Article

Trans fatty acids: Effects on cardiometabolic health and implications for policy

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (Impact Factor: 2.35). 12/2008; 79(3-5):147-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.plefa.2008.09.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In both developed and developing countries, trans fatty acids (TFA) are largely consumed from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. This article focuses on TFA as a modifiable dietary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, reviewing the evidence for lipid and non-lipid effects; the relations of trans fat intake with clinical endpoints; and current policy and legislative issues. In both observational cohort studies and randomized clinical trials, TFA adversely affect lipid profiles (including raising LDL and triglyceride levels, and reducing HDL levels), systemic inflammation, and endothelial function. More limited but growing evidence suggests that TFA also exacerbate visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. These potent effects of TFA on a multitude of cardiovascular risk factors are consistent with the strong associations seen in prospective cohort studies between TFA consumption and risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (CHD) death. The documented harmful effects of TFA along with the feasibility of substituting partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with healthy alternatives indicate little reason for continued presence of industrially produced TFA in food preparation and manufacturing or in home cooking fats/oils. A comprehensive strategy to eliminate the use of industrial TFA in both developed and developing countries, including education, food labeling, and policy and legislative initiatives, would likely prevent tens of thousands of CHD events worldwide each year.

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Available from: Renata Micha, Apr 27, 2014
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    • "The widespread use of partial hydrogenation to produce trans fatty acids has also contributed to an even greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Trans fatty acids elevate lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol levels and decrease high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels [2] [3]. The effects of this dietary shift or " nutritional transition " in low-and middle income countries will continue to worsen until unbalanced diets, obesity, and lack of physical activity are addressed, prevented and/or remedied [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report the fatty acid composition, and in particular, the n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), in erythrocytes from a convenience sample of 158 women and 135 schoolchildren residing in the southern Pacific Coast of Guatemala. Erythrocyte fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection and the profiles were expressed as a weight percent; the Omega-3 Index values were also determined. Schoolchildren had significantly higher mean ARA and total n-6 fatty acid levels than the women. Women had significantly higher EPA fatty acid levels than schoolchildren, but the reverse was true for DHA. For mean total n-3 fatty acid concentration, women and schoolchildren had similar values. The red cell weight percentages of selected fatty acids were also similar in women and schoolchildren. As compared with erythrocyte fatty acid data from developed countries, Guatemalan women and schoolchildren had consistently lower LCPUFA values. The traditional diet of Guatemalans living in the Pacific coastal region provided a worse erythrocyte fatty acid profile than that typically obtained from a Western diet. Additional fatty acid composition studies with associated dietary intake data in other inland locations may be useful for the interpretation of the nutritional status of Guatemalan children and adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids
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    • "Industrial sources of trans fatty acids is directly proportional to the risk of coronary heart disease [11] and may increase in LDL- C, and decrease in HDL-C (the only fat that does not raise HDL [9] ). Increasing ratio of TC/HDL-C, concentration of fat, weight gain, and impairing arterial dilation which may also depends on nitric oxide [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] . The TFAs that are produced by partial hydrogenation of edible oils, unlike TFAs from ruminants, has damaging effects on serum lipids, inflammation, and endothelial function [19] . "
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    ABSTRACT: A B S T R A C T Consumption of foods containing Trans Fatty Acids (TFAs) may have effects on the plasma lipoprotein profile to increase LDL and decrease HDL level which may lead to coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, fetal growth disorder, and increase the probability of cancer. Because of insufficient documents related to the TFA content of Iranian foods, this study aimed to examine TFA content of cakes, confectionaries, and snacks in markets. A cross-sectional study was designed and food samples were collected from all different zones of Kermanshah city in Western Iran. Fatty acids were extracted using the Folch method and methylated by the AOCS method. Fatty acids separated using gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and a 100 m × 0.25-mm inside diameter silica column. The highest amount of TFAs was found in coffee mate, biscuits, and cakes that contained 6.95%–13.94% of total fatty acids. Confectionaries showed 1.24%–3.38% TFAs. Palmitic and stearic acid were the most abundant saturated fatty acids found in analyzed foods. Coffee mate and chocolates presented the greatest amount of saturated fatty acids among foods. This study confirmed that Iranian snack foods contain high TFA levels due to use of hydrogenated fat by food processing companies. According to the adverse health effect of TFAs they need to be minimized or eliminated from foods, we strongly recommend that hydrogenated fat should replace with other safe, edible oils, with minimal content of TFAs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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    • "Industrial sources of trans fatty acids is directly proportional to the risk of coronary heart disease [11] and may increase in LDL- C, and decrease in HDL-C (the only fat that does not raise HDL [9] ). Increasing ratio of TC/HDL-C, concentration of fat, weight gain, and impairing arterial dilation which may also depends on nitric oxide [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] . The TFAs that are produced by partial hydrogenation of edible oils, unlike TFAs from ruminants, has damaging effects on serum lipids, inflammation, and endothelial function [19] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A B S T R A C T Consumption of foods containing Trans Fatty Acids (TFAs) may have effects on the plasma lipoprotein profile to increase LDL and decrease HDL level which may lead to coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, fetal growth disorder, and increase the probability of cancer. Because of insufficient documents related to the TFA content of Iranian foods, this study aimed to examine TFA content of cakes, confectionaries, and snacks in markets. A cross-sectional study was designed and food samples were collected from all different zones of Kermanshah city in Western Iran. Fatty acids were extracted using the Folch method and methylated by the AOCS method. Fatty acids separated using gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and a 100 m × 0.25-mm inside diameter silica column. The highest amount of TFAs was found in coffee mate, biscuits, and cakes that contained 6.95%–13.94% of total fatty acids. Confectionaries showed 1.24%–3.38% TFAs. Palmitic and stearic acid were the most abundant saturated fatty acids found in analyzed foods. Coffee mate and chocolates presented the greatest amount of saturated fatty acids among foods. This study confirmed that Iranian snack foods contain high TFA levels due to use of hydrogenated fat by food processing companies. According to the adverse health effect of TFAs they need to be minimized or eliminated from foods, we strongly recommend that hydrogenated fat should replace with other safe, edible oils, with minimal content of TFAs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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