Doppler Haemodynamics of Cerebral Venous Return

Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
Current neurovascular research (Impact Factor: 2.25). 12/2008; 5(4):260-5. DOI: 10.2174/156720208786413442
Source: PubMed


Physiologic functioning of the cerebrovenous system is indispensable for maintaining normal brain function. However, in contrast to the cerebroarterial system, the cerebral venous return is not routinely investigated. Combined high-resolution echo-colour-Doppler (ECD) and transcranial colour coded Doppler sonography (TCCS) represents an ideal method to investigate the haemodynamics of cerebral venous return. TCCS-ECD is noninvasive, repeatable, cost-effective and permits to investigate the cerebral venous outflow in its dependence upon changes in posture and the alternating pressure gradients of the thoracic pump. Several authors reported normal parameters concerning related aspects of cerebral venous return. However, there is no ECD-TCCS standardization of what can be considered a normal venous return. The authors have summarized the current knowledge of the Doppler haemodynamics of the cerebrovenous system and propose a list of reproducible clinical parameters for its sonographic evaluation. In future, the development of this diagnostic technique could be of singular interest in iron-related inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders like multiple sclerosis.

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Available from: Paolo Zamboni, Sep 29, 2014
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    • "However, a large, recent study using catheter venography demonstrated a prevalence of pathologies in specific veins of up to 81.7% [23], much higher than the levels detected by Doppler. It has been suggested that Doppler can detect the competence of the IJV valve, the cross-sectional area in relation to a change in posture, duplex-derived flowmetry and anomalous morphology [24], but it is likely that there are other methods that allow a more precise detection of morphological abnormalities. Thus, we must be cautious in drawing conclusions because there is a possibility that we were unable to detect all venous pathologies, both in the patients and the controls. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence has indicated an association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis. Small internal jugular veins (IJVs) (with a cross-sectional area of less than 0.4 cm2) have been previously described as difficult to catheterize, and their presence may potentially affect cerebrospinal venous drainage. In this blinded extracranial color-Doppler study we had two principal aims: first, to assess prevalence of CCSVI among Serbian MS patients compared to healthy controls; and second, to assess prevalence of small IJVs (with a CSA <= 0.4 cm2) among MS patients and controls. The sixty seven unrelated patients with clinical isolated syndrome (CIS), relapsing-remitting (RR), secondary progressive (SP) and primary progressive (PP) multiple sclerosis and 21 healthy controls were examined by high-resolution color-Doppler. The ultrasonographic criteria of CCSVI (according to Zamboni) were positive in 11.9% of the patients and in none of the control subjects. The CCSVI-positive patients had significantly longer disease durations and were significantly more disabled (measured by their Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) scores), but after adjustment for gender and disease duration, CCSVI was not an independent risk factor for multiple sclerosis severity. The small IJVs were found in 28.4% of the patients and 28.6% of the controls. The patients with small IJVs were associated with decreased venous outflow from the brain and presented with longer disease durations and significantly higher EDSS and MSSS scores compared to patients without small IJVs. A multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender and disease duration showed that small IJV is an independent factor associated with multiple sclerosis severity (EDSS >=6) (adjusted OR = 8.9, 95% CI: 1.8-45.6, p = 0.007). Among patients with small IJVs the 36.84% were also CCSVI positive. Both, CCSVI and small IJVs seem to influence or follow MS severity, but only small IJVs turned out to be an independent factor in this study. Thus, small IJVs with restricted outflow, which might be aspects of CCSVI different from the criteria originally described by Zamboni, emerge as a cofactor in the multifactorial pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · BMC Neurology
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    • "The IJV represent the main outflow pathway for the cerebral venous system.[57] IJV abnormalities may change the hemodynamics of cerebral venous outflow, leading to insufficient venous drainage, and subsequently causing CSVT. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
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    • "Cerebrospinal venous return was also assessed in subjects while they were positioned on a tilt bed. The blood flow to the opposite of physiologic direction for more than 0.88 s in extracranial and more than 0.5 s in intracranial veins were considered as reflux in the subjects [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a newly suggested cause for multiple sclerosis (MS) detected by color-coded Doppler sonography. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CCSVI and MS compared to the control group.Methods The study was performed on 84 MS patients and 115 healthy subjects. The presence of at least two of the extra- and/or intra-cranial Zamboni's criteria was considered positive for evidence of CCSVI.ResultsAlthough the total number of MS patients with any detectable CCSVI criterion was significantly higher than the controls (22.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.019), only one out of 84 patients fulfilled the Zamboni's criteria (1.2% vs. none, P = 0.422).Conclusion Our results do not support the presence of a relationship between MS and CCSVI criteria defined by Zamboni.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Perspectives in Medicine
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