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If It's Hard to Read, It's Hard to Do: Processing Fluency Affects Effort Prediction and Motivation

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... building materials, furniture and books). We base this reasoning on the fluency literature, which has demonstrated that processing fluency shapes consumers' preferences and decisions in a myriad of domains (Alter and Oppenheimer, 2009), influencing phenomena ranging from effort allocation (Schwarz et al., 2021;Shah and Oppenheimer, 2008) and action orientation (Okuhara et al., 2017;Song and Schwarz, 2008) to risk inferences (Dohle and Siegrist, 2014;Song and Schwarz, 2009) and credibility judgments (Lev-Ari and Keysar, 2010;Newman and Schwarz, 2018). For example, Shah and Oppenheimer (2007) tested whether fluently and disfluently processed stimuli carry the same weight in decision-making and found that people put a greater weight on fluently (vs disfluently) processed customer reviews, ratings and financial information. ...
... Consequently, we expect that salesperson proximity should have a positive impact on consumers' purchase behavior in shopping settings with a clear bodily basis (Patterson, 2004), considering that a salesperson's body at an intimate interpersonal distance should be more fluently processed in such settings (Graf et al., 2018;Reber and Schwarz, 1999;Schwarz et al., 2021). Hence, given that fluently processed information carries greater weight in consumers' decision-making, induces action orientation and increases purchase propensity (Green and Jame, 2013;Shah and Oppenheimer, 2007;Song and Schwarz, 2008), consumers in bodily consumption contexts should be more inclined to make a purchase and spend money when a salesperson's body is close-by (vs farther away). ...
Article
Design/methodology/approach: We conducted two high-powered field studies (N = 1,312) to test whether salesperson‐customer proximity influences consumers’ purchase behavior and store loyalty. Moreover, we investigated whether the short-term effects on purchase behavior were moderated by the extent to which the consumption context had a clear connection to consumers’ own bodies. Purpose: Previous research on salesperson-customer proximity has yielded mixed results, with some studies documenting positive proximity effects on shopping responses and others demonstrating the reverse. To reconcile such mixed findings, we test whether and how salesperson proximity influences a series of key customer outcomes in actual retail settings using sample sizes that are considerably larger than most former investigations. Findings: Salesperson proximity increased purchase incidence and spending in consumption contexts with a bodily basis (e.g., clothes, beauty, health), suggesting that consumers “buy their way out” in these contexts when a salesperson is violating their personal space. If anything, such proximity had a negative impact on consumers’ purchase behavior in contexts that lacked a clear bodily connection (e.g., building materials, furniture, books). Moreover, the link between proximity and consumer responses was mediated by discomfort, such that a salesperson standing close-by (vs. farther away) increased discomfort, with negative downstream effects on shopping responses. Importantly, we found opposite proximity effects on short-term metrics (purchase incidence and spending) and long-term outcomes (store loyalty). Research implications/limitations: Drawing on the nonverbal communication literature and theories on processing fluency, the current work introduces a theoretically relevant boundary condition for the effects of salesperson-customer proximity on consumers’ purchase behavior. Specifically, the bodily basis of the consumption context is discussed as a novel moderator, which may help to explain the mixed findings in this stream of research. Practical implications: Salesperson-customer proximity may serve as a strategic sales tactic to improve short-term revenue in settings that are closely tied to consumers’ own bodies and characterized by one-time purchases. However, as salesperson proximity was found to be associated with lower store loyalty, irrespective of whether the shopping setting had a bodily basis, the risk of violating consumers’ personal space may have costly consequences from a long-term perspective. Originality/value: The present field studies make three central contributions. First, we introduce a novel moderator for proximity effects in various sales and service settings. Second, we test our focal hypotheses with much higher statistical power than most existing proximity studies. Finally, we document that salesperson-customer proximity ironically yields opposite outcomes on short-term metrics and long-term outcomes, thus underscoring the importance of not solely focusing on sales effectiveness when training frontline employees.
... Images that were easier to process (e.g., higher figure-ground contrast or longer presentation time) were rated as more positive and prettier than images with lower perceptual fluency. Song and Schwarz (2008) found that exercise instructions printed in an easyto-read font produced higher levels of motivation to engage in the exercise than those printed in a difficult-to-read font. Thus, GF messages may lead to more positive affective responses relative to LF messages, in part, simply because they are easier to understand. ...
... Finally, we were interested in whether processing fluency was related to affective response (Reber et al., 1998;Schwarz, 2004;Song & Schwarz, 2008). To the extent that older readers might experience more processing difficulty with the more complex negations of LF messages (Margolin & Abrams, 2009;Stine & Hindman, 1994), one would expect a more exaggerated effect of processing difficulty on the affective response to messages among older adults. ...
Article
How health-related messages are framed can impact their effectiveness in promoting behaviors, and messages framed in terms of gains have been shown to be more effective among older adults. Recent findings have suggested that the affective response to framed messages can contribute to these effects. However, the impact of demands associated with psycholinguistic processing for different frames is not well understood. In this study, exercise-related messages were gain or loss framed and with a focus on either desirable or undesirable outcomes. Participants read these messages while their eye movements were monitored and then provided affective ratings. Older adults reacted less negatively than younger adults to loss-framed messages and messages focusing on undesirable outcomes. Eye-movement measures indicated both younger and older adults had difficulty processing the most complex messages (loss-framed messages focused on avoiding desirable outcomes). When gain-framed messages were easily processed, they engendered more positive affect, which in turn, was related to better recall. These results suggest that affective and cognitive mechanisms are interdependent in comprehension of framed messages for younger and older adults. An implication for translation to effective health communication is that simpler message framing engenders a positive reaction, which in turn supports memory for that information, regardless of age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... 8 Dual-process theory 9 holds that behavior is impacted not only through conscious, "controlled," processing, but also through nonconscious "automatic" processing. 10,11 "Controlled" processes are under one's awareness, intention, and conscious control and are relatively inefficient and labor-intensive. Most health interventions target controlled processes. ...
... 12 Use of antecedent control to increase priming (the presence of a cue that activates behavior) and fluency experiences (creating the sense that something is easy by reducing steps and organizing item placement) minimizes the effort needed for behavior change and helps individuals to develop and sustain new adaptive habits that improve adherence and promote better outcomes. 11 Focus on automatic rather than controlled processes is particularly important for individuals with SMI who are known to have impairments in problem-solving, remembering, directing attention, and motivation. 13 In an effort to make CAT more accessible to a wider variety of individuals with serious behavioral health conditions and to reduce costs associated with providing the treatment, we developed a remote version of CAT. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT) is a psychosocial treatment using environmental supports such as signs, checklists, technology, and the organization of belongings to bypass cognitive and motivational impairments for those with serious behavioral health problems. We conducted a survey of 204 members of managed Medicaid in Texas to examine the acceptability of, opinions about and preferences for CAT delivered in-person (CAT) or remotely (R-CAT) where supplies would be mailed and visits would occur via videoconferencing. The telephone survey presented descriptions of CAT and R-CAT in counterbalanced order eliciting general opinions about the treatments, such as (1) whether they would accept the treatments if they were offered the day of the survey at no cost, (2) which treatment was preferred, and (3) the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with a number of statements about components of the treatments. Results indicated that both R-CAT and CAT were acceptable to respondents with overall acceptance rates significantly higher for R-CAT 87% than for CAT (78%). With respect to preferences, 27% and 28% of respondents preferred CAT and R-CAT, respectively, and 41% of respondents preferred both equally. Black respondents more often preferred in-person CAT to other alternatives. Respondents agreed that they needed help, that they were comfortable with technology, and that they believed the programs would help them. The vast majority of qualitative comments about the treatments were positive. Results suggest that it will be important to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of CAT delivered remotely in randomized trials.
... While there exists a long tradition of research investigating subjective workload (Eggemeier & Stadler, 1984;Jex, 1988;Moray, 1982;Yeh & Wickens, 1988), the psychological basis of cognitive effort has received increased attention from researchers over the last 5 years (Dunn et al., 2017;Dunn, Gaspar, & Risko, 2019;Dunn, Inzlicht, & Risko, 2019;Inzlicht et al., 2018;Kool & Botvinick, 2018;Kurzban, 2016;Potts et al., 2018;Yildirim et al., 2019). An important dimension of this line of research is attempting to address how individuals judge the effort anticipated or experienced on a given task or trial of a given task (Dunn et al., 2017;Foo et al., 2009;Gweon et al., 2017;Marshall, 2002;Song & Schwarz, 2008;Westbrook et al., 2013). That is, when someone is asked how effortful they found a task to be (or will be in the case of a prospective judgement), what factors determine their judgement of effort (i.e., subjective effort)? ...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive effort is a central construct in our lives, yet our understanding of the processes underlying our perception of effort are limited. Performance is typically used as one way to assess effort in cognitive tasks (e.g., tasks that take longer are generally thought to be more effortful); however, Dunn and Risko (2016) reported a recent case where such "objective" measures of effort were dissociated from judgments of effort (i.e., subjective effort). This dissociation occurred when participants either made their judgments of effort after the task (i.e., reading stimuli composed of rotated words) or without ever performing the task. This leaves open the possibility that if participants made their judgments of effort more proximal to the actual experience of performing the task (e.g., right after a given trial) that these judgments might better correspond to putatively "objective" measures of effort. To address this question, we conducted two experiments replicating Dunn and Risko (2016) with additional probes for post-trial judgments of effort (i.e., a judgment of effort made right after each trial). Results provided some support for the notion that judgments of effort more closely follow reading times when made post-trial as opposed to post-task. Implications of the present work for our understanding of judgments of effort are discussed.
... Other effects of fluency on behavior should be noted. When instructions to perform a novel behavior (e.g., cooking a certain dish) are presented in a hard-to-read font, participants find it difficult to simulate the behavior and are less likely to engage in it (Song & Schwarz, 2008). Similarly, just measuring a person' s intention to behave is known to increase the likelihood of their engaging in the behavior. ...
Chapter
A review of how feelings and cognitions affect consumer behavior
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter introduces Part I by summarising the attitudes of 20th-century typographers, who almost without exception considered that serif typefaces were easier to read than sans serif typefaces when printed on paper. In the twenty-first century, any dissenting voices have mainly come from journal editors, who have tended to recommend the use of sans serif typefaces without providing any supporting evidence. This chapter also considers but dismisses the idea that serifs are purely decorative and superfluous to the task of identifying individual letters.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
As mentioned in Chap. 8, any differences in the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces might become more apparent in readers whose visual systems are challenged as the result of disablement. Relatively few studies have been carried out into the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces by people with disabilities when the material is read on computer monitors or other screens. In principle, visual impairment can arise from a variety of causes, but research has focused on readers with dyslexia and readers with age-related macular degenerationMacular degeneration.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
As with readingLegibility from print, the earliest research on the legibilityLegibility of different typefaces when reading from screens was concerned with recognising individual letters and words under different conditions. Here, too, visual confusions were originally considered to be a primary determinant of the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter distinguishes between typefaces and fontsFonts versus typefaces and between legibilityLegibilityand readabilityLegibility versus readability. A variety of objective methods have been developed for measuring the legibility of printed material, and many have been taken over into research on reading from screens. Researchers have also collected subjective reportsSubjective reports from participants regarding the legibilityLegibility and other properties of presented material. This chapter also describes how typographers define the size of typefacesSize of typefaces and which aspects are likely to affect the legibilityLegibility of material.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discussesInternet browsers whether serif and sans serif typefaces differ in their legibilityLegibility when saved in HTML and viewed on-screen through web browsers. This includes material saved in a local workstation as well as material retrieved from the internet. In addition to a variety of individual studies, the chapter describes a research programme that was carried out by Bernard and colleagues at Wichita State University. Further research has been carried out into the use of different typefaces for various online purposes.
... The current trend is that multimedia learning to explore Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) and objective measurements in such empirical studies are rarely used (Mutlu-Bayraktar et al., 2019;Sanchez & Jaeger, 2015). As well as suggestions to monitor the working memory and prior knowledge levels of learners in multimedia learning, subjective measurement approaches for cognitive load concentrate on material characteristics (Eitel & Kühl, 2016;Mutlu-Bayraktar et al., 2019;Sidi et al., 2016;Song & Schwarz, 2008;Thompson & Ince, 2013) and perceived difficulties (Eitel & Kühl, 2016;Eitel et al., 2014;Rosner et al., 2015). In the literature, there is no promotive empirical research on perceived difficulty and its relationship with real-life and learning outcomes, and it is noteworthy that objective criteria are emphasized generally in cognitive load measurement (Dunlosky & Mueller, 2016;Lehmann et al., 2015;Mutlu-Bayraktar et al., 2019;Strukelj et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, considering the effect of interactive learning environments on human cognition, we have examined extraneous processing effects of multimedia materials on cognitive load, metacognitive judgments and learning outcomes. This study examines Augmented Reality Learning Environments (ARLE) and Virtual Reality Learning Environments (VRLE) as interactive learning environments. Learners, assigned randomly to one of seven experimental conditions, participated in computer-assisted instructional presentations for Augmented Reality Learning Environments and mobile-assisted instructional presentations for Virtual Reality Learning Environments. Participants’ working memory capacity and prior knowledge levels were scrutinized as control variables. Findings revealed no significant differences in the learning outcomes and metacognitive judgments, although significant differences were reported in the objective cognitive load. Therefore, we faced some results that contradict our hypotheses. In addition, we found a significant difference in terms of interactive learning environments’ effect on metacognitive judgments. Conversely, we found that metacognitive judgments are affected directly by learning environments. Finally, we discussed theoretical and practical implications for further research, based on experimental studies and approaches in Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and Cognitive Load Theory, in terms of interactive learning environments.
... We asked participants about food security rather than food scarcity in instructions because studies on sentence comprehension show that positive sentences are generally easier to understand (e.g., Sherman, 1973). Moreover, people infer the effort needed to complete the task from the difficulty of its instructions, and they are willing to engage less in tasks deemed difficult (Song & Schwarz, 2008). The word "scarcity" receives approximately 50 times fewer search hits through the Google search engine than the word "security." ...
Preprint
In the recent decade, marketing literature has acknowledged the advantages of applying an evolutionary lens to understand consumer behavior in different domains. Food choice context is one such domain, having implications for societal well-being, especially for public health and addressing environmental issues. In this thesis, I investigate how mechanisms that have emerged as adaptations to food scarcity—frequent throughout human history—affect modern consumers’ food preferences, potentially leading to maladaptive outcomes. In Paper I, we highlight that selection pressures adjusted humans to forage in ancestral, hostile environments when they were wandering between periods of food scarcity and food sufficiency. Consequently, consumers often fail to choose foods appropriate to their current needs in contemporary retail contexts. Rather than attempting to override these hardwired and evolutionarily outdated food preferences, we recommend policymakers leverage them in such a way that facilitates healthier food choices. A series of studies reported in Paper II show that exposing people to climate changeinduced food scarcity distant in time and space shifts their current food preferences. Specifically, people exposed to such video content exhibit a stronger preference toward energy-dense (vs. low-calorie) foods than their peers exposed to a control video. In Paper III, we aimed to account for potential confounds stemming from the control video used in studies reported in Paper II. Additionally, we strived to conceptually replicate these earlier findings by exposing participants to subtle cues to food scarcity—a winter forest walk. Although not all studies yielded significant results at conventional levels, this empirical package—when taken together—corroborated the earlier findings. Despite that studies described in Papers II–III provided a shred of empirical evidence showing a potency of food scarcity cues in increasing preferences toward energy-dense (vs. low-calorie) products, it was still unclear what drove such a shift in food liking. Thus, in Paper IV, we have developed and psychometrically validated the Anticipated Food Scarcity Scale (AFSS), measuring the degree to which people perceive food resources as becoming less available in the future. Aside from being a candidate mechanism partially explaining findings reported in Papers II–III, anticipated food scarcity (AFS) is also related to some aspects of prosociality. Studies presented in this thesis suggest that when environmental cues to food scarcity are present, people show a stronger preference toward energy-dense (vs. low-calorie) foods than their peers unexposed to such cues. Policymakers should consider these results when designing climate change and other similar campaigns, as such communication often depicts food scarcity. Additional research may explore the possibility that exposure to food scarcity cues affects food choices. Considering that we found AFS correlated with certain prosocial attitudes, it is a new psychological construct that warrants future investigation through multidisciplinary research.
... In this regard, the perceived value of the resources exchanged between companies and consumers leads to transaction consolidation and encourages repetition (Peloza and Shang, 2011). Likewise, processing fluency of a message is linked to favorable consumer responses such as credibility, preferences and choice (Song and Schwarz, 2008;Shapiro and Nielsen, 2013). ...
Book
Full-text available
Conference Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications
... For example, the font of written words can convey the abstract concept of fluency. Instructions written in mistral font lead the reader to think that the described task is more difficult (Song & Schwarz, 2008). Further, whether languages are written alphabetically or ideographically greatly affects children's visual skill development. ...
Chapter
According to current embodied cognition models, sensorimotor experiences play a critical role in cognition, including social cognition. Since our bodies are embedded in a sociocultural context, it is likely that the link between bodily states and cognition is shaped and constrained by culture. Here we argue that culture affects embodied cognition through three distinct means: (1) the physical environment and the affordances it offers, (2) cultural values and conventions that encourage certain sensorimotor experiences while discouraging others (such as body postures of submission or pride, smiling, hand-washing, and touching), and (3) cultural differences related to language, including metaphors and script direction. The present review is not meant to be exhaustive, but it offers selective insights into the paths through which diverse cultural environments shape embodied cognition. The chapter also discusses possible future venues for research on cultural embodied cognition.
... When exercise routines and cooking recipes were presented in an easy-to-read (vs. hard-to-read) font, participants also expected them to be easier to follow and were more motivated to carry them out (Song & Schwarz, 2008). Fluency research is thus not only relevant with regards to trust in scientific messages and science, but also with regards to adherence to messages. ...
Article
We investigated linguistic factors that affect peoples’ trust in science and their commitment to follow evidence-based recommendations, crucial for limiting the spread of COVID-19. In an experiment ( N = 617), we examined whether complex (vs. simple) scientific statements on mask-wearing can decrease trust in information and its sources, and hinder adherence to behavioral measures. In line with former research on social exclusion through complex language, we also examined whether complexity effects are mediated via feelings of social exclusion. Results indicate that negative effects of text complexity were present, but only for participants with a strong conspiracy mentality. This finding informs how to increase trust in science among individuals with a high conspiracy mentality, a population commonly known for its skepticism towards scientific evidence.
... Data-limited means that increasing effort does not help to improve performance as for example in perceptual fluency tasks (Westbrook & Braver, 2015). Since low perceptual fluency is experienced as aversive and therefore is to be avoided (Dreisbach & Fischer, 2011;Reber et al., 1998;Song & Schwarz, 2008), the effort costs in this task is suited to measure the subjective aversion costs separately from the effort avoidance costs. Resource-limited means that increasing effort does improve your performance, like for example in math tasks. ...
Article
Full-text available
Human beings tend to avoid effort, if a less effortful option is equally rewarding. However, and in sharp contrast to this claim, we repeatedly found that (a subset of) participants deliberately choose the more difficult of two tasks in a voluntary task switching (VTS) paradigm even though avoidance of the difficult task was allowed (Jurczyk et al., Motivation Science 5:295–313, 2019). In this study, we investigate to what extent the deliberate switch to the difficult task is determined by the actual objective or the subjective effort costs for the difficult task. In two experiments, participants (N = 100, each) first went through several blocks of voluntary task choices between an easy and a difficult task. After that, they worked through an effort discounting paradigm, EDT, (Westbrook et al., PLoS One 8(7):e68210, 2013) that required participants to make a series of iterative choices between re-doing a difficult task block for a fixed amount or an easy task block for a variable (lower) amount of money until the individual indifference point was reached. In Experiment 1, the EDT comprised the same tasks from the VTS, in Experiment 2, EDT used another set of easy vs. difficult tasks. Results showed that the voluntary switch to the difficult task was mostly predicted by the objective performance costs and only marginally be the subjective effort cost. The switch to the difficult task may thus be less irrational than originally thought and at its avoidance at least partially driven by economic considerations.
... Processing fluency has been shown to affect judgments people make in various contexts (Oppenheimer, 2008). For example, if a set of exercise routine instructions is more difficult to read, participants perceive the exercise as taking longer and being more difficult to complete (Song & Schwarz, 2008). In that study, processing fluency also affected how willing a participant was to take part in the exercise. ...
Thesis
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/112111/1/jsarkis.pdf
... For instance, statements like Osorno is a city in Chile seem more false when figure-ground contrast makes them difficult to read and perceptually disfluent (Reber & Schwarz, 1999). Recipes also seem more difficult when presented in a difficult-to-read font (Song & Schwarz, 2008) and food additives seem more dangerous when they are difficult to pronounce (Song & Schwarz, 2009). Metacognitive ease or difficulty contextualizes the inferences derived from statements. ...
Thesis
How do humans understand the meaning of words? Generative views of language presume that word meanings are stored in a mental lexicon and retrieved when a word is encountered. On the other hand, new research on language suggests that word meanings are heavily derived from and dependent upon situational context. Furthermore, new research on situated social cognition emphasizes the situated nature of human reasoning, showing how stable thought processes are actually highly sensitive to context and situations. In this dissertation, I argue that humans construct mental representations of word meaning by drawing upon contextual and situational information, in line with both new research on language and views of situated social cognition. I present three papers that support this hypothesis. In chapter two, I demonstrate how people draw upon surface metaphors relating cancer to an enemy to understand cancer and how to prevent it. In chapter three, I show that people draw upon incidental sensory states of heaviness to infer whether a book’s synopsis relays its importance. And in chapter four, I establish that the generalized affect of a word’s collocational profile (i.e., its semantic prosody) guides meaning inferences. The final (fifth) chapter summarizes factors that guide what meaning is interpreted from words and statements. These factors are organized at different levels of analysis (word-, sentence-, text-, and reader-level), and come from a variety of disciplines. The model ultimately demonstrates that inferences of meaning are highly sensitive to context, and implications for social psychology are discussed.
... Study 2 was conducted to replicate results using a methodological variation designed to avoid an effect of truth provision on procedural fairness, by making the withholding of information less blatant. The large amount of redaction also may have affected readability or experienced fluency (Song & Schwarz, 2008). Although fluency impacting how people might make judgments such as truth knowing is not strictly inconsistent with our view, we altered the manipulation used in Study 2. ...
Article
Victims of crime often want the truth about what happened. Yet, how exactly is truth valuable? Commonly, truth is thought to be instrumentally valuable by providing useful knowledge. Truth would be beneficial for victims because specific information may afford re‐appraisals or greater understanding. The present research shows that truth may have inherent value independent from information content by providing truth knowing, a subjective sense of having the complete account, which facilitates closure. In Study 1 (n = 200) and Study 2 (n = 195), participants imagined themselves as victims of crime and were presented with one of two reports identical in content but designed to appear either complete or incomplete. As predicted, the complete report increased truth knowing and not understanding. Truth knowing was associated with greater closure, reduced affect, and greater forgiveness. In Study 3 (n = 157), real crime victims responded to one of two question sets making salient either the completeness or incompleteness of the information available about the crime. Salience of the completeness of information increased truth knowing, increased closure, reduced anger, and was associated with greater forgiveness. Findings suggest that truth knowing may facilitate the recovery of victims independently from instrumental value derived from content.
... We asked participants about food security rather than food scarcity in instructions because studies on sentence comprehension show that positive sentences are generally easier to understand (e.g., Sherman, 1973). Moreover, people infer the effort needed to complete the task from the difficulty of its instructions, and they are willing to engage less in tasks deemed difficult (Song & Schwarz, 2008). The word "scarcity" receives approximately 50 times fewer search hits through the Google search engine than the word "security." ...
Article
Mass media extensively inform societies about events threatening the global food supply (e.g., pandemics or Brexit). Consumers exposed to such communication may perceive food resources as becoming scarcer. In line with an evolutionary account, these perceptions can shift decision-making in domains such as food preferences or prosociality. However, existing literature has solely focused on actual and past food insecurity experiences threatening mostly low-income families, thus neglecting the future-oriented perceptions among the general population. This paper broadens the food insecurity research scope by developing a new construct—anticipated food scarcity (AFS)—which is defined as the perception that food resources are becoming less available (in the future). We have developed and psychometrically validated the 8-item Anticipated Food Scarcity Scale (AFSS) in eight studies (N = 1333). The 8-item AFSS is unidimensional and has good psychometric qualities. The scale is sensitive to food scarcity cues and, therefore, can be used in experimental research. Moreover, its relatively narrow set of items makes it an exceptionally potent tool for use in online surveys, field settings, and lab studies. Taken together, the AFSS presents an alternative approach to food scarcity measurement in affluent societies and, consequently, can foster novel research on food waste, prosocial behaviors, and other similar topic areas. Keywords: food scarcity, food shortages, food insecurity, the insurance hypothesis, evolutionary mismatch
... In this regard, the perceived value of the resources exchanged between companies and consumers leads to transaction consolidation and encourages repetition (Peloza and Shang, 2011). Likewise, processing fluency of a message is linked to favorable consumer responses such as credibility, preferences and choice (Song and Schwarz, 2008;Shapiro and Nielsen, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Through-out human history, people have a tendancy to rely on trustworthy sources in their interactions and when exchanging information such as scholars, government representatives or organisation icons. However, this is no longer the case as the digital era has emerged. Currently, individuals tend to virtually trust other people at the other end of their screens, the main commonality between them is that they use both the internet and certain social platforms (Keib et al., 2018). Social networking websites are hugely impacting individuals’ opinions according to the current stream of opinions and news.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
It has been arguedContext that the context of reading is a primary determinant of the legibilityLegibility of different typefaces and the readers’ expectationsExpectations of the legibilityLegibility of what they are reading. Newspaper headlinesHeadlines have been used as a specific contextContext in which researchers have studied the legibilityLegibility and connotations of different kinds of text. Wheildon[aut]Wheildon, C. presented an extensive programme of research on the legibilityLegibility of different kinds of text. However, his research has come under extensive criticism and suffers from further issues that have not been noted in previous research. Several researchers have subsequently considered the effect of variations in typefaces and the expectationsExpectations of readers in different kinds of situations.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
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Research onComprehending textreading from screensreading textReading textreading from screens presented on computer screens has enabled investigators to use other forms of technology such as eye-tracking equipment. As with research on reading from paper, asking participants to read continuous text provides less opportunity for researchers to impose experimental control over their reading behaviour. Some researchers have instead focused on their participants’ comprehension of material. A particular device that has been investigated is the presentation of letters, words, or groups of words one at a time at the reader’s point of fixation. This was originally thought to compensate for the limitations of handheld devicesHandheld devices. It has tended to be assumed that sans serif typefaces are more legible than serif typefaces when used on handheld devicesHandheld devicesor smartphonesSmartphones. Finally, this chapter describes research on the connotations of different typefaces when presented on computer screens.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
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This chapter concludes Part II by summarising and discussing the key findings. Are there any differences in the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces when they are used to generate material on computer monitors or other screens? Are there any differences in readers’ preferences and connotations between serif and sans serif typefaces when they are used to generate material on computer monitors or other screens? Where does this leave previously stated assumptions about the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces on computer screens?
... Third, a concrete deadline (e.g., '10 June') was added to the relative deadline ('in six weeks') to free debtors from the need to pause reading for calculating the deadline or memorising to calculate it later, thereby allowing a more fluent reading experience. Task instructions that read more fluently were found to be associated with higher levels of estimated task easiness (Song & Schwarz, 2008), while lower levels of reading fluency have been associated with choice deferral (Novemsky et al., 2007). ...
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Debtors were stimulated to contact their creditors to negotiate a repayment plan. Contacting creditors was important because debtors were unlikely to repay the debt immediately and upon contacting, debtors could agree on a repayment plan to repay the debt in the long run. Using insights from scarcity theory and nudging techniques, a standard debt repayment letter was adapted and both letters were compared. Experimental results ( N = 3,330) provide support for the use of nudging techniques as more debtors agreed on a repayment plan and response rates increased. The results underline the importance of stimulating debtors to contact their creditors.
... Semantic fluency Research in cognitive psychology and linguistics has demonstrated the important connection between linguistic properties of a conversation and the ease with which it is processed (Fernández-Sabiote & López-López, 2020; Song & Schwarz, 2008). Specifically, research has shown that simpler language leads to more fluent processing of messages (Thompson & Ince, 2013). ...
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Voice-based interfaces provide new opportunities for firms to interact with consumers along the customer journey. The current work demonstrates across four studies that voice-based (as opposed to text-based) interfaces promote more flow-like user experiences, resulting in more positively-valenced service experiences, and ultimately more favorable behavioral firm outcomes (i.e., contract renewal, conversion rates, and consumer sentiment). Moreover, we also provide evidence for two important boundary conditions that reduce such flow-like user experiences in voice-based interfaces (i.e., semantic disfluency and the amount of conversational turns). The findings of this research highlight how fundamental theories of human communication can be harnessed to create more experiential service experiences with positive downstream consequences for consumers and firms. These findings have important practical implications for firms that aim at leveraging the potential of voice-based interfaces to improve consumers' service experiences and the theory-driven "conversational design" of voice-based interfaces.
... In a field experiment, Lawrence, Ryans, Sun, and Laptev (2018) promote earnings announcements to a subset of Yahoo Finance users for a randomly selected firms, and find that promoted firms experience stronger market reaction to earnings news. This finding provides direct evidence that investors tend to trade attention-grabbing stocks (Barber and Odean, 2008 Psychology research shows that individuals put more weight on cues with higher processing fluency in their decision making (Song and Schwarz 2008). An experimental study by Rennekamp (2012) shows that a more readable disclosure with higher processing fluency increases investors' confidence that they can incorporate the disclosed information into valuation decision. ...
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Investor attention is a limited resource. This chapter discusses the literature on investor limited attention and its effects on capital markets. Theoretical and empirical studies find that when some investors are inattentive, the immediate market reaction to news is incomplete and the price exhibits a post-announcement drift. The underreaction is stronger when investor attention is distracted by competing stimuli, when the information is less salient or harder to process, and when investors are less sophisticated. While retail investors suffer more from limited attention, the effects of limited attention are also significant for sophisticated market participants, such as financial analysts, institutional investors, market makers, and financial data providers. Firms incorporate investor limited attention by choosing disclosure timing and format to highlight good news and reduce attention to unfavorable information. Collectively, the reviewed studies indicate that investor limited attention has important and far-reaching effects on capital markets.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
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AReading textreading from papernumberComprehending textreading from paper of studies have evaluated the role of typographic variables (including the presence or absence of serifs) in reading continuous text. Asking participants to read continuous text allows less scope for experimental control, and so some researchers have instead focused on participants’ comprehension of written material. Subjective impressions of the legibilityLegibility of different typefaces can be regarded as one aspect of their connotative meaningConnotative meaning, and other researchers have asked participants to evaluate typefaces on different dimensions using single rating scales or semantic differentialsSemantic differential. The chapter concludes by considering the role of such connotative variables in the legibilityLegibility of text printed in different typefaces.
... What may unite both effects is the strong influence of processing fluency on judgments. The effects of perceived effort relate to fluency: Song and Schwarz (2008) had participants read instructions in either easy-to-read or difficult-to-read fonts and found that participants judged easy-to-read fonts as being more fluent and were more willing to read them. Song and Schwarz (2009) also explored the relationship between familiarity and fluency and found that participants rated food additives as both more unfavorable and less familiar if they were difficult to pronounce when compared to easy-to-pronounce food additives. ...
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Why do learners not choose ideal study strategies when learning? Past research suggests that learners frequently misinterpret the effort affiliated with efficient strategies as being indicative of poor learning. Expanding on past findings, we explored the integration of study habits into this model. We conducted two experiments where learners experienced two contrasting strategies—blocked and interleaved schedules—to learn to discriminate between images of bird families. After experiencing each strategy, learners rated each according to its perceived effort, learning, and familiarity. Next, learners were asked to choose which strategy they would use in the future. Mediation analyses revealed, for both experiments, that the more mentally effortful interleaving felt, the less learners felt they learned, and the less likely learners were to use it in future learning. Further, in this study, strategy familiarity predicted strategy choice, also mediated by learners’ perceived learning. Additionally, Study 2 verified that, in contrast to learners’ judgments, the less familiar interleaving schedule resulted in better learning. Consequently, learners are making ineffective learning judgments based on their perceptions of effort and familiarity and, therefore, do not make use of optimal study strategies in self-regulated learning decisions.
... In a field experiment, Lawrence, Ryans, Sun, and Laptev (2018) promote earnings announcements to a subset of Yahoo Finance users for a randomly selected firms and find that promoted firms experience stronger market reaction to earnings news. This finding provides direct evidence that investors tend to trade attention-grabbing stocks (Barber and Odean, 2008 Psychology research shows that individuals put more weight on cues with higher processing fluency in their decision-making (Song and Schwarz 2008). An experimental study by Rennekamp (2012) shows that a more readable disclosure with higher processing fluency increases investors' confidence that they can incorporate the disclosed information into valuation decisions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Investor attention is a limited resource. This chapter discusses the literature on investor limited attention and its effects on capital markets. Theoretical and empirical studies find that, when some investors are inattentive, the immediate market reaction to news is incomplete, and stock prices exhibit post-announcement drift. Underreaction is stronger when investor attention is distracted by competing stimuli, when the information is less salient or harder to process, and when investors are less sophisticated. While retail investors suffer more, the effects of limited attention are also significant for sophisticated market participants, such as financial analysts, institutional investors, market makers, and financial data providers. Firms exploit investor limited attention by choosing disclosure timing and format to highlight good news and obscure bad news. Collectively, the studies reviewed here indicate that investor limited attention has important and far-reaching effects on capital markets.
... Easy activities require less mental effort, and people may feel more fluent in engaging in them. Song and Schwarz (2008) show that people are more likely to engage in an activity when instructions are easier to read and understand. This suggests that simplifying the presentation of information and instructions in official communication may help the taxpayer take action -make a payment. ...
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The paper showcases the results of a behavioural field quasi-experiment conducted with the aim of testing adjusted framing of standard communication of local government with debtors related to payment of a waste disposal fees. Two experimental versions of standard tax compliance reminder letters statistically significantly increased the odds of paying the arrear on waste disposal tax. The standard framing of letter notice from the local government to debtors has been experimentally compared to its simplified versions expanded with deterrence and descriptive social norm message. The results indicate that the simplified notice is most effective when stressing the negative consequences of not paying a debt. The results also suggest that stressing the negative consequences of not paying a debt is the most effective treatment when the odds of paying the arrear are 2.23 higher of the odds of paying the arrear if the debtor receives no intervention (standard notice).
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
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This chapter discusses the increased use of screen-based reading in education and in daily life generally, noting that readers usually have the option of printing off screen-based material to be read on paper. Some existing typefaces were taken over for use in computer systems, while other serif and sans serif typefaces were developed specifically for on-screen use. The chapter discusses the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces projected using older technology such as slide projectorsSlide projectors, overhead projectorsOverhead projectors, and PowerPointPowerPoint. Finally, the chapter describes some of the technical issues concerning the way that images are displayed using cathode-ray tubesCathode-Ray Tubes (CRTs) and liquid crystal displays.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
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Any differences in the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces might become more apparent in readers whose visual systems are challenged as the result of disablement. Some researchers have focused on children in special educationSpecial education. In particular, children with visual impairment might be more sensitive to typographical factors. It has been suggested that the effects of congenital visual impairmentVisual impairment, congenital might be different from those of acquired visual impairmentVisual impairment, acquired. Finally, a majority of people with aphasiaAphasia also exhibit an impairment of reading, while other people without aphasiaAphasia may exhibit the specific disorder of reading known as dyslexia.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
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As novice readers, young children may be disproportionately affected by different typefaces. The use of different typefaces may also affect how readily children acquire the ability to read. Research by Burt and Kerr[aut]Kerr, J. is often cited in support of the idea that serif typefaces are more legible. Zachrisson[aut]Zachrisson, B. provided a more thorough account of the role of typographic variables in reading among children of different ages using various research methods. It has been known for more than 100 years that children tend to confuse letters that are mirror images of each other (such as p and q), and this may in principle be affected by the presence or absence of serifs. Older readers tend to suffer from visual problems which may depend on typographical factors. This is of practical importance, as in the design of labels for medication containers.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
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This chapter concludes Part I by summarising and discussing the key findings. Are there any differences in the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces when they are used to generate printed material? Are there any differences in readers’ preferences and connotations between serif and sans serif typefaces when they are used to generate printed material? Where does this leave previously stated assumptions about the legibilityLegibility of serif and sans serif typefaces? The chapter concludes by assessing the position adopted in the latest edition of the American Psychological Association’sAmerican Psychological Association, Publication Manual Publication Manual.
... Participants' preferences might not be a reliable indicator of the objective legibility of different typefaces, but they may well have practical consequences. Song and Schwarz (2008b) carried out three studies in which the participants read instructions for carrying out a particular task printed either in a plain sans serif typeface (Arial in all three studies) or in an elaborate cursive typeface (Brush455 BT or Mistral in different studies). In all three experiments, the sans serif typeface was rated as easier to read than the cursive typeface, but there was no difference in the participants' memory for particular details in the instructions. ...
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This end-piece considers lessons that can be learned from this review. Some researchers have put forward reasons why serifs might render typefaces more legible. Others have suggested that the presence or absence of serifs is a proxy for some other property of typefaces. In fact, there seems to be no difference in the legibilityLegibility of serif typefaces and sans serif typefaces either when reading from paper or when reading from screens. The most important lesson is that assertions to the effect that “everybody knows” that such-and-such” should be regarded simply as conjectures that might be subject to refutation through carefully designed research.
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Nutrition claims are positive information about foods, which are widely used as a marketing strategy on labels. On the contrary, front-of-package nutritional labeling (FoPNL) aims to make it easier for consumers to understand the nutritional composition of foods and favor healthy food choices. However, the concomitant presence of nutrition claims and FoPNL may hinder the understanding, judgment, and choices of consumers at the moment of purchase. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of nutrition claims on the efficacy of FoPNL models in the understanding of nutritional information, healthfulness perception, and purchase intention of Brazilian consumers. It was an experimental cross-sectional study carried out using an online questionnaire, with a total of 720 participants randomly divided into four FoPNL conditions: control, octagon, triangle, and magnifying glass. Each participant looked at 12 food packages, which were produced following the factorial design: (i) food category (cereal bar, whole grain cookies, and snacks); (ii) product type (containing one critical nutrient × containing two critical nutrients); and (iii) nutrition claims (present × absent). The comprehension of nutritional information was evaluated through the identification of excessive nutrients, and the healthfulness perception and purchase intention were evaluated using a seven-point scale. The results indicated that the presence of FoPNL increased the understanding of the information and reduced healthfulness perception and purchase intention. The presence of nutrition claims influenced the three outcomes, decreasing the probability of understanding information about food composition by 32% (OR 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.58–0.78, p < 0.01) and significantly increasing ( p < 0.05) average health scores (1.95–2.02) and purchase intention (2.00–2.05). Nonetheless, the interaction “FoPNL × claims” was not significant, which indicated that claims act independently. All FoPNL models were more effective than the control. For the least healthful type of product (two nutrients in excess), the octagon and triangle models were superior to the magnifying glass, regarding the outcome of healthfulness perception. The results prove the efficacy of FoPNL in consumer understanding and judgment. Despite the positive effects of FoPNL, it did not cancel the positivity bias generated by the claims.
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Infographics, an abbreviated term for informational graphics, are visual representations of complex ideas or concepts. They have long played a role in the dissemination of ideas from various fields, such as business and arts. However, infographics have had an increasing role in the health care field and medical education, both for professionals and patients. To date, there is limited evidence on the use of infographics in the pharmacy profession. Conversely, the evidence is emerging for their use in other health care fields as an innovative strategy for education, dissemination of research, and public information. In this narrative review, we aim to summarize the basic principles of infographic design, the role of infographics in education and research dissemination, and the role of amplifying audience reach through sharing infographics on social media. Medline and Google Scholar databases were searched for articles between 1969 and 2020 relating to infographics, healthcare, research and education then screened by all authors for their relevance to pharmacy practice. This narrative review discussed the supportive literature for the role of infographics in patient education, higher‐level education, and research dissemination with a closing discussion on the intersection between social media, infographis and education. There is evolving evidence to support the use of infographics in patient education, research dissemination and higher‐level education. More research is needed to identify the role and impact of infographics in pharmacy education and clinical practice settings.
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The human brain is known to process information using fast and intuitive processing (System I) and deliberative or reflective processing (System II). Both these systems work simultaneously and complementarily to aid decision-making and preference construction. The attraction effect is a choice anomaly that occurs when consumer preference between two alternatives polarizes toward one of the alternatives upon the inclusion of a third (asymmetrically dominated) option. Past studies have shown that suppression of System II magnifies the attraction effect and, thereby, concluded that the attraction effect is a result of System I. In our experimental studies, contrary to these past studies, we find a robust attraction effect when the reflective processing (System II) is induced using a priming procedure. We rule out several possible alternative explanations of our findings and discuss potential research implications.
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We studied the effect of an environmentally conscious nudge on the choice of car that our respondents make. Our primary data driven study was conducted after adequately reviewing the literature pertaining to the field of behavioral environmental economics. Our experiment shows that the nudge worked in most cases, except those which involve the question of prestige and status. We also found that in case if the preference for a car in particular segment is high with a small difference in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, then the respondents tend to choose the car of their liking. It is concluded that tools like nudges are in indeed helpful in reducing the emission levels from what we currently have.
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Knowing what information a user wants is a paramount challenge to information science and technology. Implicit feedback is key to solving this challenge, as it allows information systems to learn about a user's needs and preferences. The available feedback, however, tends to be limited and its interpretation shows to be difficult. To tackle this challenge, we present a user study that explores whether tracking the eyes can unpack part of the complexity inherent to relevance and relevance decisions. The eye behavior of 30 participants reading 18 news articles was compared with their subjectively appraised comprehensibility and interest at a discourse level. Using linear regression models, the eye‐tracking signal explained 49.93% (comprehensibility) and 30.41% (interest) of variance (p < .001). We conclude that eye behavior provides implicit feedback beyond accuracy that enables new forms of adaptation and interaction support for personalized information systems.
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Some research suggests people are overconfident because of personality characteristics, lack of insight, or because overconfidence is beneficial in its own right. But other research fits with the possibility that fluent experience in the moment can rapidly drive overconfidence. For example, fluency can push people to become overconfident in their ability to throw a dart, know how rainbows form or predict the future value of a commodity. But surely there are limits to overconfidence. That is, even in the face of fluency manipulations known to increase feelings of confidence, reasonable people would reject the thought that they, for example, might be able to land a plane in an emergency. To address this question, we conducted two experiments comprising a total of 780 people. We asked some people (but not others) to watch a trivially informative video of a pilot landing a plane before they rated their confidence in their own ability to land a plane. We found watching the video inflated people's confidence that they could land a plane. Our findings extend prior work by suggesting that increased semantic context creates illusions not just of prior experience or understanding—but also of the ability to actually do something implausible.
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Introduction: Today, the meaning of environment is one of the most important issues in urbanism and contemporary schools of thought have always sought to theorize the "nature of meaning and the process of its development" in urban spaces. The "post-positivism" approach with a collaborative and inter-subjective process and "post-structuralism" approach with an individual and pluralistic process in urban studies are among the effective and widely used approaches in this regard. It seems that these schools have shortcomings due to the lack of capacity to benefit from the initiatives of other scientific fields as well as a single-level view of meaning. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of urbanism, it seems necessary to use related sciences to the cognitive and perceptual structures of the individual to explain the process of meaning development in urban. Recent studies in the field of cognitive science propose the theory of "situated cognition" to explain the process of environmental perception. This theory describes meaning as an individual's cognitive interaction within situations. In response to the question, " What is the cognitive-cultural process of meaning formation in urban space and what are its achievements in comparison with other developmental approaches to meaning?", the purpose of this paper is to generalize the application of cognitive science concepts related to cognition of human and environment to the field of environmental studies, including urbanism and reduce the gap in the interdisciplinary theoretical studies of these two fields. Methodology: The research method in this article is a comparative- analytical method that is done by explaining the position of cognitive-cultural approach in comparison with post-positivist and post-structuralist approaches in the field of urban studies. First, post-positivist and post-structuralist approaches are presented as comprehensive and widely used developmental approaches in studying the meaning of the environment in urbanism. Then, the theory of situated cognition and its relationship with culture is examined in urban meaning formation. In the following, by generalizing the theory of situated cognition to the field of urbanism, the cognitive-cultural approach is introduced as a new approach to the study of meaning development in urban spaces. And finally, by comparing the meaning developmental process in each of the approaches, the position of the cognitive-cultural approach is inferred and analyzed in the field of urbanism. Results: In line with explaining the meaning developmental process in urban studies with a cognitive-cultural approach, the affordances that shape human behavior can be described as "cognitive-cultural affordances". Based on this, it can be said that an individual interacts with the urban space by identifying the cognitive-cultural affordances hidden in it. In this interaction, urban space with cognitive-cultural affordances is considered as a platform for discovering the meanings of environment. People dependent on their cognitive-cultural experience of the urban space and through cultural mentality (at the pervasive level) and cultural procedures (at the specific level) perceive and identify these spatial meanings. In this way, new situated meanings are reproduced by available and accessible knowledge at two specific and pervasive levels. Discussion: In the ontology of the meaning development in urbanism, urban spaces are meaningful constructs that in the approach of post-positivism are epistemologically reproduced with inter-subjective mentality and in interaction with physical structures, but in the approach of post-structuralism they are represented with individual mentality and in the form of social structures. According to the cognitive-cultural approach, meaning is simultaneously reproduced on pervasive level with cultural mentality and on a specific level with cultural practices. In post-positivist approach, the factors of the meaning development in urban spaces are physical characteristics, socio-cultural contexts and the way of applying meaning in a specific situation. In post-structuralist approach, these factors are physical structures, social structures and the way of abstraction of meaning in a specific situation. In other words, in these two approaches, an individual is a human being with cultural and social contexts, who interprets the meanings of the urban space and produces mental meanings through his/her mindset. While in the cognitive-cultural approach, the cognitive-cultural affordances of the urban space, the cognitive-cultural experience from the urban space and the way of availability/accessibility in a specific situation are the factors of meaning development. In other words, this approach examines the traces of culture both in the environment and in humans. Conclusion: The main achievement of this research is to explain the cognitive-cultural approach as a new approach in interdisciplinary studies of urbanism. This approach has penetrated into the cultural dimensions of life by presenting a comprehensive concept of affordances in urban spaces under the title of "cognitive-cultural affordances". By presenting a multi-level definition of the contextual learning and transferring process of cognitive-cultural affordances in the city, it provides the possibility of a comprehensive and systematic understanding of human mental processes in connection with the urban space in long-term and short-term dynamic interactions. The proposed cognitive-cultural approach of the research with a multilevel and situational view of meaning, covers the shortcomings of previous approaches in urban studies such as a single-level view of meaning and introduces urbanism as situated cultural knowledge. In this way, it provides the possibility of a comprehensive and systematic understanding of human mental processes in relation to the urban space and leads to the creation of efficient urban spaces in accordance with the needs of the citizens at a higher level.
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Human reasoning is accompanied by metacognitive experiences, most notably the ease or difficulty of recall and thought generation and the fluency with which new information can be processed. These experiences are informative in their own right. They can serve as a basis of judgment in addition to, or at the expense of, declarative information and can qualify the conclusions drawn from recalled content. What exactly people conclude from a given metacognitive experience depends on the naive theory of mental processes they bring to bear, rendering the outcomes highly variable. The obtained judgments cannot be predicted on the basis of accessible declarative information alone; we cannot understand human judgment without taking into account the interplay of declarative and experiential information.
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The general objective of the study was to examine the influence of various aspects of self-efficacy on the exercise attendance of novice exercisers. This objective had three distinct features. First, self-efficacy was operationalized as both perceptions toovercome barriers and appraisals of ability toschedule regular exercise sessions. Second, a more unstructured, less regimented, form of exercise that required greater personal control was examined—the forms of activity chosen and self-regulated by novice participants. Third, individuals in the initiation stage of their exercise history were studied. Results indicated that both forms of efficacy (barrier and scheduling) significantly predicted behavioral intention (BI) throughout the exercise program (R 2 changes=.13–.26,p's<.02). BI was found to be the best predictor of the first 2 months of attendance (R 2 change=.12,p<.05), while scheduling efficacy and past behavior best predicted attendance during the last 2 months (R 2 change=.16 and .24,p<.02 andp<.001, respectively). A model combining both social cognitive variables (efficacy beliefs) and behavioral variables (past attendance) captured more variation in predicting the last 2 months of attendance than a model involving only social-cognitive variables.
Feelings and phenomenal experi-ences Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles
  • N Schwarz
  • G L Clore
Schwarz, N., & Clore, G.L. (2007). Feelings and phenomenal experi-ences. In A. Kruglanski & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (2nd ed., pp. 385–407). New York: Guilford.
Uniting the tribes of fluency. Unpublished manuscript
  • A L Alter
  • D M Oppenheimer
Alter, A.L., & Oppenheimer, D.M. (2008). Uniting the tribes of fluency. Unpublished manuscript, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing expe-rience? Personality and Social Psychology Review
  • R Reber
  • N Schwarz
  • P Winkielman
Reber, R., Schwarz, N., & Winkielman, P. (2004). Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing expe-rience? Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 364–382.