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Information Empowered: The School Librarian as an Agent of Academic Achievement in Alaska Schools. Revised Edition

Authors:
  • RSL Research Group

Abstract

This study is an assessment of the impact of Alaska school librarians on academic achievement in the state's public schools. It examines the direct relationship between such staffing and student performance and identifies selected activities of library media staff that affect test scores. Other conditions of library media center operation were also considered as potential predictors of academic achievement. During the 1997-98 school year, library media centers in 211 Alaska public schools were surveyed about their staffing levels, hours of operation, staff activities, usage, technology, policies, and cooperation with public libraries. Each library media program characteristic was assessed as a potential predictor of academic achievement, and relationships among potential library media predictors that might create indirect effects on academic achievement were also examined. Recommendations for raising student achievement levels are included. Appendices include a bibliography, list of participants, copy of the questionnaire, a brochure entitled "A School Librarian Can Make a Difference!" and early results briefs. Although the findings, conclusions, and recommendations reported in this work are substantially the same as those of its original edition, this edition corrects typographical and transcription errors, eliminates unnecessary and misleading methodological information, clarifies ambiguous statements, corrects misinterpretations of statistical details, and contains citations accidentally left out of the original bibliography. (MES)
The full text of this report is available at: http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED443445.
... 1. School library staff size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Baumbach, 2002 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2000 ;Lance et al., 1999 ); 2. Presence of full-time, certifi ed school librarians ( Callison, 2004 ;Rodney, Lance, Hamilton-Pennell, & Center, 2002 ;Lance et al., 1999Lance et al., , 2000 ); 3. Frequency of library-centered instruction ( Lance et al., 1999 ) and collabora- tive instruction between school librarians and teachers ( Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001, 2005Lance et al., 2000 ); 4. Size and currency of library collections ( Burgin, Bracy, & Brown, 2003 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance et al., 2000 ); 5. Networked library access to licensed databases ( Lance, Rodney, & HamiltonPennell, 2002 ); 6. Flexible scheduling ( Lance et al., 2005 ;Rodney, Lance, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2003 ); and 7. School library budget size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Lance et al., 2001 ). ...
... 1. School library staff size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Baumbach, 2002 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2000 ;Lance et al., 1999 ); 2. Presence of full-time, certifi ed school librarians ( Callison, 2004 ;Rodney, Lance, Hamilton-Pennell, & Center, 2002 ;Lance et al., 1999Lance et al., , 2000 ); 3. Frequency of library-centered instruction ( Lance et al., 1999 ) and collabora- tive instruction between school librarians and teachers ( Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001, 2005Lance et al., 2000 ); 4. Size and currency of library collections ( Burgin, Bracy, & Brown, 2003 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance et al., 2000 ); 5. Networked library access to licensed databases ( Lance, Rodney, & HamiltonPennell, 2002 ); 6. Flexible scheduling ( Lance et al., 2005 ;Rodney, Lance, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2003 ); and 7. School library budget size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Lance et al., 2001 ). ...
... 1. School library staff size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Baumbach, 2002 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2000 ;Lance et al., 1999 ); 2. Presence of full-time, certifi ed school librarians ( Callison, 2004 ;Rodney, Lance, Hamilton-Pennell, & Center, 2002 ;Lance et al., 1999Lance et al., , 2000 ); 3. Frequency of library-centered instruction ( Lance et al., 1999 ) and collabora- tive instruction between school librarians and teachers ( Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001, 2005Lance et al., 2000 ); 4. Size and currency of library collections ( Burgin, Bracy, & Brown, 2003 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance et al., 2000 ); 5. Networked library access to licensed databases ( Lance, Rodney, & HamiltonPennell, 2002 ); 6. Flexible scheduling ( Lance et al., 2005 ;Rodney, Lance, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2003 ); and 7. School library budget size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Lance et al., 2001 ). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Reconceptualizing Libraries brings together cases and models developed by experts in the information and learning sciences to identify the potential for libraries to adapt and transform in the wake of new technologies for connected learning and discovery. Chapter authors explore the ways that the increased interest in the design research methods, digital media emphases, and technological infrastructure of the learning sciences can foster new collaborations and formats for education within physical library spaces. Models and case studies from a variety of library contexts demonstrate how library professionals can act as change agents and design partners and how patrons can engage with these evolving experiences. This is a timely and innovative volume for understanding how physical libraries can incorporate and thrive as educational resources using new developments in technology and in the learning sciences. https://www.routledge.com/Reconceptualizing-Libraries-Perspectives-from-the-Information-and-Learning/Lee-Phillips/p/book/9781138309562
... 1. School library staff size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Baumbach, 2002 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2000 ;Lance et al., 1999 ); 2. Presence of full-time, certifi ed school librarians ( Callison, 2004 ;Rodney, Lance, Hamilton-Pennell, & Center, 2002 ;Lance et al., 1999Lance et al., , 2000 ); 3. Frequency of library-centered instruction ( Lance et al., 1999 ) and collabora- tive instruction between school librarians and teachers ( Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001, 2005Lance et al., 2000 ); 4. Size and currency of library collections ( Burgin, Bracy, & Brown, 2003 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance et al., 2000 ); 5. Networked library access to licensed databases ( Lance, Rodney, & HamiltonPennell, 2002 ); 6. Flexible scheduling ( Lance et al., 2005 ;Rodney, Lance, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2003 ); and 7. School library budget size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Lance et al., 2001 ). ...
... 1. School library staff size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Baumbach, 2002 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2000 ;Lance et al., 1999 ); 2. Presence of full-time, certifi ed school librarians ( Callison, 2004 ;Rodney, Lance, Hamilton-Pennell, & Center, 2002 ;Lance et al., 1999Lance et al., , 2000 ); 3. Frequency of library-centered instruction ( Lance et al., 1999 ) and collabora- tive instruction between school librarians and teachers ( Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001, 2005Lance et al., 2000 ); 4. Size and currency of library collections ( Burgin, Bracy, & Brown, 2003 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance et al., 2000 ); 5. Networked library access to licensed databases ( Lance, Rodney, & HamiltonPennell, 2002 ); 6. Flexible scheduling ( Lance et al., 2005 ;Rodney, Lance, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2003 ); and 7. School library budget size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Lance et al., 2001 ). ...
... 1. School library staff size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Baumbach, 2002 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2000 ;Lance et al., 1999 ); 2. Presence of full-time, certifi ed school librarians ( Callison, 2004 ;Rodney, Lance, Hamilton-Pennell, & Center, 2002 ;Lance et al., 1999Lance et al., , 2000 ); 3. Frequency of library-centered instruction ( Lance et al., 1999 ) and collabora- tive instruction between school librarians and teachers ( Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001, 2005Lance et al., 2000 ); 4. Size and currency of library collections ( Burgin, Bracy, & Brown, 2003 ;Smith, 2001 ;Lance et al., 2000 ); 5. Networked library access to licensed databases ( Lance, Rodney, & HamiltonPennell, 2002 ); 6. Flexible scheduling ( Lance et al., 2005 ;Rodney, Lance, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2003 ); and 7. School library budget size ( Baxter & Smalley, 2003 ;Lance et al., 2001 ). ...
... Seminal studies in Alaska, Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Minnesota, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Texas have examined the relationship between school library programs and student achievement by correlating survey data on factors within the school library program with increases in student achievement as measured by single year norm-referenced assessments (Baumbach, 2003;Baxter & Smalley, 2003;Lance et al., 1999;Lance et al., 2001Lance et al., 2000aLance et al., , 2000bRodney et al., 2002;Smith, 2001). Each study has shown that a statistically significant and positive relationship exists between the presence of school library programs and increased student achievement. ...
... The identification of factors within the school library was developed through a series of observational studies by Miller & Shontz (1996, 1997, 1998 and Lance (1993Lance ( , 1999Lance ( , 2000aLance ( , 2000bLance ( , 2001aLance ( , 2001bLance ( , 2002aLance ( , 2002b. By examining successful school library programs, a common set of factors present in these programs was developed. ...
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This California study examined the relationship between the presence of school libraries, as defined by credentialed staffing, and student achievement, as measured by both criterionreferenced and norm-referenced assessments in both English-language arts and mathematics. Using the California School Characteristics Index to compare 4,022 schools with similar demographics at Grades 4, 7, and 10, both positive and negative statistically significant relationships were found between the presence of a school library and student achievement at Grades 4 and 7. There were no statistically significant positive relationships found at Grade 10. These findings do not support previous studies that used different methods of comparing schools with similar demographics. Also unlike previous studies, the overall effect sizes of the positive relationships were small, the average being an increase in student achievement of 2%. Factors within the school library at Grades 4 and 7 were also examined, and both positive and negative statistically significant relationships to student achievement were found.
... In assessing what schools can do to make a difference to literacy outcomes, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2002 report notes that where student use of resources, such as the school library, computers and Internet, is "relatively high, mean reading scores tend to be higher, even when other factors are discounted" (OECD, 2002, p. 22). Affirming but predating this conclusion, American research indicates that well-developed school library programmes have a marked, positive effect on learning outcomes in a wide range of school community contexts (Lance, 2000;Lance, Welborn and Hamilton-Pennell, 1993). ...
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In New Zealand school libraries, the nature of educational activities performed by school library staff is unclear. Three parallel case studies were conducted to explore the actual work of school library team members. Ways of working with teachers and each other were explored in interviews and focus groups and the characteristics of information service provision were compared with those reflected in the wider literature. While many practices were affirmed for their positive influence on teaching and learning, areas for further development were identified. These are discussed in terms of creating change and strengthening learning outcomes.
... International studies have indisputably provided evidence to support the positive impact of school libraries on learners' performance. For example, in North Carolina (Burgin & Bracy, 2003), Illinois (Lance, Hamilton-Pennell & Rodney, 2005), and New York (Small, Snyder & Parker, 2009). All the findings showed a statistically positive and significant relationship between school library services and student academic achievement. ...
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Applying the lens of constructivism and inquiry-based learning, this study investigated why libraries remain underdeveloped in Nigerian schools, and the way forward. The study was motivated by the importance accorded to school libraries, being one of the most important educational services that could be used to achieve good standard education in Nigeria. The methodological approach adopted for this study was mixed methods. The study’s population comprised “school librarians”, principals, and science teachers in public senior secondary schools as well as major stakeholders in education connected with the provision, management and utilization of library resources for teaching science subjects. The instruments of data collection were questionnaires, interviews, and observation. Quantitative data were analysed using the SPSS, while qualitative data were transcribed and analysed thematically. The state of school libraries was poor and the resource most frequently available in school libraries for teaching science was textbooks. Besides, the findings revealed that the majority of the library staff did not possess a librarianship qualification, and the majority of teachers adopted a teacher-centred approach. The study underscores the continued regarding textbooks as part of library resources for science, and offers some recommendations that could position school libraries for realising the government’s vision of economic growth.
... There is conclusive international evidence that the school library does contribute to academic achievement within schools (Hamilton-Pennell, 2000). Perhaps the most powerful recent evidence of the impact of school libraries on the educational programme comes from the large library. ...
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The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of availability of materials and school materials utilization in implementing competence-based curriculum in selected nine years basic education in Nyamasheke district. The study was guided by the following research questions i) What is the level of competence based curriculum physical school materials availability in selected nine years basic education of Nyamasheke District? ii) What is the level of competence based curriculum human school resources availability in selected nine years basic education of Nyamasheke District? iii) What is the level of competence based curriculum financial school materials availability in selected nine years basic education of Nyamasheke District? iv) Is there a significant relationship between availability of materials and school materials utilization in selected nine years basic education of Nyamasheke District? A descriptive survey research design was used. Stratified sampling technique and purposive sampling were used to get a sample size of 81 respondents comprising 12 head teachers and 69 teachers. The research questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient statistical techniques and stepwise multiple regression. It was found that physical school materials are available at a level expressed in terms of (Mean=2.50, SD=.83), and school resources availability with (Mean=2.33, SD=0.95) are not adequate in nine years basic education whereas financial school resources with (Mean= 2.71, SD=.93) are adequate. The study equally found that there was no correlation between physical resources availability, human resources availability and financial resources availability; they are not predictors of school materials utilization. Whereas administrative buildings, academic buildings with (β=.261, p value=.043 <.005), stationeries (β=.272, p value=.034<.05), school transport (β=.262, p value=.042<0.5) and school projects (β=-.247, p value=.41<.05) are statistically predictors of school materials utilization. The study recommends to the government of Rwanda through Ministry of Education to provide more school materials such physical educational resources, train human resources, increase budget for educational resources in order to be able to implement competence based curriculum in nine years basic education. Article visualizations: </p
... En ese sentido, otro de los factores que llega a incidir en el logro educativo es la disponibilidad y el uso de la biblioteca escolar. Entre la década de los noventa y a inicios del presente siglo se documentaron varias investigaciones en Estados Unidos que muestran una relación positiva entre las bibliotecas escolares y el logro académico de los alumnos, esto sin importar el nivel socioeconómico del educando (Lance, Hamilton-Pennell y Rodney, 1999;Lance, Wellborn y Hamilton-Pennell, 1993y 2000Lance, Rodney y Hamilton-Pennell, 2002;Baughman, 2002;Todd, 2003). Por ejemplo, la participación de la biblioteca representó un aumento de hasta 10.6 % en los resultados en escuelas de Missouri, en Estados Unidos (Miller, Want y Whitacre, 2003), sobre todo en las pruebas de Lenguaje y Letras (Burgin y Brown, 2003;Lance, Rodney y Hamilton-Pennell, 2002 Estudios más actuales, como el de Vergara-Lope, Hevia y Rabay (2017), identifican que el acceso a bibliotecas públicas se asocia con las competencias lectoras y de matemáticas. ...
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‬ ‫ﻫﺪف‬ : ‫ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ،‫آﻣﻮزان‬ ‫داﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮاد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزش‬ ‫اﻫﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎرت‬ ‫آﻣﻮزش‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫اي‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺪار‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻮي‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺳﻮاداﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ،‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺮداﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺷﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫دﺑﻴﺮﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫آﻣﻮزش‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﺮد‬ ‫ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺳﻌﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫ﻣﺪارس‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬. ‫روش‬ : ‫ﺣ‬ ‫ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ‬ ‫روش‬ ‫از‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺎﺿﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺨﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺮه‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اي‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮد‬. ‫از‬ ‫دﺑﻴﺮﺳﺘﺎن‬ ،‫ﺗﻬﺮان‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺷﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ‬ ‫دوازده‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎن‬ ‫ﺷﺒﺎﻫﺖ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫آزادي‬ ‫ﻧﺪاي‬ ‫و‬ ‫آﺑﺴﺎل‬ ‫دﺧﺘﺮاﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫زﻳﺮﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎظ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮي‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻃﻼﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺎوري‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬ ،‫ﺑﻮدﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮردار‬ ‫ﺑﻮدن‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺷﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬. ‫آﻣﻮزش‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫دﺑﻴﺮان‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫آزادي‬ ‫ﻧﺪاي‬ ‫دﺑﻴﺮﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺪار‬ ‫آﺑﺴﺎل‬ ‫دﺑﻴﺮﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎرت‬ ‫ﻃﻲ‬ ‫اﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮاد‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ 4 ‫ﭘﺮداﺧﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺴﻪ‬. ‫ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ : ‫ﻣﻬﺎرت‬ ‫آﻣﻮزش‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ،‫ﺳﻮاداﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻗﺮار‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫دﺑﻴﺮﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫دو‬ ‫آﻣﻮزان‬ ‫داﻧﺶ‬ ‫آزﻣﻮن‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻨﺪ‬ t ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎد‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎوت‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫آﻏﺎز‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫دﺑﻴﺮﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫دو‬ ‫آﻣﻮزان‬ ‫داﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎن‬ ‫اري‬ ‫ﻧﺪاﺷﺖ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزش‬. ‫ﻣﻴﺰان‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺪار‬ ،‫داد‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎن‬ ‫آزﻣﻮن‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫و‬ ‫آزﻣﻮن‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮات‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﺿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻧﮕﻴﻦ‬ 33 / 1 ‫ﻣﻴﺰان‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫و‬ 07 / 0 ‫ﻣﻬﺎرت‬ ‫ارﺗﻘﺎي‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺑﻮده‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫آﻣﻮزان‬ ‫داﻧﺶ‬ ‫اﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮاد‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻧﺪ‬ ‫آزﻣﻮن‬ ‫اﺳﺎس‬ t ‫ﺗﻨ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰان‬ ‫زوﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻮده‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎدار‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺪار‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬. ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎداري‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﺳﻮاد‬ ‫اﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗ‬ ِ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫وﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫دﻳﺪه‬ ‫آﻣﻮزش‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬ ‫دو‬ ‫آزﻣﻮن‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺪار‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫داده‬ ‫رخ‬. ‫واژه‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪي‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ : ‫ﺗﻬﺮان‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ،‫ﺳﻨﺠﺶ‬ ،‫ﻫﻮﺷﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪارس‬ ،‫اﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮاد‬ ،‫آﻣﻮزﺷﮕﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺨﺎﻧﻪ‬
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This report shows that the evidence around school library provision is patchy as there are no official figures. Yet, there is plenty of evidence that school libraries can be beneficial to the educational and personal outcomes of children and young people.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.