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The Use of Computers Instead of Drawings in Building Design

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Abstract

Reports on research at Carnegie-Mellon University. (Author/MLF)
... Le remplacement du dessin par la computation (C. Eastman, 1975) Source : (C. M. Eastman, 1975) Pourtant, malgré ces recherches précoces, la digitalisation de l'industrie du bâtiment prendra du temps. ...
... Eastman, 1975) Source : (C. M. Eastman, 1975) Pourtant, malgré ces recherches précoces, la digitalisation de l'industrie du bâtiment prendra du temps. Une première brique technologique arrive à la fin des années 1980, qui voit (Gehry et al., 2020). ...
Thesis
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Le manque d’interopérabilité dans le BIM (Building Information Modeling) est reconnu par la communauté scientifique et par les acteurs de l’AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction), et impacte la collaboration digitale : sur le terrain, les échanges de données liées au BIM ne sont ni normés ni automatisés et conduisent à des ressaisies et pertes de données lors des itérations, entravant les flux de données et de travail. La présente thèse vise à investiguer cette double question, impliquant des considérations techniques (interopérabilité technologique : compatibilité entre modèles de données, formats) et organisationnelles (interopérabilité métier : modèles d’affaires, coopération humaine) au sein d’une industrie fragmentée et peu numérisée. Un triple état de l’art – à travers des allers-retours entre une période récente (2013-2018), vintage (1990-2000), et brûlante (2019-2021) – révèle que ces deux pendants ne sont que trop rarement traités conjointement dans la littérature scientifique. Un levier à la fois technique et organisationnel est donc proposé afin d’améliorer l’interopérabilité BIM : un cadre collaboratif basé sur des cycles itératifs de requêtes et d’enrichissements collectifs de données. Ce cadre, qui vise à instaurer des processus de co-modélisation BIM multi-métier, est appuyé par un prototype logiciel, Treegram, permettant de fédérer et de transcrire des données BIM hétérogènes dans une base de données neutre, que les utilisateurs peuvent interroger et enrichir. Les requêtes constituant l’atome des échanges de données, la collaboration BIM s’organise autour de cycles de requêtes/vérifications/enrichissements de données. L’utilisation de Treegram sur un projet réel montre que le cadre proposé, s’il fonctionne d’un point de vue technique et améliore les flux de données, interroge les limites des modes traditionnels de production de projet dans l’AEC et soulève la question des modèles d’affaires susceptibles d’accueillir les logiques intégratives de l’ingénierie concourante et des technologies de l’industrie 4.0.
... An important milestone in CAAD history is the release of Autodesk Revit in 2000. The software helped popularise BIM in the mid-2000s (Moubile, 2018;Azhar et al., 2012), although the conceptual basis dates back to the 1980's (Aish & Bredella, 2017) with the Building Description System (Eastman, 1975). BIM describes both the software and the process that encourages a better integration of stakeholders on a project in the AEC sector (Azhar et al., 2012). ...
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Architectural design practice has radically evolved over the course of its history, due to technological improvements that gave rise to advanced automated tools for many design tasks. Traditional paper drawings and scale models are now accompanied by 2D and 3D Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) software. While such tools improved in many ways, including performance and accuracy improvements, the modalities of user interaction have mostly remained the same, with 2D interfaces displayed on 2D screens. The maturation of Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) technology has led to some level of integration of these immersive technologies into architectural practice, but mostly limited to visualisation purposes, e.g. to show a finished project to a potential client. We posit that there is potential to employ such technologies earlier in the architectural design process and therefore explore that possibility with a focus on Algorithmic Design (AD), a CAAD paradigm that relies on (often visual) algorithms to generate geometries. The main goal of this dissertation is to demonstrate that AR and VR can be adopted for AD activities. To verify that claim, we follow an iterative prototype-based methodology to develop research prototype software tools and evaluate them. The three developed prototypes provide evidence that integrating immersive technologies into the AD toolset provides opportunities for architects to improve their workflow and to better present their creations to clients. Based on our contributions and the feedback we gathered from architectural students and other researchers that evaluated the developed prototypes, we additionally provide insights as to future perspectives in the field.
... The technology and process dubbed as Building Information Modelling (BIM) have been gradually developed since the 70 s to create, store, analyze, simulate, visualize and manage the geometric and attribute information of an asset through its life-cycle. (Eastman 1975;Hao 2012;Li et al. 2017a). The glossary of the BIM Handbook (Eastman et al. 2011, 586) defined BIM as 'a verb or adjective phrase to describe tools, processes, and technologies that are facilitated by digital, machine-readable documentation about a building, its performance, planning, construction, and later operation'. ...
Article
An Analytical Network Process (ANP) was created to test the Lean and BIM concepts with data collected from U.S. companies to find the success factors of the Lean/BIM framework. After an extensive literature review, a total of 17 sub-categories for Lean/BIM are classified into three clusters, namely Communication, Production, and Visualization. An ANP network is then established to station the links between the attributes of the framework while computing their importance weights. Eight experienced civil engineers took part in the questionnaire study to assess the relations between the attributes. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the synergy between Lean and BIM with different components reflecting this synergy and present the Lean and BIM synergy on a comprehensive model. The results indicate that Production is the prominent cluster and Production Control, Standardization and Information accuracy are the most important factors in the Lean/BIM synergy. To validate the model, five construction projects were selected to test and observe the results accordingly. The study is expected to help construction industry leaders set their priorities, benefit more from the interaction between Lean and BIM, and revise their strategies accordingly. This study identifies Lean/BIM categories and subcategories as a roadmap for research and implementation. In this context, the study reveals the relationship between the categories/subcategories along with the weights and most and less important categories for Lean/BIM implementation and research.
... The acronym BIM was initially defined only as Building Information Model. Even before the era of computerization in design offices and development of CAD (Computer Aided Design), the idea of parametric design with the use of geometry objects hierarchically ordered, i.e. according to the BDS (Building Description System), was considered [1]. This approach means storing information of the model description optimally, i.e., the geometry of the position and shape of complex elements are related to the topology and their efficient assembly using basic solids. ...
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The paper ­describes the verification of the quality of the data transfer between selected software dedicated to generation of building models and for their analysis using the finite element method. For comparison, models of two typical structures are constructed: a steel truss hall and a multi-storey reinforced concrete building. Both models are created simultaneously in two programs: Autodesk Revit and Tekla Structures. Next, these models are exported to computational packages: Autodesk Robot, Dlubal RFEM and SCIA Engineer. Different options of data transfer are considered, in particular: a direct link between programs as well as via open formats. The scope and limitations of the data exchange are determined in each case. Juxtaposition of the effectiveness of different transfer methods for such typical building models are helpful at the stage of cooperation between the architect and the structural designer. In addition, pilot results of a finite element static analysis for the steel hall model are also compared.
... In one of his early papers titled 'The use of Computers Instead of Drawings in Building Design', Eastman (1975), has conveyed a system of modeling similar to BIM. The notion that a building is a collection of 3D elements arranged in space, is the rationale of his explanation how it would change the future of drawings: "[…] the range of drawings available would be infinite […] With the building description in a machine-readable form, any type of quantitative analysis could be coupled directly to the 31 In his initial summary report called Augmenting Human Intellect: A conceptual Framework, Engelbart explores systematic approach to improving the intellectual effectiveness of the individual human being to approach a complex problem situations within the framework of technological development. ...
Thesis
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This PhD thesis sets out to investigate the potentials of Building Information Modeling (BIM) to mitigate risks of corruption in the Ethiopian public construction sector. The wide-ranging capabilities and promises of BIM have led to the strong perception among researchers and practitioners that it is an indispensable technology. Consequently, it has become the frequent subject of science and research. Meanwhile, many countries, especially the developed ones, have committed themselves to applying the technology extensively. Increasing productivity is the most common and frequently cited reason for that. However, both technology developers and adopters are oblivious to the potentials of BIM in addressing critical challenges in the construction sector, such as corruption. This particularly would be significant in developing countries like Ethiopia, where its problems and effects are acute. Studies reveal that bribery and corruption have long pervaded the construction industry worldwide. The complex and fragmented nature of the sector provides an environment for corruption. The Ethiopian construction sector is not immune from this epidemic reality. In fact, it is regarded as one of the most vulnerable sectors owing to varying socio-economic and political factors. Since 2015, Ethiopia has started adopting BIM, yet without clear goals and strategies. As a result, the potential of BIM for combating concrete problems of the sector remains untapped. To this end, this dissertation does pioneering work by showing how collaboration and coordination features of the technology contribute to minimizing the opportunities for corruption. Tracing loopholes, otherwise, would remain complex and ineffective in the traditional documentation processes. Proceeding from this anticipation, this thesis brings up two primary questions: what are areas and risks of corruption in case of the Ethiopian public construction projects; and how could BIM be leveraged to mitigate these risks? To tackle these and other secondary questions, the research employs a mixed-method approach. The selected main research strategies are Survey, Grounded Theory (GT) and Archival Study. First, the author disseminates an online questionnaire among Ethiopian construction engineering professionals to pinpoint areas of vulnerability to corruption. 155 responses are compiled and scrutinized quantitatively. Then, a semi-structured in-depth interview is conducted with 20 senior professionals, primarily to comprehend opportunities for and risks of corruption in those identified highly vulnerable project stages and decision points. At the same time, open interviews (consultations) are held with 14 informants to be aware of state of the construction documentation, BIM and loopholes for corruption in the country. Consequently, these qualitative data are analyzed utilizing the principles of GT, heat/risk mapping and Social Network Analysis (SNA). The risk mapping assists the researcher in the course of prioritizing corruption risks; whilst through SNA, methodically, it is feasible to identify key actors/stakeholders in the corruption venture. Based on the generated research data, the author constructs a [substantive] grounded theory around the elements of corruption in the Ethiopian public construction sector. This theory, later, guides the subsequent strategic proposition of BIM. Finally, 85 public construction related cases are also analyzed systematically to substantiate and confirm previous findings. By ways of these multiple research endeavors that is based, first and foremost, on the triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data analysis, the author conveys a number of key findings. First, estimations, tender document preparation and evaluation, construction material as well as quality control and additional work orders are found to be the most vulnerable stages in the design, tendering and construction phases respectively. Second, middle management personnel of contractors and clients, aided by brokers, play most critical roles in corrupt transactions within the prevalent corruption network. Third, grand corruption persists in the sector, attributed to the fact that top management and higher officials entertain their overriding power, supported by the lack of project audits and accountability. Contrarily, individuals at operation level utilize intentional and unintentional 'errors’ as an opportunity for corruption. In light of these findings, two conceptual BIM-based risk mitigation strategies are prescribed: active and passive automation of project audits; and the monitoring of project information throughout projects’ value chain. These propositions are made in reliance on BIM’s present dimensional capabilities and the promises of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD). Moreover, BIM’s synchronous potentials with other technologies such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT), and Radio Frequency technologies are topics which received a treatment. All these arguments form the basis for the main thesis of this dissertation, that BIM is able to mitigate corruption risks in the Ethiopian public construction sector. The discourse on the skepticisms about BIM that would stem from the complex nature of corruption and strategic as well as technological limitations of BIM is also illuminated and complemented by this work. Thus, the thesis uncovers possible research gaps and lays the foundation for further studies.
Conference Paper
p>BIM or Building Information Modelling has become fashionable over the past decade but has often been misunderstood in its overall impact on the built environment industry. Commonly it has been viewed as a 3D model used during the design process and been very ‘Task’ centric rather than understood as a broader systematic approach to the process of the information life cycle of an asset including the gathering, development, delivery and operation stages of life. As such it provides the digital information, the DNA, of an asset and would be better labelled as Asset Information Modelling. This paper explores the concept of information modelling through the lifecycle of an asset proposing that an asset begins its information life when it is conceived and planned rather than when it is built and handed over for use. All digital information develops and is progressively collected from that point. Hence, we can understand the purpose, functional requirement and technical specification that an asset fulfils and needs to be maintained during operation. Each intervention with an asset, whether it be new or being repaired or modified, should be regarded as an opportunity to capture this data. It concludes that we need to take a less siloed approach to information and embrace the potential of a systems engineering approach to digital engineering looking at the potential benefits that will accrue by taking this approach particularly when dealing with operational management.</p
Article
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Building information modelling (BIM) has transformed the AEC industry tremen-dously, and its adoption has been reported to be high due to the immense latent benefits. One of the inherent benefits of BIM is information management and the ability to integrate with other technologies to achieve this has become the gap being explored by researchers. Laser scanning technology is one of the technologies integrated with BIM. This is done to achieve BIM compliance of pre-BIM edifices. In recent years, substantial research has been conducted on the integration of BIM and laser scanning technologies. This study performed a state of the art review of these research efforts using Systematic literature review network analysis (SNLA) (this is a combination of systematic literature review (SLR) and citation network analysis (CNA). The objective of the study is to identify research trends and gaps for further research. The coverage of this study is from 2007 to 2020. Data was sourced from the Scopus database of published research works and analysed using network analysis. The study identified the publication trends, research trends among others. The study identified quality control and the integration of photogrammetry as the hot topics in this space. This study provides researchers with an insight into the scan to BIM research globally.
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Indoor localization is critical for many smart applications in built environments such as service robot navigation and facility management. Building information models (BIMs) provide new streams of spatial and visual information about building interiors that can be exploited for robust indoor localization. However, previous localization methods that used BIM were unable to achieve high precision and accuracy, limiting their practical applications. To address this challenge, a new approach, “align-to-locate (A2L)”, is proposed in this study to leverage BIM as a reference to rectify and fine-tune coarse camera poses estimated by photogrammetry. The camera pose rectification is achieved using a new registration algorithm that aims to align a photogrammetric point cloud with a BIM-referenced point cloud. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed A2L approach, which outperformed the state of the art with a localization error of 1.07 m and an orientation deviation of 3.7°. It was also found that query point clouds generated from photographs taken along the lateral or longitude directions are more conducive for registration. However, whilst increasing the number of data collection locations and images from each location can provide higher accuracy, such an approach may compromise the computational speed. This study contributes to the challenging indoor localization problem by proposing the A2L concept and evaluating its feasibility for more robust camera pose estimation through point-cloud-to-BIM registration. The developed A2L approach can be integrated as a post-processing module in existing vision-based localization methods to fine-tune their estimated camera poses.
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Building Information Modeling (BIM) has gained rapid development and received broad worldwide attention among researchers and architects. To grasp the research progress of BIM is of great significance for researchers and enterprises engaged in BIM related studies and plotted a science knowledge map by with the visualization tool CiteSpace, and used biliometric analysis to compare BIM studies published from 2008 to 2018 in China and abroad from three perspectives: knowledge base, research hotspot and evolutional trend. The research result shows that BIM studies abroad focus on interdisciplinary fields, but Chinese BIM studies focus more on application of BIM technologies in actual projects. Research on integration of BIM with Internet, big data, cloud computing and other information technologies is bound to become a new research trend of BIM in China.
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