores science teachers' and their pupils' experiences of using different pedagogical approaches based on understandings of how brains learn. For this case-study research, nine science teachers were interviewed and four teachers self-selected to trial a pedagogical approach, new to them, from cognitive psychology and educational neuroscience, using an action research framework for between one and two academic years. Both teachers' and their pupils' experiences of using the approach were explored, and data were collected via observations, interviews with teachers and focus-group interviews/ written questionnaires with pupils. As in case study research, each case was examined in depth, and consequently findings are not necessarily generalisable to other cases. However, it would be valuable if other teacher-researchers tried and evaluated some of these approaches, particularly those from educational neuroscience, where recommendations are based on relatively recent research findings. Part 1 will focus on two approaches rooted in cognitive psychology: Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) and Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE); part 2 will focus on approaches from educational neuroscience: The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model (Hardiman, 2012) and Research-Based Strategies to Ignite Student Learning (Willis, 2006).
... Neuroscience has also substantiated links between engagement strategies in the art room and the brain; for example, activities that are based on students' interests and encourage creative problem solving are often linked to increased levels of dopamine and pleasure (Anselme, 2012; Willis, 2008). Therefore, studying visual arts may lead to better knowledge retention through positive emotional responses and enhanced neural connections (Jomori et al., 2013; Willis, 2006). To prepare students for visual arts assessments and examinations, teachers require an understanding of students' skills and knowledge in theory so they may build stronger neural connections (i.e., between cultural context and visual arts practice) supporting students' participation in assessment tasks. ...
... Interviewed students discussed the mastery of skills and knowledge based on middle school years and suggested they had learnt the expectations of responding task types (e.g., critical analysis and artist investigations) by rote from practising similar tasks repeatedly across years 10 and 11. While this knowledge increased their cognitive engagement, neuroscience suggests repeating task types reduces novelty and does not stimulate the brain to release dopamine based on new affective experiences (Anselme, 2012; Willis, 2006 Willis, , 2008). Students were generally motivated by a desire to achieve academically; however, still relied on the teachers' breadth of art history knowledge and showed little autonomy in beginning tasks independently without confirmation of the teacher. ...
Conference Paper
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Visual arts theory is fundamental to facilitating visual literacy, or students' ability to decode and construct imagery. Visual literacy skills support students' participation in contemporary society. This doctoral study uses a mixed methods approach to investigate students' engagement in visual arts theory, as increased engagement may facilitate visual literacy skills. A diagnostic instrument was created to measure year 11 students' prior learning in theory, as well as their cognitive and psychological engagement. Interviews with year 11 students, visual arts teachers, and some principals or school representatives, facilitated the development of the instrument and contextualised the findings. Phase One findings suggest measuring students' engagement facilitates the diagnosis of key issues and knowledge gaps affecting students' engagement in visual arts learning.
... Motivation is another positive feeling towards classes; according to research, its levels are connected to class engagement (39) . Students with intrinsic motivation are authentically engaged to practice learning in behavioral, emotional, and agentic dimensions (40) . ...
... Stress prevents the information storage process (42) , which is a feeling that comes from very different sources (conflicts, life changes, pressure, among others) (43) . Besides, the lack of motivation decreases as the school level increases (39) ; therefore, adolescent students become less motivated than children. There are also psychosocial factors involved in student participation; fear, embarrassment, social isolation, judgment, and discrimination are barriers to participation (44) . ...
Article
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Introduction: Affectivity has a fundamental role in educational systems' training process. However, there are no updated studies that show the different socio-affective agents used in the creation of physical habits in the child and adolescent population in school systems. Objective: To review and analyze previously published research that studied the influence of affectivity on children and adolescents' physical habits in school systems. Materials and methods: A systematic review was conducted with articles published between 2010 and 2020, which connected affectivity and physical habits. The electronic search was performed through Web of Science, Scopus, and Scielo databases. All articles that studied the influence of affectivity on the population's physical habits were included. Results: Three studies that analyzed the influence of affectivity on children and adolescents' physical habits were found. Conclusions: At the end of the systematic review, it was demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between affectivity and the physical habits in child and adolescent populations. It was also possible to observe that this influence, positive or negative, determines the child and adolescent population's interest in physical activity and sports in adult life.
... It can be seen that the student is starting to manipulate the information which, as Willis (2006) claims, helps them understand and remember it. At this early stage of the unit, it was important that new information was moved from mere awareness to working memory (Willis, 2006), so that in the writing activities to come, the cognitive effort is reduced, allowing attentional resources to be allocated to other writing demands (Kellogg, 1994). A further justification for this lateral view of note-taking is the assertion that externally manipulating words allows for the processing of contents in working memory to begin transforming cognitive skills in writing (Menary, 2007). ...
Article
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Children are learning to write and children are learning to think. A commonly held belief in the teaching profession is that writing is a barrier to assessing understanding due to the added cognitive demands of the task. The application of a cognitive psychological model that engages children as writers across the curriculum enables their thinking when the task environment is carefully controlled, allowing understanding to develop. Writing tasks such as note-taking, journal writing and problem-solving assessment are used within the context of a Year 6 History unit on the Stolen Generations. These transferable literacy skills are necessary for the 21st the century workforce.
... She noted that when joy, comfort and spontaneity are replaced by homogeneity and conformity, students' brains are disengaged from effective information processing and long-term memory storage. The joy of learning and discovery is the well-spring for the highest-level of executive thinking, making of connections, and "aha" moments (Willis, 2006). In the educational context, computer games have been known to offer several benefits such as engage learners in learning environments, increase motivation, intensify retention of information, and improve problemsolving skills. ...
Article
Today’s IT-savvy students are accustomed to multi-tasking, graphics, fun, and fantasy. They are said to have short attention span. Educators are finding it challenging to engage and motivate students with the traditional mode of teaching. They are increasingly seeking to tap the potential of game-based learning to engage and motivate learners. Game-based learning is also catching on in schools and higher education in Asia. Universities in Singapore are beginning to explore new ways to engage students in learning. This paper examines whether game-based learning is an effective instructional strategy for engaging students in higher education in Singapore. It will examine how game-based learning motivates and engages students and whether game-based learning is an effective instructional strategy for engaging students in higher education in Singapore. Keywords Educational Technology; Game-based Learning; Learning; Pedagogy
... This intrinsic motivation for student learning, as Bruner explains, is also important in developing skillsets to inquire, discover, and solve problems; therefore, schooling should be set up to maximize student experience. Additionally, Willis (2006) sug-gests learner interest and engagement is paramount for long-term knowledge retention (pp. 8-9). ...
Article
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Designing learning environments to incorporate active learning pedagogies is difficult as definitions are often contested and intertwined. This article seeks to determine whether classification of active learning pedagogies (i.e., project-based, problem-based, inquiry-based, case-based, and discovery-based), through theoretical and practical lenses, could function as a useful tool for researchers and practitioners in comparing pedagogies. This article classified five active learning pedagogies based on six constructivist elements. The comparison was completed through a comparative analysis and a content analysis informed by a systematic literature review. The findings were that learner-centeredness is a primary goal of all pedagogies; however, there is a strong dissonance between each pedagogy’s theoretical underpinnings and implementation realities. This dissonance complicates differentiating active learning pedagogies and classification as a comparative tool has proved to have limited usefulness.
... Therefore, it fosters retrieving information through the use of grphic organizers due to the premise that brains seek patterns. According to Willis (2006), patterns are passageways for memories to follow, the best way to set up the passageways is to use graphic organizers and chuncking information. ...
Article
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The concept of teaching and learning has changed drastically over the past few years by the virtue of both research results carried out in the fields of second/Foreign language learning and acquisition. Of all these researches, findings related to the brain structure and functions in cooperation with cognitive aspects of the education process, including the study of learning styles and intelligence have struck the language learning domain. A due understanding of learners’ learning styles, emotional preferences as well as their memory functions help teachers to build their teaching practices to optimize students’ learning. Brain Based Learning Approach (BBLA) is a natural, motivating, and a positive way that supports and maximizes learning and teaching. The current study implements Brain Based Learning Approach to improve listening skills of Business students, retention and establish positive attitudes with regards to their brain dominance and learning styles. To achieve these aims, listening skills test, vocabulary retention test, adapted form of Robert Gardner Motivation Scale, were developed and used. The sample of the study consists of thirty six Business majors. Findings show that Brain Based Learning Is an effective approach for developing listening skills, consolidate vocabulary recalling and retention. It also helps maximize motivation towards learning language skills.
... Differentiated learning is called for (Williams, 2007). Efforts are made to build a bridge from neuroscience to the classroom (Willis, 2006;. ...
Conference Paper
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Neurolinguists tend to believe that people with a right-brain tendency may find it easier to receive instructions with images. Dr. Tsailing Liang even argued in her book The Seven Mistakes in English Education that more than 70% of the students she interviewed belong to the right-brain category and, therefore, have a hard time receiving print education in Taiwan. The researchers wonder whether an alternative teaching method pervaded with images can raise students' satisfaction. To see students' brain inclinations, questionnaires are given to four classes of English majors taking the required course A General Introduction to Western Literature, which is taught with multimedia files that abound in paintings, in the Department of Applied Foreign Languages of National Formosa University. And the results are placed in relation to their teacher evaluation scores at the end of the Fall Semester in 2007 Academic Year. To the researchers' astonishment, what is said by Dr. Tsailing Liang to have been the most dominant group, students with the right brain tendency did not take up as high percentage in the first writer's classes as Liang's students did. Students with right brain tendency took up forty percent of the total amount of students. Nearly one third of students stand in the grey zone in between right and left brain tendencies. Despite their varied brain inclinations, students' evaluation of the teacher's instructions reflects high level of satisfaction unanimously. With this study, the researchers are proposing another way of teaching by means of multimedia which can be one among other factors that contribute to the high scores of teaching evaluation heedless of their brain tendencies.
... In other words, it has become one of the most powerful means of education development. Most importnantly, computer technology can help educators design and adjust curriculum and lessons to fit the specific needs of a class in real time, also can provide teachers with immediate feedback about student comprehension of the lessons they are teaching (Willis, 2006). Thus, the introduction of technology resources into teaching and learning process promises to create opportunities for enhancing students' learning and teachers' teaching. ...
... 90-98). Contemporary treatises on child rearing and educating children in classrooms afford Christian educators the chance to translate these basic insights into curriculum design and ministry practice (Galinsky, 2010;Jones, 2009;Willis, 2006). For instance, educators now have a strong neurological basis for setting positive emotional climates as well as teaching both declarative and procedural knowledge (Hardiman, 2003, pp. ...
Article
The current intellectual and social interest in neuroscience invites Christian educators to engage this complex and sometimes disparate field for the sake of transformative teaching and learning. Recognizing that neuroscientists differ over the nature of transformation—as educators differ on a definition of transformative learning—should not detract from neuroscience's contribution to transformative teaching within Christian education. This article contributes to the conversation by charting a “neurological” approach to resources for transformative teaching and learning. The article maps the field of transformative learning, provides neuroscience insights that support transformative teaching through cognitive, emotional and social domains of neuroscience, and discusses approaches to neuroscience that explain the very processes of transformation within Christian education.
... Very few faculty provide transcripts elsewhere in the curriculum. Students opting out of viewing vodcasts is potentially concerning because long-term memory is enhanced when students connect with information using multiple senses [31]. For multimedia learning specifically, learning is enhanced when both visual and auditory channels are stimulated [20,21]. ...
Article
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Background Vodcasts (video podcasts) are becoming increasingly popular in medical education. At A.T. Still University School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (ATSU SOMA), vodcasts are an essential component of our blended learning environment, where year 2–4 students train in a contextual setting at community health centers across the U.S. Vodcasts are used far less frequently in our year 1 residential learning environment at the main campus in Arizona, but we are considering moving to significantly more interactive educational experiences with on-demand videos followed by in-class activities. The aim of this study was to determine stakeholder (i.e. medical student) preferences for vodcast design, format, and pedagogical strategies. The overall goal was to increase opportunities for students to learn with this modality. Methods An interactive Qualtrics™ survey was administered to three cohorts of medical students. The survey generated quantitative and open-ended response data that addressed principles of vodcast instructional design and learning. Responses to survey items were analyzed for statistical significance using the independent samples t-test for interval data, the chi-square test for categorical data, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for ordinal data, using the post-hoc Bonferroni procedure to determine the appropriate α level. Responses to open-ended prompts were categorized using open- and axial-coding. Results The most highly valued vodcast attributes, considered essential by all three cohorts, were clear explanations, organization, conciseness, high-yield for medical board exams, and the ability to speed vodcasts up. The least helpful vodcast attributes for all three cohorts were music and objects moving on screen. The average preferred vodcast length for each cohort was 27–28 min. There were significant differences between the less experienced learners in the residential setting and the more mature learners in the blended learning environment regarding certain vodcast attribute preferences, format of included practice questions, explanations for preferred vodcast lengths, and reasons for not viewing vodcasts. Conclusions Overall, learner preferences were in line with non-interactive, screen-capture type vodcasts, which have lower demands on institutional cost and faculty production time than Flash™-type interactive vodcasts. Students in the blended learning environment were much more focused on vodcast features that decreased their time commitment, including a preference for noninteractive vodcasts. Given the increase in distance learning in medical education, our results should be of value to other medical programs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12909-017-0926-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... By contrast, examples of appropriate application of learning style might include teachers presenting information in a variety of ways; offering students options for taking in, exploring, and demonstrating key content; planning for multimodal student learning; and helping students become more self-aware in determining which approaches to learning work for them in specific contexts and understanding how to adjust their approach to learning when the approach they are using does not seem to be supporting successful outcomes. For example, if a student is having difficulty following the logic of a text while reading it silently, the student might fare better to diagram or outline the ideas, represent them with icons, talk through the ideas orally, or listen to a recording of the text (Willis, 2006). ...
... Potential benefits of tactile crayons are their anticipated low cost, ease of use, ease of transportation, and the ability to be used on any type of paper. Practice and repetition is an important component in learning to strengthen connections in the brain, improve speed and accuracy of performance, and increase confidence (Willis, 2006). Ease of use is expected to allow children to use this method, without supervision, at an earlier age than they would use other drawing tools such as the Texture Marking Mats. ...
Article
Introduction This article describes the development and initial assessment of a set of tactile crayons that can produce different textured lines and areas on standard paper. Method An assessment of the need for tactile crayons was performed through the use of surveys and focus groups from which a set of six tactile crayons was developed. Development was focused on being able to differentiate the crayons along the texture dimensions of sticky or slippery, rough or smooth, and hard or soft in informal dimensional analysis. Preliminary discrimination testing was performed to determine the viability of the six selected crayons. The main assessment determined whether individuals were able to identify each of the crayons by number from feeling scribbles on paper. Results User needs assessment showed that many practitioners felt the development of tactile crayons would aid in teaching and fill a needs gap. The participants were able to discriminate the six crayons with a mean accuracy (standard error) of 77% (4%), and of those six, they could identify the four most easily discriminable with 86% (3%) accuracy. Discussion Many families and teachers showed interest in the potential of tactile crayons as a learning tool. Four of the six tactile crayons were both highly discriminable and identifiable by adults who are visually impaired. This finding shows promise for discriminability and identifiability of these crayons by children who are visually impaired and their potential as a learning tool in both formal and informal learning environments. Implications for practitioners The use of the developed tactile crayons has the potential to aid childhood development and student learning. In addition, the use of the crayons by teachers could help reduce the time needed to produce tactile diagrams.
... Second, based on the conclusions of prior research, we wanted to improve student MCQ test-taking ability and confidence by getting them to better understand the uniqueness of the MCQ format through actively self-generating their own MCQs. Prior research on individual learning suggests that most individuals learn a method or process better if they actively engage in the method or process instead of simply reading about it or listening to lectures or relevant material on the subject (Willis 2006;Moye, Dugger, and Stark-Weather 2014;Illeris 2018). Accordingly, we wanted to actively engage accounting students in this potential learning activity. ...
Article
Prior non-accounting research has generally concluded that students obtain performance benefits from self-generating multiple choice questions (MCQs). We examine accounting students completing an extra-credit assignment to self-generate MCQs and its association with examination performance gains. Using students from a large public and small/medium-sized private university, across multiple courses and semesters, we find that students completing the assignment did not outperform students in the same courses, with the same instructors, not offered the assignment. We find that these results hold across students of all initial performance quartiles. Our results suggest that prior educational research may overestimate the benefits of MCQ self-generation by not performing appropriate control group comparisons. We provide evidence that voluntary self-generation of MCQs may be a way to identify students seeking to improve their course performance, but in and of itself it may not be an effective method to improve student performance on MCQ examinations. Data Availability: Data are available upon request, after the completion of a related study. JEL Classifications: M49.
... Although this simple repetition does not appear to be very efficient at transferring information into permanent memory. Rather, deliberate efforts and elaborative rehearsal appears to be the most effective set of processes for the encode and transfer of information from short-term memory into long-term memory (Sousa, 2016;Willis, 2006) (I will discuss the long-term memory and elaborative rehearsal in the next section). ...
Thesis
Given the ubiquitous nature of interactions across applications and systems, users often need to alternate between devices, software, or techniques to complete a single task. In this thesis, I investigate retroactive transfer when users alternate between different interfaces. Retroactive transfer is the influence of a newly learned interface on users' performance with a previously learned interface. I explore the theoretical and psychological foundations behind learning, skill acquisition, and transfer of skill to better characterize the retroactive transfer phenomenon. In an interview study, participants described their experiences when alternating between different interfaces, e.g. different operating systems, devices, or techniques. Negative retroactive transfer related to text entry was the most frequently reported incident. I then report on a laboratory experiment that investigated the impact of similarity between two keyboard layouts, and the number of alternations between them, on retroactive interference. Results indicate that even small changes in the interference interface produced a significant performance drop for the entire previously learned interface. The amplitude of this performance drop decreases with the number of alternations. Based on the findings of this thesis, the retroactive transfer should receive more attention by designers in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Their interfaces should be more systematically evaluated not only for intramodal learning and proactive transfer but also for retroactive transfer.
... Hence a modern Social Studies classroom finds ways to blend their stories into the curriculum most especially these days in which to teach Social Studies requires teachers to push away archaic mentality, boundaries and rigidity that have traditionally confined the discipline. Willis (2006) submits that in modern Social Studies classroom, atmosphere of exuberant discovery where students of all ages retain that kindergarten enthusiasm of embracing each day with the joy of learning. The Social Studies may be about chronicling events and memorizing dates, but modern Social Studies classroom is less about description, than about explanation. ...
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Social Studies came as a corrective study with staunch commitment of grooming and repositioning citizens to acquire required knowledge, skills, attitude and values necessary for active participation in societal activities. The purpose of the Social Studies curriculum is to allow students become smart thinkers who proffer plausible solution to personal, community and world problems. Traditional Social Studies classroom is identified with concepts and themes like multidisciplinary field, learner as empty slate (tabula rasa), teacher-centered approach, convergent learning and so on. With the introduction and adoption of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligence theory in the 21 st century Social Studies classroom, the conventional means of teaching and learning will fizzle into oblivion. The resultant effect tends to be integrated approach of teaching-learning, learners as pathfinders, teachers as facilitators, and above all experiential learning. This study therefore advocates for modern Social Studies classroom which addresses core issues around human beings and places learners at the centre of all that transpires in classroom setting. Students should be shown the world, not just talk about it, but a restoration of joy of learning into the 21 st century Social Studies classroom where there is curriculum of role plays, simulations, and demonstrations that can bring alive social dynamics within the classroom. Modern Social Studies classroom should be entrusted in the hands of professionally trained Social Studies educationists.
... Neurologists suggest that when pleasure, opulence and impulsiveness are substituted by consistency and compliance, the brains of the students are hindered from processing information in a successful manner, thus, affecting their memory (Willis 2006). With regard to this, many learning instructors all across the world have embraced game-based learning with the aim of motivating the students in their learning process. ...
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Psychologists have often emphasized the need to incorporate games into the school curriculum as a way of providing learners with opportunities to develop skills in all aspects of the curriculum. Accordingly, these games offer learners an avenue to release their mental tension resulting from rigorous academic engagement. Previous studies have also indicated that the learning process can be made more enjoyable for learners when games are incorporated into the learning process. This study examined the instructional power of game-based learning and simulation in a K-12 setting and sought to provide insight as to whether game-based learning would be an emphatic method that could be used for teaching and learning. Many scholars have argued that game-based learning stirs up a sense of motivation for learners regarding their learning process. Therefore, this study explored the distinct features of game-based learning which learners consider to be interesting /absorbing. The findings of this study showed that the use of game-based learning as an instruction method was very effective in the teaching and learning process. It has the ability to engage and provoke learners’ interests. Besides, its experimental nature allows learners to participate fully in the class work. This means that teachers need to design teaching content that incorporates games since the latter provide a practical learning approach which helps learners to memorize most of the studied content. The study also recommends that educators tasked with designing and developing the curriculum should emphasize the importance of instructional methods that allow teachers to incorporate games into the teaching content.
... The spirit of learning and going to school has changed in a positive direction, so it can be predicted that boat class students will all go to school to a higher level. From the results of this study, according to [33], that all educators and people who care about education need a diverse understanding of educational theory. In this connection, humanistic theory is very relevant to the conditions described in this study. ...
... Thinking styles or intelligence suggests that learners have tendencies toward certain modes of thinking (Sternberg, 1985(Sternberg, , 1996 and a great deal of research states that there are benefits to addressing preferences even if the ultimate determinations are not made to fit with a learner's preferred mode (Grigorenko and Sternberg, 1997;Saxe, 1990;Sternberg et al., 1998). Differentiation was also initially based on ideas supported by literature and research investigating the human brain indicating that multiple learning pathways can be created neurologically (Willis, 2007). These theories state that more areas of the brain can store information about a topic because there is interconnection and cross-referencing with a different storage section (holographic representation) that enables learning instead of memorization. ...
Article
Purpose – This paper explores differentiated instruction in relation to experiential learning in management education by examining three teaching applications from different management courses to illustrate these concepts. Design/methodology/approach – This study utilizes an exploratory multiple-case design research method using three undergraduate management courses at a medium-sized private comprehensive college near a large metropolitan area in the USA. Findings – The use of differentiated instruction in management education is supported through varied approaches such as individual student and team-based scaffolding that demonstrate the applicability of differentiation. In addition to improving student learning, other benefits include improved student retention and faculty autonomy in course creation and delivery. The implementation involves a proactive response to learner needs informed by a faculty perspective that recognizes student diversity yet retains quality assurance standards with mindful assessment and planning. Research limitations/implications - The comparatively small number of courses and instructional methods may make the specific findings and examples more relevant to the type of institution examined. Yet, the general conclusions and methods identified have potential implications for learners in a wide variety of colleges and universities. Practical implications – Differentiated instruction may be a useful approach for enhancing learning in heterogenous groups of students by recognizing student readiness and making appropriate modifications. Originality/value – This paper offers an exploratory overview of differentiated instruction with guidance for management faculty in designing and implementing these approaches in their courses.
... In this area (Cardellicho & Field, 1997) teaching strategies motivate intercellular thinking and build successful learning, by creating new links between nerve cells. This prompts the individual to expand thinking about new paths that he has not taken before and to unleash the maximum potential of the human mind to work together with real life environments (Willis, 2006;Zull, 2011), as in the following: ...
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This study investigates the effect of training programs on students at the Department of Mathematics/College of Education/University of Misan, Iraq. It used Neural Branching strategies on their teaching performance and productive mind's habits. The study sample consisted of (70) male and female students in fourth stage, divided into two classes. One was an experimental group (which used the training program) and the other a control group (without the training program), for the first semester of the academic year 2017-2018. The two groups equalized in several variables. Observation cards of teaching performance, and scales for mind productive habits, were prepared in accordance with the learning dimensions model of Marzano. The experimental group was trained according to the program prepared for this purpose. During the practical training (application) the research applied the instruments on the two groups. The statistically significant results show differences in the main average of the two groups, in the observation card of teaching performance, and in scale of mind productive habits for the experimental group. In light of the results conclusions, recommendations and suggestions have been made.
... Senso assim, estímulos propulsores de motivação, é o ponto de partida para desenvolver habilidades para investigar, descobrir e resolver problemas que cercam o ambiente em que se ensina, promovendo no aluno o máximo de experiência possível. Em adição, vale ressaltar que o interesse por parte do aluno é algo imprescindível para o desenvolvimento e retenção do conhecimento (WILLIS, 2006). Revista Querubim -revista eletrônica de trabalhos científicos nas áreas de Letras, Ciências Humanas e Ciências Sociais -Ano 16 Nº41 vol. 3 -2020 ISSN 1809-3264 ...
... In education, a certain amount of stress such as a stimulating and challenging lecture will help students learn more effectively, more engaging and more creative. When students are motivated and enthusiastic-not bored, not stressed-out-they actively engage in the learning process and are more likely to have "aha" moments (Willis 2006). Being able to quantify cognitive aspects such as mental stress, workload and mental capacity will enable educators to develop brain-based learning strategies that can foster learners' creativity and enhance learning experience (Jensen 2008). ...
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This paper investigates the relationships between subjective rating measure and physiological measure of mental stress and mental effort during design activities. Mental stress and mental effort were captured by skin conductance and EEG beta2 power (20–30 Hz) whereas self-rated mental stress and self-rated mental effort were obtained using the NASA Task Load Index. A strong association between self-rated effort and EEG beta2 power was found in several design tasks. The analysis shows that self-rating is by itself a mental activity which may be affected by psychological stress and may be influenced by the amount of cognitive effort allocated. Researchers who rely on subjective rating should take into account the stress and effort of respondents during the rating activities to ensure the validity of the self-report measures. The study also demonstrated that design tasks induced mental stress that continued to stay above the baseline even after the tasks were completed.
... 2) In learning sciences pedagogical parlance, this is akin to adjusting the internal cognitive state of a learner by moving him/her out of the amygdala (reactive) brain by accessing the 'generative' executive function brain of the prefrontal cortex for deep engagement in a learning space. [43,44] After the 'Moment of Disequilbrium,' the scientist (who through nonverbal and verbal behaviors had withdrawn figuratively and literally from the joint attentional space on the desk, as seen in Fig 4C) re-emerges and re-engages with the designer. We see this re-engagement as evidence of a Shift in Thinking-the end of the Conceptual Change phase. ...
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Visual design, learning sciences, and nanotechnology may be strange bedfellows; yet, as this paper highlights, peer interaction between a designer and a scientist is an effective method for helping scientists acquire visual design skills. We describe our findings from observing twelve sessions at the Design Help Desk, a tutoring center at the University of Washington. At each session, a scientist (who is expert in his own domain but a novice in design) consulted a designer (who is expert in design but a novice in science) in order to receive advice and guidance on how to improve a scientific visualization. At the Design Help Desk, this pairing consistently produced a momentary disequilibrium in the scientist's thought process: a disequilibrium that led to agency (where the scientist gained ownership of his/her own learning) and conceptual change in the scientist's understanding of visual design. Scientists who visited the Design Help Desk were satisfied with their experience, and their published work demonstrated an improved ability to visually communicate research findings-a skill critical to the advancement of science. To our knowledge, the Design Help Desk is a unique effort to educate scientists in visual design; we are not aware of any other design-advice/tutoring centers at public or private universities in the United States or abroad.
Conference Paper
In this paper, we explore how assistive technology can be used to support the learning development of children with dyslexia. Dyslexia is the most common learning disability. Existing strategies employed to help dyslexic children to read include multi-sensory methods such as tracing letters in the air. New technologies could help them learn by utilising all senses. In this paper, we present TraceIt, an interactive learning tool to teach children with dyslexia how to read through multi-sensory methods to include visual, auditory and kinaesthetic movement. Building upon prior work on tangible interaction, it allows students to air trace alphabets using physical objects of a specific colour to interact with the reading program. Based on evaluations conducted at the Dyslexia Association of Malaysia, this paper contributes towards understanding the opportunities as well as challenges involved in applying such interaction technique to support the learning development of children with dyslexia.
Chapter
This chapter will survey the major research findings from the social sciences (psychology and sociology), their impact on educational aims and assessment, and their pertinence or not to values. It will also explore more recent research in neuroscience that is challenging traditional conceptions of ‘cognition’ as essentially separate from and, at best, only marginally related to ‘affect’ and ‘sociality’. These traditional conceptions have driven views of learning that privilege the more measurable outcomes of cognition and marginalize not only higher forms of thinking but also social, emotional, moral, aesthetic and spiritual development. The greater nexus between cognition, affect and sociality posed by research in the neurosciences is causing such conceptions to be revised in favour of a view of learning as a complex and multifaceted phenomenon involving a broader range of interconnected developmental domains. Among other things, this research has provided an empirically based explanation for aspects of the studied effects of values pedagogy and, for the authors, has particular pertinence for the findings related to student achievement and wellbeing with which they have been associated in the Australian Values Education Program.
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Walking is a viable and valuable form of exercise for young children that has both physical and mental health benefits. There is much evidence showing that school-age children are not getting the recommended 60 minutes of daily exercise. A school-wide walking program can be a great way to encourage walking in and out of school, can be aligned with the curriculum for educational benefits, and has proven to be a successful motivator. This article describes a variety of walking programs that were developed for schools, which have proven to be fun, motivating and successful.
Chapter
The 1990s was a time of burgeoning research on the brain because technological advances allowed scientists to watch brain development and see how a brain functions in vivo as a child learns or performs a task. Knowledge about the brain is growing, and this information is changing how we nurture and educate young children. Neuroscience is influencing the development of childhood products, curricula, and pedagogy, and because of this the care and education of young children is changing and with this change, developing ethical questions.
Chapter
This chapter initially discusses the debate regarding the brain information, classroom practices, and subsequent commerce that has been created to serve the educational market. The chapter reviews the basics of brain structures and functions and is designed to provide readers with effective ways to share information with both preservice and in-service teachers. Further, the chapter reviews how this information influences classroom practices through principles of learning.
Chapter
Teaching through the pandemic has revealed critical educational issues related to online learning as well as the importance of considering contextual influences and creative solutions. The purpose of this chapter is to reflect on those issues and discuss creative alternatives in response to the changing social, cultural, and technological systems. The reflection centers around three themes with a focus on recommendations for the future based on what we can learn from the emergency remote teaching and learning (ERTL) experience. The ideas proposed in the reflection themes can help establish the needed mindsets and generate creative approaches to ERTL during crisis times. Creativity is discussed and redefined within the context of ERTL during the pandemic. We should develop creative thinking, creative mindset, and creative design in re-conceptualizing assessment activities and the assessment culture for online learning as well. Recommendations to help sustain the impact of creative solutions include the need for solid network infrastructure, an innovative mindset for assessment, and a need for educational design research on creative solutions to online learning problems.
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Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari penerapan Graphic Organizer terhadap kemampuan representasi matematis siswa. Penelitian ini dilakukan di MTs. Negeri 3 Jakarta pada semester 2 tahun ajaran 2014/ 2015. Metode yang digunakan untuk penelitian ini ialah quasi eksperimen yang menggunakan desain penelitian randomize sample posttest-only control group design. Subyek pada penelitian ini berjumlah 73 siswa yang terdiri dari 37 siswa dalam kelas eksperimen dan 36 siswa kelas kontrol pada kelas VIII. Graphic Organizer merupakan suatu bentuk visual dua dimensi yang menggambarkan hubungan antara fakta, ide, istilah, konsep, dan sebagainya. Kemampuan representasi matematis merupakan proses menyampaikan ide-ide, konsep pengetahuan tentang suatu hal melalui deskripsi dari sebuah objek melalui bentuk visual, simbol dan verbal sebagai alat untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan yang dihadapi. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah kemampuan representasi matematis siswa yang diajarkan dengan menggunakan Graphic Organizer lebih tinggi daripada kemampuan representasi matematis siswa yang diajarkan dengan menggunakan pembelajaran konvensional.
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This research aims to examine the effect of teaching by using strategies that stimulate neural branching in creative and critical thinking of study groups. The sample of this study consisted of two experimental groups and a control group. In terms of the treatment, one experimental group was taught using strategies that stimulate the neural branching in human brain mentally. The other experimental group was taught using the same strategies supported by technology. The control group was taught using the traditional instruction. The sample included (95) male student and (102) female students from two schools of the governorate of Muscat. To answer the research questions, Torrance test of creative thinking (TTCT) and Watson & Glaser critical thinking test (WGCTT) were used. The results show that the experimental groups significantly outperformed the control group with respect to the creative thinking test. However there were no statistically significant differences between the study's groups in the critical thinking test. This study recommends investment of mental capacities of the learners to encourage creative thinking and train teachers on using methods that stimulate neural branching.
Chapter
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Mobile and other digital technologies facilitate ubiquitous learning that offers unprecedented benefits. With mobile learners being able to “squeeze in” learning in-between other daily activities, they face contesting demands on their attention and their brain. Their learning experience might be hindered by multitasking, distraction, mind wandering, and even problematic dependence on digital devices. These influences are addressed in the chapter, and recommendations are presented on how to promote higher levels of attention and engagement in m-learning events. Based on the latest empirical evidence, mindfulness strategies can aid in attention regulation and cultivation of “healthier” learning habits, thus alleviating these problems amongst mobile learners. Recent discoveries in neuroscience and the renewed understanding of brain plasticity are bridging the science and practice of mindfulness. Combined with 35 years of scientific research in mindfulness, more recent exploration of the applications of mindfulness in education has demonstrated that learners can train their mind to respond to stimuli in a purposeful controlled manner leading to more successful learning. Incremental mindfulness practice tunes up our nervous system and strengthens the neuro-components that help us connect with our intentional attention capabilities. It is hence the purpose of this exploration and the resulting chapter to identify such learner-centered strategies to promote the development of mindfulness practice leading to enhanced intentional attention in mobile learning. Mobile technologies can be used to provide scaffolds for learners to engage and persist in mindful learning and practice of mindfulness. The author presents a variety of proven mindfulness practices and techniques that can be adapted in the m-learning design. She concludes with a call for more interdisciplinary studies and rigorous explorations of the intersection of mobile learning, education, instructional design, contemplative practices, cognitive science, and neuroscience to attain a better understanding of how to harness attention in mobile and ubiquitous learning.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on nonviolent discipline practices within classroom settings. The authors draw upon a trauma-informed perspective as a means to encourage professionals working with children to engage in best practices as they decide how to best discipline children under their care. They also address a few examples of nonviolence in U.S. history because peace has worked multiple times as a means to solve social problems. In addition, they provide a brief history of discipline in U.S. schools and how that has evolved over time. Furthermore, they explain possible causes of trauma in children, how to discipline children with histories of trauma, how to implement trauma-informed care in K-12 settings, as well as provide examples of trauma-informed classroom strategies. Using a case study, they provide an example of how to guide teachers to use nonviolent discipline in their work with children with histories of trauma.
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Rationale, aims, and objectives Human brain connectome is a new and rapidly developing field in neuroscience. The pattern of structural and functional connectivity in the brain is not fixed but is continuously changing in response to experiences. Exploring these phenomena opens a powerful arsenal of analyses and computational approaches that could provide important new insights into clinical and cognitive neuroscience. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activations of adult brain cortical areas during a memory task performance by using functional MRI with a specific focus on gender differences. Methods Twenty‐nine right‐handed subjects (15 men and 14 women) were scanned. The memory paradigm consisted of 4 consecutive sets of “on” and “off” blocks with a total duration of 4 minutes. The subjects were first presented with 4 pictures (fixation F‐part) of the same theme—landscapes, portraits, anatomical images of internal organs, and geometric figures denoted by specific mismatching nouns (seasons, personal names, internal organs, and figures), followed by 3 of the presented pictures and questions for memory evaluation (recall R‐part). For the active conditions, the participants were instructed to read the statements carefully and answer with a button press. Results We found reliable occipital and temporal signal responses across the block design contrasts with statistical significant differences within the groups in both genders. Statistical significance in brain cortical activation was not found between men and women. Conclusion The results highlighted several detailed distinctions between the genders and potential future directions in brain activation studies as part of the multidisciplinary approach in translational neuroscience.
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https://www.routledge.com/Creative-Learning-in-the-Early-Years-Nurturing-the-Characteristics-of/Mohammed/p/book/9781138635401 Taking a fresh look at the role of creativity within the early years, this accessible guide explores what is meant by creativity and considers how creative skills, behaviours, and thinking can be identified and fostered in the individual child. Underpinned by the latest research and policy, chapters illustrate how creative attitudes can be adopted in all subject areas, and opportunities for creativity maximised. Creative Learning in the Early Years acknowledges the power of creative processes in helping children reach their full potential in the early years and beyond. Photocopiable work tools enable the reader to plan, observe, assess, and record progress as they develop playful and creative approaches, whilst practical advice and demonstrable examples are easily integrated into existing practice. Topics addressed include: • Recognising and encouraging creative tendencies • Stimulating the child’s imagination • Developing adult creativity and self-awareness • Creating enabling environments and creative spaces • Using documentation and planning to inspire creativity An exciting and accessible guide which encourages exploration, experimentation, reflection, and development, Creative Learning in the Early Years will support current and future early years practitioners as they discover the rich opportunities opened by creative practice.
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Educating or educare in Latin means "guiding out," that is, the purpose to instruct the world or out of itself. The action of promoting education enables people to acquire new knowledge and skills for life. In the geographical education, the objective is to identify the interrelation between nature and society, valuing the students’ role in the construction of just and sustainable communities. In that knowledge, it is possible to appropriate the graphic representations through precepts of cartography, images, and arts that allow translating letters, numbers, drawings, and colors in geographic texts in a synthetic and fast way, but requiring the learning of such language. In this article, there will be a part regarding the cartography that refers to the understanding of one of the map’s elements that are the geographical coordinates and research result, and highlighting one of the main difficulties of teaching and learning about geographic location. The article will also present a teaching proposal based on the etymology of cartographic words and mathematical logic for the geographic coordinate system with the physical terrestrial globe. For it is believed that many of the difficulties in not understanding geographical coordinates are the fact that the teaching is with a map or with the projection of the terrestrial globe in the slate that is flat, with a Cartesian system and a logic of angular measures. Once the understanding in degrees on the specific physical globe to teach geographic coordinates has been learned, it migrates to the cartographic projections. After this understanding, the maps can be used for the other cartographic contexts.
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This paper presents teachers’ self-reported findings about the effects of mindfulness and meditation on student behaviour in three primary schools situated in areas with multiple deprivation indicators. Schools first participated in a programme to teach staff (and students) about how brains learn via four workshops, and chose to apply aspects of educational neuroscience to their teaching practice. In all three schools, senior management and teaching staff elected to adopt the practice of meditation for two reasons: to help students learn to self-regulate their emotions and place themselves in an emotional state conducive to learning; and to strengthen their ability to focus/resist distractions. Teachers reported the impact to be better than expected, as not only did the meditation practices improve emotion regulation and focus, but they also had two further benefits: a reduction in transition time between break-times and lessons, and a general change to the whole-school culture for learning. This paper explores these effects, using interview data from 10 teachers and leaders and a student focus group.
Article
Teachers are faced with the demand to teach their students to be competent individuals in the 21st century so that they are prepared for any challenges they may face in their lives. To meet this need, many educators have identified creativity as a necessary competence of the 21st century. To this end, integrating SMART (Self‐directed, Motivated, Adaptive, Resource‐enriched, and Technology‐embedded) education, which is a new paradigm of technology‐embedded learning, can help English language learners’ creativity as well as language development. Therefore, this study explored how SMART learning environments affect elementary English as a foreign language (EFL) students’ creativity and English ability. Twenty‐seven fifth‐grade EFL students participated in this study and were involved in creativity‐enhanced English activities for 12 weeks. Data include the results of students’ Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, English tests, and a perception survey. Paired‐samples t‐tests were conducted to compare the pretests and posttests for students’ creativity and English ability scores. The results revealed a statistically significant increase in the creative thinking skills of fluency, flexibility, and originality. In terms of English, students’ speaking and writing abilities showed meaningful improvement. Based on the findings, several suggestions are proposed for language teachers and teacher educators.
Chapter
This volume includes a collection of short papers presented at the second International Virtual Exchange Conference (IVEC) hosted virtually at Newcastle University in September 2020. The contributions address the conference theme, towards digital equity in internationalisation, and offer fresh insights into the current state and future of online intercultural communication and collaborative learning. Providing examples of interdisciplinary, multinational, and multimodal research and pedagogy in virtual exchange from around the world, this book will appeal to educators, administrators, researchers, and internationalisation leads in higher education interested in supporting and implementing virtual exchange.
Article
A growing empirical research base has contributed substantially to our understanding of pronunciation instruction. A contemporary perspective entails a balanced approach featuring both the teaching of segmentals (vowels and consonants) and suprasegmentals (stress, rhythm, and intonation) while favoring intelligible (i.e. clear) pronunciation as the pedagogical goal rather than the attainment of native-like pronunciation. Yet, the connection between neuroscience and pronunciation instruction has not been explored in depth so far. Thus, the aim of this article is to further the process of bringing insights from neuroscience into pronunciation teaching and learning. I first explore several interconnected neuroscientific principles that are relevant to pronunciation, including the social brain, emotions, movement, and touch, and then conclude the article by describing a ‘brain-friendly’ approach that reflects a number of those principles: haptic pronunciation instruction.
Article
When faced with the decision to put in an extra hour of study or get an extra hour of sleep, students need to choose wisely When faced with the decision to put in an extra hour of study or get an extra hour of sleep, students need to choose wisely.
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