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The Impact of Television: A Natural Experiment Involving Three Communities

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Abstract

The five research papers that comprise this document report on research into the impact of the inception of television reception on residents of a Canadian town, "Notel." The introductory section tells how Notel and two other similar Canadian towns that already had television reception were studied just before Notel received television reception in 1973, and again two years later; the section also explains the cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons that were made in the research. The research papers separately outline findings on the impact of television on children's aggressive behavior, reading skills, cognitive development, and sex role perceptions, as well as on residents' participation in community activities. The findings presented suggest that television viewing may result in the following: increases in children's physical and verbal aggression; decreases in reading skills, varying by sex and grade level; decreases in some cognitive skills; formation of more traditional sex role attitudes; and decreases in participation in community activities. (GT)

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... For example, it is well documented that while watching television, young children alternate their attention between the screen and playing with toys (e.g., Anderson & Lorch, 1983). Thus, media use may facilitate or positively relate to, rather than displace, other activities, especially those that tend to occur indoors, such as toy play or chores (Williams, 1986). ...
... Although variations in associations between time using screens and time in other activities may be partially attributable to historical context (e.g., displacement functioning differently after a newer platform lost its novelty; Murray & Kippax, 1978;Mutz et al., 1993;Neuman, 1995), differences in cultural context also may play a role. Children's time use in general, and the displacement hypothesis in specific, have been examined in numerous international settings, including Australia (e.g., Murray & Kippax, 1978), Canada (e.g., Williams, 1986), the U.K. (e.g., Murray & Kippax, 1978), South Africa (e.g., Mutz et al., 1993), and the U.S. (e.g., Hofferth, 2009). In most cases, these studies examined time-use data within the context of a single culture. ...
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According to the displacement hypothesis, screen media use might displace time children have to devote to other activities. In this study, we tested the displacement and related hypotheses, and explored how associations varied cross-culturally. We collected time-use diaries from 198 children in Boston, United States (U.S.), and Mexico City, Mexico. Comparing across research sites, children in Mexico City invested more time consuming media, while Boston children spent more time playing outdoors. In Boston, time spent using media was negatively associated with engagement in play and several other in-home activities, while in Mexico City, media use was positively associated with indoor activities like play. In both sites, media use and time spent outside were inversely related. We interpret these findings considering (a) the displacement and other competing hypotheses on the effects of media on children’s time use and (b) known cultural/regional differences between the U.S. and Mexico.
... In the 1980s, Williams (1986) carried out a study on communities with and without television sets, and concluded that the children who did not have contact with TV had shown a higher level of creativity than the children who had a TV set in their household. However, the same research showed that the level of creativity starts decreasing when the children from TV-free households get access to TV (Williams, 1986). ...
... In the 1980s, Williams (1986) carried out a study on communities with and without television sets, and concluded that the children who did not have contact with TV had shown a higher level of creativity than the children who had a TV set in their household. However, the same research showed that the level of creativity starts decreasing when the children from TV-free households get access to TV (Williams, 1986). A newer study (Vandewater, Bickham & Lee, 2006) showed the same -one hour of watching TV, for children in the ages of 3, 4 and 5, had as its consequence the reduction of time spent in creative play by 9% during the week and by 11% during the weekend. ...
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Despite the new media, television is the most influential electronic medium in our society. Almost every household owns a television set, and, besides in their families and educational institutions, children encounter various television (further in the text: TV) contents and advertising in shopping malls, dining establishments, healthcare institutions, etc. Using the adequately controlled and planned TV content, there can be a positive influence on children's motivation, thinking process, employment of cognitive strategies, etc. On the other hand, excessive and uncontrolled exposure to TV content can lead to a series of problems including obesity, aggressive behavior, fear, and so on. When it comes to playing, which is a synonym for learning during the preschool age, a significant influence of TV has been noticed. Apart from the fact that exposure to television reduces playtime and the acquisition of experience from the real situations, it significantly influences the course of playing as well. Characters, vocabulary, and scenes-they all have a role in children's play, even in places in which the child does not have contact with the television set. Watching and documenting children's playtime and other related activities gives us an insight into their interpretation of the content they watched, and also of the context in which the child is growing up, in which television has formed his or her experience.
... Early evidence for the displacement of physical activity by television came from studies documenting decreases in participation in physical activities following the introduction of television into small, mainly rural, communities (Brown, Cramond, & Wilde, 1974;Williams, 1986). In particular, Williams (1986) found a lower level of participation in sports activities for both children and adults in rural communities with access to either a single television channel or multiple (four) television channels, compared to a community with no television. ...
... Early evidence for the displacement of physical activity by television came from studies documenting decreases in participation in physical activities following the introduction of television into small, mainly rural, communities (Brown, Cramond, & Wilde, 1974;Williams, 1986). In particular, Williams (1986) found a lower level of participation in sports activities for both children and adults in rural communities with access to either a single television channel or multiple (four) television channels, compared to a community with no television. ...
... 29,30 Displacement of physical activity by screen time has been studied, but has not been empirically tested. [31][32][33][34] The American Academy of Pediatrics and Healthy People 2020 has put forth guidelines regarding the recommended amount of time children should spend in screen-related activities. Children aged 2 years and older should be allowed no more than 2 hours of screen-related activity per day. ...
... Social engagement outside of the home was associated with decreased screen time among both children and adolescents. These findings are consistent with the timedisplacement hypothesis articulated by Williams 31 and then Neuman 32 . They posit that time children spend engaging in front of screens is time that can otherwise be spent in more active pursuits. ...
Article
Developmental disabilities (DEVDIS) such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), developmental delay (DD), and learning disabilities, affect 14% of US youth, who also experience higher rates of obesity, approximately 19%, than youth without these conditions. Screen time is a risk factor for obesity, though it is not well-studied among youth with developmental disabilities. Youth with developmental disabilities experience challenges with learning, have underdeveloped social skills, and problematic behaviors. These predispositions can often result in peer rejection. The resulting social isolation may make these youth particularly vulnerable to engaging in solitary activities such as screen time. The objectives of this dissertation were to compare screen time rates among youth with developmental disabilities to typically developing youth and to examine the associations between social and family engagement with screen time among youth with developmental disabilities. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH), a national cross-sectional study that assesses the physical and emotional health of US children (N = 91,642), were used. Youth 6-17 years, with ADHD (n = 7,024), ASD (n = 1,200), DD (n = 3,276), LD (n = 7,482), and without special health care needs (n = 44,461) were studied. Unadjusted analyses found that children with DEVDIS engage in higher rates of screen time than youth without special health care needs. For youth with DEVDIS who were medicated for their ADHD, these associations attenuated. Thus ADHD symptoms, a common comorbidity across developmental disabilities, drove associations between the other developmental disabilities and screen time. Across all developmental disability groups, television in the bedroom was a significant screen time risk factor in both children and adolescents. Among children with ADHD, additional screen time risk factors included lack of caregiver knowledge of the child’s friends and any social engagement outside of the household. Among adolescents with ADHD, additional screen time risk factors included lower frequency that caregiver attends adolescent’s events and sport social engagement. Findings of this dissertation elucidate modifiable screen time risk factors that could potentially be adapted to decrease screen time among youth with developmental disabilities.
... Gross (1993, pp 689-691) illustrates the effect that television and the media have on young people and cites various researchers such as Gunter and McAleer (1990), Frueh and McGhee (1975), Morgan (1982) and Williams (1986). Most of these researchers have differing views on who and to what extent television and the media affect young people. ...
... Otherwise, it was similar to two cities in the vicinity used as control cases. A study by Williams (1986) suggests that the introduction of TV crowded out other activities, in particular those outside the home, such as sports' activities and visiting clubs. 49 Another study by Hennigan et al. (1982), based on a natural experiment, takes a look at the advent of TV in the United States which, due to technical reasons, took place at different times in different places. ...
... In this vein, our findings are in line with experimental research examining the impact of television on children's creativity in rural Canada. Specifically, Williams 19 and her colleagues found that children who lived in a community with no television initially had higher scores on a measure of creativity than children with access to either a single television channel or multiple channels. Once television was introduced, however, the creativity scores of these children dropped to levels similar to those of children with television. ...
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OBJECTIVES. This study assessed the claim that children's television use interferes with time spent in more developmentally appropriate activities. METHODS. Data came from the first wave of the Child Development Supplement, a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 12 in 1997 (N = 1712). Twenty-four-hour time-use diaries from 1 randomly chosen weekday and 1 randomly chosen weekend day were used to assess children's time spent watching television, time spent with parents, time spent with siblings, time spent reading ( or being read to), time spent doing homework, time spent in creative play, and time spent in active play. Ordinary least squares multiple regression was used to assess the relationship between children's television use and time spent pursuing other activities. RESULTS. Results indicated that time spent watching television both with and without parents or siblings was negatively related to time spent with parents or siblings, respectively, in other activities. Television viewing also was negatively related to time spent doing homework for 7- to 12-year-olds and negatively related to creative play, especially among very young children (younger than 5 years). There was no relationship between time spent watching television and time spent reading (or being read to) or to time spent in active play. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study are among the first to provide empirical support for the assumptions made by the American Academy of Pediatrics in their screen time recommendations. Time spent viewing television both with and without parents and siblings present was strongly negatively related to time spent interacting with parents or siblings. Television viewing was associated with decreased homework time and decreased time in creative play. Conversely, there was no support for the widespread belief that television interferes with time spent reading or in active play.
... Researchers report that excessive television viewing and video game, VCR, computer, and Internet use negatively affect school performance because viewing replaces time that might otherwise be spent reading or pursuing other school activities (Jason & Hanaway, 1997). Practice time is lost, and, as a result, children (particularly those with learning disabilities and other difficulties who are in need of the practice) lose fluency and automaticity in skills such as reading (Corteen & Williams, 1986). Researchers have also found that children's writing is often similar in style to television show scripts-fragmented and disconnected without regard to logic (Doerken, 1983). ...
... The reported surveys indicate that the majority of both groups do not favor total teaching by television (Livingston, 1968). Many of the earliest studies on instructional TV compared children who had access to the medium with those who did not (Corteen and Williams, 1986; Hornik, 1978) without examining particular programs or content type. For example, Stickell (1963) reviewed 250 comparisons of educational television and conventional/face-to-face instruction from 31 research reports. ...
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This article highlights the utopian and dystopian viewpoints held on the plasma-based instruction in Ethiopian by looking into the existing literature works and by analyzing attitudes of implementing bodies and imple... more abstract This article highlights the utopian and dystopian viewpoints held on the plasma-based instruction in Ethiopian by looking into the existing literature works and by analyzing attitudes of implementing bodies and implementers towards the program. The article identified that though implementing bodies were enthusiastic in developing and expanding the plasma mode of instruction across the country, the key implementers were apathetic in using the medium. These two extreme views (utopian viewpoints of implementing bodies and dystopian viewpoints of key practitioners) are found to be a great impact on the effective practice of the program. Based on the results, the study suggests a few practical ideas for the successful integration of the technology into the conventional instruction. Key words: Plasma-based instruction, utopia, dystopia, information and communications technology, school net.
... Electronic media were already far developed when those empirical studies started. An interesting exception is a remote Canadian region, where it was possible to collect behavioral data before and after the introduction of TV (Williams 1986). There, aggressive tendencies among children were shown to increase. ...
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This article examines the phenomenon of informal video houses showing action films with scenes of violence to young people in Gorongosa, a district in the center of Mozambique. Recent socioeconomic interventions and development in the region have occurred in tandem with the growing popularity of violent action films among young people, which has been cause for concern among their parents and guardians. The ambivalent responses of Gorongosa residents toward this trend indicate the need to analyze the implications of film violence in the context of evolving local rituals of revelation and multiple legacies of the civil war (1976–1992) as well as emerging postwar challenges. The results significantly contrast with psychological studies of media violence that link consumption of film violence to serious negative effects on young viewers. In Gorongosa, film violence is implicated in expanding relations of domination and submission and violence and its containment, which enhance ongoing processes of self-assertion among young people in unpredictable ways, without, however, inciting violence in the communities. This study has significant implications for understanding the reception of mass media violence among young people in conflict zones.
... Since it has been represented as such a "consumption" tool, its viewers come to largely expect programming that will fulfil such a purpose. Yet, television is arguably the most influential medium in instilling values, lifestyles, and goals for life, as well as images of success and achievement, for a majority of those exposed to it (Gitlin 1986;Williams 1986). ...
... A longitudinal study in the Netherlands with children from second through fourth grade (i.e., 8 to 10 years of age) reported that television viewing during second grade displaced reading of books and comic books, subsequently reducing reading ability and producing less positive attitudes toward reading (Koolstra & van der Voort, 1996). In a study of the arrival of television to a community in Canada, Corteen and Williams (1986) found a pattern of results suggesting a negative impact on reading ability among second-grade children (i.e., 6 to 8 years of age). However, a U.S. longitudinal study found that television viewing did not predict changes in reading ability in children between 3rd and 8th grade (i.e., 7 to 14 years of age) (Ritchie, Price, & Roberts, 1987). ...
... For methodological reasons, more convincing evidence is provided by Williams (1986), who found an increase in the level of children's aggression in one Canadian community after TV was introduced to it, although two comparable communities (without TV) showed no such increase. Even in this case, though, caution must be exercised in drawing any conclusions, because Williams assessed the total amount of TV viewing, not the amount of media violence to which the children were being exposed. ...
... Reductions in a variety of valued skills have been linked with heavy television viewing habits. In particular instances, volume of television viewing has been found to be negatively associated with verbal fluency and creativity (Harrison and Williams, 1977), and sociability (Burton, Calonico and McSeveney, 1979). Heavy viewers of cartoons were rated low in enthusiasm by their teachers and heavy viewers of violent fantasy programs were found to be lower in IQ and imaginative behavior by Zuckerman, Singer and Singer (1980). ...
... A comparison of previous English TV research by Tannis MacBeth Williams (1986) in British Columbia and French language TV by Caron (1983) in Quebec, as well as work by Barnes (1983) in Newfoundland and Pfetsch and Kutteroff (1988) in Germany show that the addition of TV channels brings various changes. These depend on the individuals involved and the environment in which they live. ...
... Senare genomförda studier har lett fram till hypotesen att tv-tittande kan vara en möjlig orsak till en minskad inlärningspotential. I en studie genomförd i tre städer i Kanada, där bl a mätningar genomfördes före och efter introduktionen av tv i en av städerna (Williams, 1977) framkom att tv-tittande tycks leda till försämrade läsfärdigheter och försämrad verbal framställningsförmåga. I en annan studie där syftet var att undersöka tv-tittandets inverkan på barns ordförråd och kreativa verbala uttrycksförmåga (Harrison &Williams, 1977) konstarades att barn som tittade mycket på tv inte hade ett mindre ordförråd, men att barn som tittade på tv hade svårare att uttrycka sig än barn som i mindre utsträckning tittade på tv. ...
... An extensive body of research on this culminated in the Report of the U.S. Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1972). However, it wasn't until the seminal, groundbreaking research of Tannis MacBeth Williams and her team (Williams, 1986) that evidence regarding the positive and negative effects of television viewing was set on firmer empirical grounds. While cautious regarding full critical qualification, in The Impact of Television: A Natural Experiment in Three Communities the researchers articulated the deleterious psycho-physiological and sociological behaviour initiated by televisual viewing, behavior that was discovered across many if not all significant variables. ...
Article
This article outlines a quasi-analytical process for better comprehension of current artistic and scientific representations in visual media representing language orders of experience. After a brief historical outline contextualizing a multidisciplinary approach within digital techno-cultural advance, current scientific notions regarding the neurology of vision to sensory integration and this relationship to language expression and comprehension are discussed. Hyper-visual focus or the lack of neuro-typical visual focus can induce or indicate cognitive problems involving verbal competency. Summary discussion of this is followed with examples from contemporary artists’ work depicting not only visual properties but those associated with language disorders and deficits. The argument throughout is that the comprehension and articulation of techno-cultural aesthetics has been biased by the limitations of hyper-visual, digital orientations. © Journal of Professional Communication, all rights reserved.
... Residing in an urban versus rural community is an individual circumstance associated with differential access to emerging technologies, most often attributed to delay in required infrastructure (Velaga, Beecroft, Nelson, Corsar, & Edwards, 2012). Indeed, a town in Canada situated in a remote valley surrounded by mountains did not have television reception until 1973 when the town elders convinced the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation to install a transmitter for their community (Macbeth Williams, 1986). In the Downloaded by [182.140.132.104] at 08:44 02 July 2015 UK, 67% of urban and 25% of rural areas have comparable quality broadband infrastructure (Mark, 2010). ...
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Twenty-four Indigenous adolescents (mean age 16.4 years) attending a boarding school in a remote region of Western Australia participated in individual structured interviews that queried current patterns of use for each of: (1) television, (2) video games, (3) computers, (4) the Internet, and (5) mobile phones. Results suggest that television, video games and computers play a relatively minor role in the lives of participating adolescents. However, the Internet and particularly mobile phones were frequently used. Mobile phones were used by participating Indigenous adolescents in ways consistent with their collective culture (e.g. communicate with family and friends) but also similar to adolescents generally (e.g. to send text messages and access the Internet). When presented with the hypothetical option of using only one small screen technology, Indigenous adolescents overwhelmingly selected a mobile phone. The reasoning for such a preference emphasised the importance of communication and the global functionality of the device (e.g. Internet connectivity). The rapid uptake mobile phones by Indigenous adolescents may point the way to improved educational opportunities, specifically, m-learning.
... However, since only cross-sectional methods were used, evidence for causal interpretation is not especially compelling. Studies by Williams (1986) on the introduction of television in the 1970s are methodologically sounder. In three rural areas of Canada ('Notel' ϭ no television at time of first measurements, 'Unitel' ϭ single television channel available, 'Multitel' ϭ four channels available), people took part before and after the introduction of new channels. ...
Article
This paper offers an up-to-date review of problems in determining causal relationships in cultivation research, and considers the research rationales of various approaches with special reference to causal interpretation. It describes in turn a number of methodologies for addressing the problem and resolving it as far as this is possible. The issue of causal inference arises not only in cultivation research, however, but is basic to all media effects theories and approaches primarily at the macro-level whose main methodology rests on correlational studies (agenda-setting, spiral of silence, knowledge gap hypothesis, etc.). We therefore first discuss problems of causal interpretation in connection with the cultivation hypothesis, and then sketch in summary how these problems arise with other media effects theories. We first set out the basic fea tures of the cultivation approach, then consider the difficulties with correlational studies and discuss alternative research designs - designs which are not original to us, but have been adapted for cultivation research. These comprise laboratory experiments, sequential studies, social studies and time-series procedures. Finally, we argue for multiple approaches that complement one another's advantages and balance out their disadvantages.
... Sería razonable esperar entonces que, al menos entre aquellos que dedican mucho tiempo a hacer maratones de series (maratonistas intensos, o MI), la actividad se realice al precio de pasar menos tiempo con los amigos y familiares. Suponer que los MI podrían estar menos comprometidos socialmente que los MP y los NM, también sería consistente entonces con los primeros hallazgos sobre el consumo de televisión, donde se encontró que las maratones intensas desplazaban a otras actividades, incluida la participación social con amigos y familiares (Kubey 1996;Williams 1986). Tal predicción estaría respaldada igualmente por el principio básico de la Teoría del Desplazamiento de McCombs (1972): dado que el tiempo de un individuo es limitado, la participación en la comunicación mediática puede producirse a expensas de la comunicación basada en la comunidad (y viceversa). ...
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Los resultados de una encuesta en línea sugieren que los atracones visuales intensos de series televisivas pueden estar, en parte, motivados socialmente. En una muestra de estudiantes universitarios estadounidenses, quienes se daban atracones intensos eran más propensos a ser líderes de opinión y a experimentar el Miedo a Quedarse por Fuera (Fear Of Missing Out, o FOMO) que los maratonistas promedio o los no-maratonistas. Aquéllos también reportaron niveles más altos de interacción parasocial con los personajes de las series que el resto de espectadores. Contrariamente a la creencia común, los atracones visuales intensos no se produjeron a costa de una menor participación social, sino todo lo contrario: los espectadores intensos reportaron que pasan significativamente más tiempo a diario con sus amigos y familiares, que aquellos que no hacen dichos maratones. Los atracones intensos también se asociaron, modestamente, con algunos resultados negativos, como la pérdida de sueño y disminución de la productividad.
... It seemed that a long-term debate was existed with regard to this issue. Some researchers assumed that television violence promotes aggressiveness (Berkowitz, Corwin, & Heironimus, 1963;Black & Bevan, 1992;Centerwall, 1989;Hennigan et al., 1982;Williams, 1986;Messner, 1986;Leyens et al., 1975). In particular, experts claimed violent movies result in anti-social behavior, strongly supporting the causal hypothesis of film violence and aggression through meta-analysis (Paik & Comstock, 1994). ...
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The aim of the present study was to examine the priming effects of violent movies and aggressive words on implicit aggression by using modified STROOP task. 190 adolescents participated in this study, with 95 assigned to non-violent movie group and 95 assigned to violent movie group. The results showed that no significant difference was found in the main affect of Movie Type, but it revealed significant Movie Type × Aggressive Trait interaction, and that aggression was significantly influenced by violent movie only for high-aggressive trait (HT) adolescents, but not for mid-aggressive trait (MT) and low-aggressive trait (LT) adolescents. The possible underlying mechanism was that HT adolescents may possess a relatively stronger aggressive network of cognitive association which was easily activated by violence than MT and LT adolescents. This indicated that violent movie could effectively elicit implicit aggression for adolescents who were highly aggressive, but not for nonaggressive adolescents.
... Furthermore, the average person watches four hours of television a day (Herr, 2008). Media research suggests that there is a link between media and perceptions (Williams, 1986), making it important to understand what the media is teaching our consumers. ...
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Media consumption can influence viewer perceptions and attitudes. Recent research on media’s effect on college students has failed to address gender differences. Using Mere Repeated Exposure Theory (traditionally used in marketing research), this study aims to answer three research questions regarding college media consumption and college perceptions: What types of fictional college media do college students consume? How does college media consumption differ by gender? How does fictional college media consumption relate to perceived college expectations? Results suggest that college students who consume high amounts of fictional college media are more likely to have positive attitudes towards partying and socializing in college. High consumers of college media, however, do not believe that college media influences their college perceptions. Men are more likely to socialize in college and are more aware than women that college media influences their college perceptions. Women are more likely to believe that college is difficult regardless of media consumption.
... It would be reasonable to expect, then, that at least among those who devote a lot of time to binge-watching (HBWs), the activity might come at the cost of spending less time with friends and family. Predicting that HBWs might be less engaged socially than RBWs and NBWs would also be consistent with early findings on television consumption, where heavy viewing was found to displace other activities, including social engagement with friends and relatives (Kubey 1996;Williams 1986). Such a prediction would also be supported by the core tenet of McCombs' (1972) displacement theory: since an individual's time is limited, participation in mediated communication may come at the expense of community-based communication (and vice-versa). ...
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Heavy binge-watching of serialized video content might be in part socially motivated. Among a sample of US college students, heavy binge-watchers were more likely to be opinion leaders and to experience fear of missing out (FOMO) than regular binge-watchers or non-binge-watchers. They also reported higher levels of parasocial engagement with the shows’ characters than other viewers. Contrary to common beliefs, heavy binge-watching did not come at the cost of decreased social engagement. Quite the opposite: heavy binge-watchers reported spending significantly more time in interactions with friends and family on a daily basis than non-binge-watchers. Heavy binge-watching was also modestly associated with a few negative outcomes (loss of sleep and decrease in productivity).
... While exposure to age-appropriate educational programs can be beneficial for cognitive development and school attainment, entertainment programs, particularly fast-paced and violent ones, tend to have the opposite effect (Anderson et al. 2001, Ennemoser and Schneider 2007, Zimmerman and Christakis 2007, Kirkorian, Wartella, and Anderson 2008, Christakis et al. 2013, Hernaes, Markussen, and Røed forthcoming, Kearney and Levine 2015a. 30 Consumption of entertainment TV would be detrimental because it crowds out other more cognitively challenging activities such as reading, studying, or role-playing, as well as media consumption of educational material (Williams 1985(Williams , 1986Shin 2004;Hernaes, Markussen, and Røed forthcoming;Khan et al. 2017). ...
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We study the political impact of commercial television in Italy exploiting the staggered introduction of Berlusconi’s private TV network, Mediaset, in the early 1980s. We find that individuals with early access to Mediaset all-entertainment content were more likely to vote for Berlusconi’s party in 1994, when he first ran for office. The effect persists for five elections and is driven by heavy TV viewers, namely the very young and the elderly. Regarding possible mechanisms, we find that individuals exposed to entertainment TV as children were less cognitively sophisticated and civic-minded as adults, and ultimately more vulnerable to Berlusconi’s populist rhetoric. (JEL D72, L82, M31, Z13)
... Findings presented that the emergence of television and the combination of increasingly violent broadcasting have increased the level of interpersonal violence in society. Earlier research conducted by Williams (1986) had reported consistent findings regarding increases in aggressive behavior of children parallel to the emergence of TV. Without a doubt, these kinds of findings need to be considered with caution since there may be other confounding factors, however, it is a useful finding for the development of new research questions in the context of TV and violence. ...
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The main aim of this paper is to briefly review the existing body of knowledge related to youth violence and media. In this context, empirical evidences regarding the association between youth violence and media are mentioned. Also, prevalence rates related to youth media usage, risk factors, and individual differences are given in the review. Then, some preventive suggestions based on the empirical findings are proposed to reduce the positive association between youth violence and media exposure. Finally, this brief review would be a useful starting point for further studies aiming to extend existing literature regarding youth violence and media exposure.
... Iyengar & Kinder, 1987), welches Stimuli über einen längeren Zeitraum hinweg mehrmals präsentiert. 21 Auch in diesem Bereich war die Forschung nicht untätig (Bryant, Carveth & Brown, 1981;Zillmann & Bryant, 1982;Zillmann, 1989;Rössler & Brosius, 2001a;2001b Schramm et al. (1961), Payne und Peake (1977), Donsbach et al. (1985) und Williams (1986) nutzten diese und konnten so gleichsam unter experimentellen Bedingungen Einflüsse des Fernsehens nachweisen. In ähnlicher Weise nutzten Kliment (1994) und Etzkorn und Stiehler (1998) die durch die Einführung des West-Fernsehens bedingten Veränderungen der Fernsehlandschaft in den neuen Bundesländern und fanden zumindest teilweise Kultivierungseffekte. Soziale Experimente wurden auch bei der Einführung privater Fernsehprogramme in den sogenannten Kabelpilotprojekten realisiert. ...
... Putnam admits that the correlations reported cannot answer the question regarding the causal direction between TV use and the various forms of civic engagement. Nevertheless, based on other research such as the natural experiment on television reception in three Canadian communities in the 1970s ( MacBeth 1986), he argues that the causal direction is likely to be directed from TV use towards civic and social life. Hence, according to Putnam, an increase of media use (e.g. ...
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People use media to communicate and thereby create and maintain social relations in two ways. First, media provide technological means to bypass time and space and enable otherwise unconnected individuals to interact. Second, media provide topics for communication. To capture these communicative constructed relations and the emerging social patterns, we propose the theoretical concept of networked media collectivities. In order to analyze these networked media collectivities and their relevance in mediatization research, we follow a social network analytic approach. We identify the relative importance of various media and the structures of media-related communication networks among adolescents. By comparing these networks with the friendship networks among the adolescents, we are able to assess the relevance of media for creating and maintaining social ties. Our results show that correlations between media use, media-related interpersonal communication and friendship are strong and highly significant. This supports the assumption that networked media collectivities are likely to be a resource of social capital. Since the causal effect may also be in the opposite direction (from friendship to interpersonal communication to media use), this suggests at the same time that social patterns need to be taken into account when studying processes of individual media use.
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Greeson, L.E. (1990). Bus stop graffiti. An index of media based cultural intrusion in a Scandinavian city. Nordisk Psykologi, 42, 358–365.One hundred bus stops to the north and south of the city centre of Bergen, Norway were analyzed for graffiti content. A high prevalence of graffiti was found in both areas with graffiti comments reflecting media based cultural intrusion from the United States and the United Kingdom (i.e., heavy metal rock groups). Graffiti content was related to underlying feelings of youth discontent.
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Fictional media representations have presented numerous depictions of higher education over the years. Though research has noted the value of investigating this depiction—because media plays a critical role in shaping viewers’ perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors—it has not been the focus on much scholarly work to date. This chapter provides the rationale for this analysis of the higher education portrait in novels, television, film, comic books, and video games. It also introduces the concepts of anti-intellectualism and cultivation theory, which guided the book’s authors, while offering a glimpse into the content of the upcoming chapters in the volume.
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Television viewing has been popularly hypothesized to shorten attention spans, increase frantic behavior, and cause brain damage. A review of the scientific literature reveals no support for these claims. In fact, contrary to popular conceptions, it appears that television viewing is a cognitively active behavior, sharing many characteristics of other leisure-time activities such as reading. Although there is some evidence of subtle cognitive effects, such findings require further study to verify the link and the direction of causality. In the same vein, though different patterns of EEG have been reported when comparing television viewing with other activities, these findings indicate only that television viewing differs in some respects from other activities. Like the research on cognitive effects, nothing in this research supports the commonly hypothesized devastating effects of television viewing.
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The development of children and television as an area of scientific investigation with a history of its own, owes more to the persistence of public anxiety about the adverse influence of television on the young than to any possible academic gains the research has generated. This is perhaps particularly true of the controversies over the effects of televised violence. In this opening chapter, the historical trajectory of work on children and television in English will be outlined, and its roots in public worries over the influence of popular media traced back to the late nineteenth century.
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