Validation of Overweight Children's Fruit and Vegetable Intake Using Plasma Carotenoids

School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 11/2008; 17(1):162-8. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2008.495
Source: PubMed


Assessing dietary intake in children is difficult and limited validated tools exist. Plasma carotenoids are nutritional biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake and therefore suitable to validate reported dietary intakes. The aim of this study was to examine the comparative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), completed by parents reporting child fruit and vegetable intake compared to plasma carotenoid concentrations. A sample of children aged 5-12 years (n = 93) from a range of weight categories were assessed. Dietary intake was measured using a 137-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Plasma carotenoids were measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Pearson correlation coefficients between reported dietary intake of carotenoids and plasma carotenoid concentrations were strongest after adjustment for BMI (beta-carotene (r = 0.56, P < 0.05), alpha-carotene (r = 0.51, P < 0.001), cryptoxanthin (r = 0.32, P < 0.001)). Significantly lower levels (P < 0.05) of all plasma carotenoids, except lutein, were found among overweight and obese children when compared to healthy weight children. Parental report of children's carotenoid intakes, using a FFQ can be used to provide a relative validation of fruit and vegetable intake. The lower plasma carotenoid concentrations found in overweight and obese children requires further investigation.

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Available from: Manohar Garg, Sep 23, 2014
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    • "The reliability and relative validity of both surveys have been evaluated for both adults (Collins et al., 2013) and children (Watson et al., 2011). In addition, the criterion validity of the ACAES has been extensively assessed in children using nutritional biomarkers (Burrows et al., 2009, 2012, 2013). Both the AES and ACAES are 120- item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), and have the same format, food items and data processing methods. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Being overweight and obese in Australian children is common. Current evidence related to parental influence on child dietary intake is conflicting, and is particularly limited in terms of which parent exerts the stronger relationship. The present study aimed to assess mother–father and parent–child dietary relationships and to identify which parent–child relationship is stronger.MethodsA cross-sectional analysis was performed of dietary intake data from 66 families with one parent and one child aged 8–12 years who were participating in the Family Diet Quality Study, in the Hunter and Forster regions of New South Wales, Australia. Dietary intakes were assessed using adult and child specific, validated semi-quantitative 120-item food frequency questionnaires. Diet quality and variety subscores were assessed using the Australian Recommended Food Scores for adults and children/adolescents. Pearson's correlations were used to assess dietary relationships between mother–father, father–child and mother–child dyads.ResultsWeak-to-moderate correlations were found between mother–child dyads for components of dietary intake (r = 0.27–0.47). Similarly, for father–child dyads, predominantly weak-to-moderate correlations were found (r = 0.01–0.52). Variety of fruit intake was the most strongly correlated in both parent–child dyads, with the weakest relationships found for fibre (g 1000 kJ–1) in father–child and percentage energy from total fats for mother–child dyads. Mother–father dyads demonstrated mostly moderate-to-strong correlations (r = 0.13–0.73), with scores for condiments showing the weakest relationship and vegetables the strongest. For all dyads, strong correlations were observed for overall diet quality (r = 0.50–0.59).Conclusions Parent–child dietary intake is significantly related but differs for mother versus fathers. Further research is required to examine whether differing dietary components should be targeted for mothers versus fathers in interventions aiming to improve family dietary patterns.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
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    • "Plasma carotenoids were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography according to the method established by Barua and colleagues and previously described (Figure 1) [50,51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The consumption of foods rich in carotenoids that possess significant antioxidant and inflammatory modulating properties has been linked to reduced risk of neuropathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma carotenoid concentrations and plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in an essentially healthy human cohort. Methods Thirty-eight matched CSF and plasma samples were collected from consenting participants who required a spinal tap for the administration of anaesthetic. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of NAD(H) and markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α) and oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, 8-OHdG and total antioxidant capacity) were quantified. Results The average age of participants was 53 years (SD = 20, interquartile range = 38). Both α-carotene (P = 0.01) and β-carotene (P < 0.001) correlated positively with plasma total antioxidant capacity. A positive correlation was observed between α-carotene and CSF TNF-α levels (P = 0.02). β-cryptoxanthin (P = 0.04) and lycopene (P = 0.02) inversely correlated with CSF and plasma IL-6 respectively. A positive correlation was also observed between lycopene and both plasma (P < 0.001) and CSF (P < 0.01) [NAD(H)]. Surprisingly no statistically significant associations were found between the most abundant carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin and either plasma or CSF markers of oxidative stress. Conclusion Together these findings suggest that consumption of carotenoids may modulate inflammation and enhance antioxidant defences within both the central nervous system (CNS) and systemic circulation. Increased levels of lycopene also appear to moderate decline in the essential pyridine nucleotide [NAD(H)] in both the plasma and the CSF.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Neuroinflammation
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    • "Notably, dietary intakes of lutein estimated as the average of two 24 h recalls for the latter US girls and boys was 345 (sd 491) µg/d( 22 ), and 2446 (sd 1154) µg/d among the Australian children estimated using an FFQ( 23 ), are also consistent with the considerable discrepancy in lutein intake estimated using an FFQ compared with dietary recall in the present study (Table 2). Although all plasma lutein must originate from the diet, previous studies on the strength of the correlation between lutein intake and plasma lutein range from no significant association( 22 , 23 ) to correlations ranging from 0·1 to 0·34( 17 – 20 ) to as high as r 0·76 (P < 0·0001)( 21 ). Using log-transformed data for dietary lutein intake derived from the average of three 24 h records collected over a 14 d period, we show that differences in lutein intake as µg/d or µg/4184 kJ accounted for almost 25 % of the variability in plasma lutein among the children (r 0·479, P < 0·001; r 0·490, P < 0·001, respectively). "
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    ABSTRACT: Lutein and zeaxanthin are xanthophyll carotenoids present in highly pigmented vegetables and fruits. Lutein is selectively accumulated in the brain relative to other carotenoids. Recent evidence has linked lutein to cognition in older adults, but little is known about lutein in young children, despite structural brain development. We determined lutein intake using FFQ, one 24 h recall and three 24 h recalls, plasma lutein concentrations and their association with cognition in 160 children 5·6-5·9 years of age, at low risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Plasma lutein was skewed, with a median of 0·23 (2·5th to 95th percentile range 0·11-0·53) µmol/l. Plasma lutein showed a higher correlation with lutein intake estimated as the average of three 24 h recalls (r 0·479; P = 0·001), rather than one 24 h recall (r 0·242; P = 0·003) or FFQ (r 0·316; P = 0·001). The median lutein intake was 697 (2·5th to 95th percentile range 178-5287) µg/d based on three 24 h recalls. Lutein intake was inversely associated with SFA intake, but dietary fat or SFA intakes were not associated with plasma lutein. No associations were found between plasma lutein or lutein intake and any measure of cognition. While subtle independent effects of lutein on child cognition are possible, separating these effects from covariates making an impact on both child diet and cognition may be difficult.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014
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