Management of acute kidney injury in children: a guide for pediatricians
Department of Pediatrics, James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Paediatric Drugs
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Acute kidney injury (AKI; previously called acute renal failure) is characterized by a usually reversible increase in the blood concentration of creatinine and nitrogenous waste products and by the inability of the kidney to appropriately regulate fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. The incidence of AKI in children appears to be increasing and the etiology of AKI over the past decades has shifted from primary renal disease to multifactorial causes, particularly in hospitalized children. Renal failure can be divided into prerenal failure, intrinsic renal disease including vascular insults, and obstructive uropathies. The history, physical examination, and laboratory studies including a urinalysis and radiographic studies can establish the likely cause(s) of AKI. Once intrinsic renal failure has become established, management of the metabolic complications of AKI requires meticulous attention to fluid balance, electrolyte status, acid-base balance, and nutrition. Many children with AKI will need renal replacement therapy to remove endogenous and exogenous toxins and to maintain fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance until renal function improves. Renal replacement therapy may be provided by peritoneal dialysis (PD), intermittent hemodialysis (HD), or hemofiltration with or without a dialysis circuit. Many factors--including the age and size of the child, the cause of renal failure, the degree of metabolic derangements, blood pressure, and nutritional needs--are considered in deciding when to initiate renal replacement therapy and which modality of therapy to use. The prognosis of AKI is highly dependent on the underlying etiology of the AKI. Children who have AKI as a component of multisystem failure have a much higher mortality rate than children with intrinsic renal disease. Recovery from intrinsic renal disease is also highly dependent on the underlying etiology of the AKI. Children who have experienced AKI from any cause are at risk for late development of renal failure long after the initial insult. Such children need life-long monitoring of their renal function, blood pressure, and urinalysis.
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ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized children results in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Nephrotoxic-medication exposure is a common cause of AKI. Currently, no data exist to quantify the risks of developing AKI for various nephrotoxic medications in children. The primary aim of the current study is to assess for a potential association between nephrotoxic medications and the risk of developing AKI in hospitalized noncritically ill children with no pre-existing renal insufficiency. Design, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We performed a retrospective case-control study in pediatric hospitalized noncritically ill patients aged 1 day to 18 years. The cases were patients who developed AKI, as defined by the pediatric modified RIFLE (pRIFLE) criteria; patients without AKI served as controls and were matched by age category, gender, and disease state.
561/1660 (33.8%) patients identified for inclusion had AKI (441 category "R," 117 category "I," three category "F"); 357 cases were matched with 357 controls. Patients with AKI had longer length of hospital stay and increased hospital costs. Patients with AKI had exposure to more nephrotoxic medications for a longer period of time compared with controls. Odds of exposure for at least one nephrotoxic medication was significant for development of AKI. Exposure to more nephrotoxic medications was associated with an increased risk of AKI.
Increasing exposure to three or more nephrotoxic medications places pediatric patients at greater risk of acute kidney injury with resultant increased hospital costs and patient morbidity.
Available from: Lakhmir S Chawla
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ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) leads to high rates of morbidity and independently increases mortality risk. Therapy for AKI is likely limited by the inability to reliably diagnose AKI in its early stages, and, importantly, small changes in serum creatinine may be associated with poor outcomes and severe AKI. Whereas AKI biomarker research seeks to identify more sensitive and timely indices of kidney dysfunction, AKI lacks physical signs and symptoms to trigger biomarker assessment in at-risk patients, limiting biomarker efficacy. Accurate models of AKI prediction are unavailable. Severity of illness (SOI) scoring systems and organ dysfunction scores (OD), which stratify patients by prediction of mortality risk, are AKI reactive, not predictive. Kidney-specific severity scores do not account for AKI progression, and stratification models of AKI severity are not predictive of AKI. Thus, there is a need for a kidney scoring system that can help predict the development of AKI. This review highlights the concept of renal angina, a combination of patient risk factors and subtle AKI, as a methodology to predict AKI progression. Fulfillment of renal angina criteria will improve the efficiency of AKI prediction by biomarkers, in turn expediting early therapy and assisting in creation of AKI-predictive scoring systems.
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In this study we applied the pediatric version of the RIFLE criteria (pRIFLE) to an at-risk hospital population, analyzed the incidence and association of acute kidney injury (AKI) with mortality and length of stay in both the intensive care unit (ICU) and the hospital, and evaluated the applicability of pRIFLE as a prognostic tool in the ICU.
This study was a prospective single-center cohort study in which 126 patients were enrolled. The affected group included patients who were diagnosed with AKI. Subgroups of the diagnosed patients were established according to their maximum pRIFLE strata, which were defined as the worst pRIFLE score attained during the study period.
Fifty-eight (46 %) of our patients developed AKI. The lengths of stay in the ICU and in the hospital were longer in the affected group than in the unaffected group. The advanced strata of pRIFLEmax were associated with longer stays in the ICU and hospital and higher median Pediatric Index of Mortality II scores. The hospital mortality rate of AKI patients was 12-fold higher than that of the patients without AKI (36 vs. 3 %).
The incidence of AKI in this population was both significant and directly associated with hospital mortality and the length of stay in the ICU and hospital. The pRIFLE classification facilitated the definition of AKI, indicating that it a significant prognostic predictor.
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