Article

Making Meaning: The Constructive-Developmental Approach to Persons and Practice

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The constructive (in the sense of construing) and developmental (but throughout the lifespan) framework, whose conceptual roots lie in the work of Piaget, outlines the holistic personality process of systems of making meaning, systems that organize human thought, feeling, and action. In this article Kegan discusses and then applies the model—to a worker in a CETA program and to a psychiatric ward patient—elucidating the perspectives—on mental health and employability—it can open for practitioners.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Through the use of various database searches, reference lists that honed in on seminal works, and well known texts, the seven major models were selected for analysis in this study. In this article the seven models are represented as the Perry Scheme (Perry, 1970), Women's Ways of Knowing (Belinky et al., (1986), Epistemological Reflection Model (Baxter-Magolda, 1992), Constructive Developmental Framework (Kegan, 1980), research by the National Center for the Study of Adult Literacy (NCSAL) (Helsing et al., 2001), Reflective Judgment Model (King & Kitchener, 2002), and Epistemological World View (Schraw & Olafson, 2002). The following sections of this article present the various approaches, terms, stages, and positions portrayed by these authors. ...
... These design practices can be found in contemporary CTE classrooms that feature authentic instruction and constructivist methods. Kegan (1980) attempted to integrate cognitive, emotional, and behavioral factors into a more holistic framework. ...
... Qualitative researchers tended to end up with models of epistemological development similar to Perry's Scheme. However, because each researcher interviewed participants with very different demographics and issues, the research generated a number of models, with different metaphors used for explanation, and varying numbers and contents of stages (Belenky et al., 1986;Baxter-Magolda, 1992;Kegan, 1980;Helsig et al., 2001;King & Kitchener, 2002;Schraw & Olafson, 2002). ...
... However, an Integral perspective allows us to bring to bear other theories that influence our understanding of mimesis and to consider other possibilities for its meaning and expression. For example, bringing Kegan's (1980Kegan's ( , 1982Kegan's ( , 1994 ...
... A whole-person model looks at the person through an AQAL lens-as an organized whole-an integrated, evolving organism, an organism whose primary activity is the making of meaning. We borrow again from Kegan (1980) only by knowing how these events and particulars are privately composed" (p. 374). ...
... In the previous section we focused on Kegan's (1980Kegan's ( , 1982Kegan's ( , 1994 constructivedevelopmental theory (upper-left quadrant) which tracks the evolution of consciousness in individuals as they interact with and make sense of their various social and cultural holding environments (Fischer, 2006). We now discuss the implications of a developmental, evolutionary An evolutionary perspective on mimesis approach for understanding the patterns of communication within a group (lower-left quadrant), and the variables that support or impede the spread of violence within it. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we show how mimetic theory helps to explain the emergence of higher and more complex levels of consciousness in a number of aspects of human development. Classical notions of Goodness, Truth and Beauty are associated with different quadrants in Wilber's Integral framework which suggests that we take into account both individual and collective aspects of human experience, and that we attend to both the interior (reflective) and exterior (empirical) aspects of human discovery. Mimesis can be explored as a phenomenon in each of the resulting quadrants: individual-interior, individual-exterior, collective-interior, and collective-exterior.
... This small-scale approach case study, based on an opportunistic sample, was comprised of 24 Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) trainee teachers in secondary science and 8 experienced school mentors. The research undertook an interpretivism view and relied on Boostrom's (1998) 'safe space' groupings, along with Rodgers and Scott's (2008), and Kegan's (1980Kegan's ( , 1982Kegan's ( , 1994 stage model to support data analysis. ...
... (1) An isolated child comes to stand for all children (freedom to express our individuality/embrace the human condition) (2) The physical space of the classroom comes to stand for social connectedness (the classroom space for the teacher and pupil) (3) The 'safe space' is characterized as 'comfortable' (where people want to be/others recognise differences based on experiences) (4) Students in 'safe spaces' are said to do better work (attainment/creative pupils/engaged/working pupils) (Boostrom, 1998, p. 400-404) A teacher's identity can be aligned to how they support their classroom by using Rodger and Scott's (2008) application of Kegan's (1982; stage model. Rodger and Scott provide descriptive characteristics of a teacher's professional identity, drawn from the four base assumptions of identity, and align these against Kegan's (1980) 'constructive developmental framework'. An outline of Kegan's stages, and an overview of Rodger and Scott's characteristics of teacher identity within these, is included below: Stage 2: Imperial; the instrumental lower which relies upon teachers creating their senses outside of themselves (i.e., not having their own viewpoints on their relationships and any interactions with others are dependent on school rules). ...
... The questionnaire was comprised of open-ended questions, and the responses were coded to Boostrom's categories. These were then linked, via Rodgers and Scott's (2008) work, to Kegan's (1980; identities and identity stages (see Table 1). The mapping of 'safe' concepts and identities showed that these trainee teachers were at Stages 2 and 3 of their identity development. ...
Chapter
In discourses and policy documents on school improvement, in-service teacher training is usually stated as one of the key elements to enhance the quality of teaching and overall school functioning (Buchberger, Campos, Kallós and Stephenson, 2000). In order to establish this relationship between teaching and quality, it is necessary to understand how much of this training is transferred to the workplace; transfer is not an automatic effect of the learning process. The aim of this chapter is twofold: (1) to provide a specific model of transfer factors for teacher training in school environments, and (2) to identify how teacher training transfer impacts in-service teacher training in Mexico. In Mexico, training is provided by the Office of the Vice President for Teacher Training, which is responsible for teacher training and education. To evaluate the effectiveness of the training provided by the Office of the Vice President for Teacher Training, we created the Transfer of Learning Factors model based on previous research on teacher training transfer (Ciraso, 2012). The model was based on the new contributions to motivation to transfer (Gegenfurtner, 2012), commitment to transfer (Quesada-Pallarès, 2014), transferoriented training design (Quesada-Pallarès and Ciraso-Calí, 2013), measurement of transfer level (Pineda-Herrero, Quesada-Pallarès & Ciraso-Calí, 2014) and impact (OECD, 2013). This exploratory study collects longitudinal evidence of how and insofar in-service teachers apply what they learnt in training to their teaching practice. The approach involved a non-experimental design. Two questionnaires were used: the CFT at the end of the training activities with a 64 5-point Likert scale items on transfer factors, and the CT, administered three months later, which included 32 5-point Likert scale items on the transfer level, training impacts, and transfer organisation. The CFT questionnaire was administered to a sample of 3,477; 711 nursery, primary and secondary education teachers responded to only one questionnaire whereas 353 responded to both questionnaires (response rate of 9.38%). Validity and reliability were analysed and multiple regression modeling techniques were applied. Our findings show a high learning transfer level perceived by teachers and identify transfer organisation at school as a barrier to teachers’ learning transfer. The final model explained the 27.6% of teachers’ transfer. The model suggested that transfer is more likely to occur if the training activity has a deliberate transfer-oriented design, if teachers’ attitudes towards change are positive, and if the school creates structures and policies to integrate the new learning into their daily practice. Furthermore, when this transfer organisation is established, the positive effect of the school relationships with educational authorities is no longer significant, which allows the centers to be more self-reliant. In addition, results suggest a low training impact on daily teaching practices that could be related to contents and topics developed during training and its relation with teachers’ training needs. These outcomes can be useful for practitioners, teacher training agencies, and managers, since it provides information on how to enhance teachers’ training transfer and how to indirectly evaluate training outcomes in terms of transfer and impact (Pineda-Herrero et al., 2015). On the other hand, outcomes provide new results on factors influencing training effectiveness, which can open up possibilities of deeper research in these areas.
... CL encompasses several concrete and more conceptual approaches, methods, and procedures (Ghaith 2018). These include: The Structural Approach (Kagan 1992), Complex Instruction (Cohen and Lotan 1997), Group Investigation (Sharan and Sharan 1992), Learning Together (Johnson, Johnson, and Holubec 1993), and Student Team Learning (Slavin 1995). ...
... This strategy relies on the advance organizer theory (Ausubel 1978) and aims to facilitate meaningful learning through the provision of relevant introductory materials during the initial phase of instruction. Examples of representative pre-teaching activities include discussion, previews, semantic mapping, and purpose questions as well as using CL structures such as Think-Pair-Share, Stand-N-Share, Round Robin, Talking Tokens, and many other structures that are explained in Kagan (1992). Similarly, extended instruction is intended for students who need to receive extra instruction beyond initial general instruction provided to all students. ...
... This was made possible as we adopted an open-door policy and encouraged all participants to inform us of any conceptual and methodological challenges faced in comprehending the course content or encountered in the process of writing their critiques. Additionally, we used the "Stand N Share" and the "Talking Tokens" CL structures of Kagan (1992) at the beginning of each session of the course to provide equal opportunities for all participants to share their questions and discuss solutions to what they found unclear or challenging. Likewise, we conducted formative assessments of written critiques and used the outcomes to identify and gain further insights into the learning needs of all participants. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article reports the results of a qualitative study of the effectiveness of a critical reading instructional intervention based on teacher/student conferencing (TSC) and differentiated instruction (DI) in improving the participants' understanding and evaluation of published educational research. TSC and DI entailed using a subset of teaching strategies including pre-teaching, self-selection of critiqued articles, cooperative learning, embedded instruction, extended instruction, reflection to scaffold students' challenges, providing constructive feedback, enabling students to describe their feelings, assessing own learning, and setting goals and plans for further development. A cohort of 11 (n = 11) novice graduate students took part in a 15-week course during which they critiqued several published journal articles and reflected on their experience. Results of a thematic analysis of the participants' reflection logs revealed that their initial feelings of apprehension and anxiety transformed into growth in their self-efficacy as consumers and designers of educational research. Likewise, the participants benefitted from the instructional intervention under study in becoming more proficient readers and in developing supportive relationships. The study implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research that would explicate what specific teaching strategies categorized under TSC and DI were most effective in achieving the study outcomes are discussed.
... People thus make sense of a given situation based on their history of similar situations, available cultural references or resources as well as identities and emotions (e.g . Bruner 1990;Kegan 1980). ...
... Through this we derive insights into three scales of learning -individual to institutional, generalist to specialist and incremental to transformative. Finally, we link this approach to learning to notions of deep learning, including the three loops of learning (Pahl-Wostl 2009) and learning as meaning making (Kegan 1980) through a process through which actors jointly develop meanings for critical ideas, and emerge as communities of purpose (Sato 2018). This ensemble will help address the paper's overall research question of How do policymakers in REDD+ donor countries learn? ...
Article
REDD+ has been evolving since 2005, yet its outcomes and effectiveness in reducing deforestation and/or achieving co-benefits are still unclear. The academic literature has focused a great deal on the politics and performance of REDD+ recipient countries and on-the-ground implementation, but less so on REDD+ donor countries and not on the question of how REDD+ donor countries learn in the process of implementing REDD+. We examine the three major REDD+ donors Norway, Germany and the UK and find that their funding objectives and approaches have broadened from the original simple and focused idea of financially rewarding tropical forest countries to keep forests standing and carbon stored to land-use, co-benefits and global efforts of transformation. Modalities of learning have not kept up with the rapid changes in terms of problem definition and characterization (as ‘super wicked’), let alone the transformative organizational or even paradigmatic changes identified as needed. The experience with REDD+ is demonstrating that merely adjusting the system in incremental ways will likely not solve the problems at hand. Instead, novel modes of learning to facilitate such a transition are needed.
... Various studies stress that nonprofit leaders guide the ongoing process of matching mission with services and activities, and by sharing organization meaning with participants they facilitate organizational success (Carlson & Donohoe, 2010;Dym & Hutson, 2005;Heimovics, Herman, & Jurkiewicz, 1995). Leaders who construct this shared organizational reality engage in meaning-making leadership (Kegan, 1980;Smircich & Morgan, 1982). ...
... These individuals construct and reconstruct worlds of experience through their cognitive processes (Kegan, 1982). Kegan (1980Kegan ( , 1982 suggests that meaning-making is a human capability that grows out of the person's experiential learning, enhancing the individual's ability to frame other meaning systems. These processes are embedded in social interactions (Vygotsky, 1978). ...
Article
Nonprofit leaders are instrumental in constructing and managing organizational reality. They thus need to possess skills to make meaning about various activities, interests, and organizational values, especially when mission and service contexts are in flux. Scholars recognize the sector-distinct leadership role in social construction. Nevertheless, research has yet to articulate clearly how meaning-making by nonprofit leaders develops leadership. This article fills this knowledge gap. We illuminate meaning-making leadership in nonprofits. We identify interpretive leadership skill as an essential executive competency for configuring a shared reality of the nonprofit and guiding others to that reality. Interpretive leadership skill is composed of three meaning-making capabilities: contextual astuteness, coordination capacity, and self-reflective capacity. We theorize that interpretive leadership skill develops from the cognitive and identity development processes of the leader in social interactions. A constructive-developmental approach to leadership underlies our theory building. Theoretical and practical utility of this conceptualization is discussed, as are directions for future research.
... Baxter Magolda drew on the theoretical underpinnings of Kegan (1994), Perry (1968), and King and Kitchener (1994) as a foundation to evolve the theory of self-authorship. Kegan's (1980) research was rooted in the work of Piaget (1965), who identified constructive developmental psychology as the study of progression in terms of how individuals construct meaning making. Kegan (1980) concluded the role of internal selfawareness is critical to one's understanding of how one orients with the world. ...
... Kegan's (1980) research was rooted in the work of Piaget (1965), who identified constructive developmental psychology as the study of progression in terms of how individuals construct meaning making. Kegan (1980) concluded the role of internal selfawareness is critical to one's understanding of how one orients with the world. Developing the capacity to think contextually and behave in ways that are congruent with one's belief system are central components to self-authorship (Baxter Magolda, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
As higher education institutions make intentional steps to include underrepresented groups and ensure their success in school, it is particularly important to understand their epistemological, intrapersonal, and interpersonal development as a key factor of supporting their academic and developmental needs. Institutions of higher education are challenged to prepare graduates for engaged citizenship in an increasingly multifaceted world that requires college graduates to demonstrate higher-level order epistemological abilities to successfully navigate in the 21st century. This qualitative study investigates self-authorship theory through the perceptions and experiences of first-generation undergraduate students, contextualizes periods of cognitive dissonance, examines contextual and environmental factors related to development, and frames these experiences as catalysts that promote self-authoring behaviors. This study captures the unique stories of 14 first-generation undergraduates at a public 4-year comprehensive liberal arts institution on the West Coast of the United States. Future research and practical application strategies to promote self-authorship are provided for higher education professionals to intentionally design supportive learning environments in an effort to better serve the developmental needs of first-generation undergraduates. (PsycINFO Database Record
... The stages of 'vertical' development mentioned above are based on Kegan's (1980Kegan's ( , 1994 seminal work on constructive-developmental theory which has been adopted by various leadership frameworks (McCauley et al., 2006). Kegan's (1980) theory refers to a stream of psychological work that focused on the development process of meaning and meaning-making throughout an individual's life. ...
... The stages of 'vertical' development mentioned above are based on Kegan's (1980Kegan's ( , 1994 seminal work on constructive-developmental theory which has been adopted by various leadership frameworks (McCauley et al., 2006). Kegan's (1980) theory refers to a stream of psychological work that focused on the development process of meaning and meaning-making throughout an individual's life. This stage theory of adult development proposes that, to understand the self and the world, individuals advance through five sequential and hierarchical stages or orders of mind: ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Interested in our brains? Find out what we can learn from neuroscience and what myths to discard in Business Psychology in Action. Discover “embodied leadership” and learn how to appreciate and accommodate neurodiversity. From the inner mind to the outer limits, this book looks at global context and “intercultural competence”, as well as relating diversity to performance. Coaching can help clients to be at their best more consistently and contribute to safety-critical environments. This book segues into how risk builds in human behaviour through assumptions – and how to counter them. There is also a robust model to understand, assess and address the psychological elements of risk, and how it isn’t just in high-risk environments where things go wrong. Business Psychology in Action looks at conflict from a more general perspective, as well as career derailers and how they intersect with organisational culture. Wondering how technology is changing coaching, assessment and development? A new school of thought suggests that psychology-based tools can be moved appropriately into client control. Business Psychology in Action also identifies the features of leadership that make for sustainable organisations that contribute morally, as well as economically, to society. It’s easy to be overwhelmed by the magnitude of “leadership” literature, so instead enjoy a historical journey through leadership research and the giants on whose shoulders modern leadership thinking sits. Business Psychology in Action will appeal to those looking to improve their understanding of the psychology surrounding the corporate world, with the help of practical applications in real-life situations.
... Frankl is saying that meaning in life is not a social construct in that it is a personal achievement which can be had even when society imposes upon the individual the most degrading and brutal conditions of life. Kegan (1980) supports Frankl's nativism by using the terms of developmental constructivism to make the seeking and capacity for meaningfulness a universal human capacity. Kegan (1980) famously wrote "Human being is meaning making" (ibid. ...
... Kegan (1980) supports Frankl's nativism by using the terms of developmental constructivism to make the seeking and capacity for meaningfulness a universal human capacity. Kegan (1980) famously wrote "Human being is meaning making" (ibid. P. 374; italics in the original) and goes on to depict human meaningfulness in terms very close to my own formulation even though he comes to them from a developmentalist paradigm rather than a psychoanalytic one. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The sense of being in human beings is different to that of other sentient animals and developed as a reaction to the sense of being experienced by proto-humans and still occurs in modern human babies. Through being precocial animals but born before they are able to accommodate the sensory experiences of the ex-uterine world, new babies experience what are called primitive agonies. This creates a dynamic which fractures the normal animal development of mind and generates a mental structure alienated from its own feelings but is the way that we are able to think and rationalise and create mental images which need not have any relationship to objects in the real world.
... In order to understand the process through which students are expected to acquire this identity and to describe the qualitative transformations students experience in order to achieve the outcomes associated with medical professionalism and the construction of a professional identity, the theoretical framework for this study calls upon two bodies of work: Gee"s (2002) work related to identity construction and discourse and constructivedevelopmental theory and the concept of self-authorship (Kegan, 1980;Kegan, 1994;Baxter-Magolda, 2004b). Gee"s sociocultural model of identity and acquisition of discourse provide a lens through which to examine the cultural, interactional and institutional forces shaping students" development of a professional identity. ...
... Using a constructive-developmental approach, Kegan has described the internal structures that individuals use to organize experience and make meaning. He suggests that the deep structure of any meaning making system is the distinction between self and other or the subject-object relationship (Kegan, 1980). Object, according to Kegan, encompasses all of the elements of our knowing or organizing that are distinct enough from the self that we can operate on them in some meaningful way. ...
... Meaning making is a conceptual framework founded on the notion that humans have an inherent drive to make meaning of their experiences in the face of traumatic experiences (Frankl, 1963;Kegan, 1980). Meaning making theories underscore that exposure to trauma can disrupt existing meaning systems, leading to posttraumatic psychological distress (Frankl, 1963;Kegan, 1980;Park, 2010). ...
... Meaning making is a conceptual framework founded on the notion that humans have an inherent drive to make meaning of their experiences in the face of traumatic experiences (Frankl, 1963;Kegan, 1980). Meaning making theories underscore that exposure to trauma can disrupt existing meaning systems, leading to posttraumatic psychological distress (Frankl, 1963;Kegan, 1980;Park, 2010). Following a traumatic experience, cognitive adaptations may allow people to feel they have made "sense" of the experience, by either changing their beliefs about themselves and the world around them, choosing to accept what they cannot control or believe they cannot change, or making shifts and changes to their perceived identity (Janoff-Bulman, 1989;Janoff-Bulman and Frieze, 1983;Park, 2010). ...
Article
This study examined one type of adolescent meaning making (i.e., the development of beliefs about violence) and its association with reported mental health symptoms in a sample of youth exposed to community violence. Eighty-seven adolescents (age 11–18; 64.4% female) from a metropolitan city in the Northeast were recruited through Craigslist and recreation center postings and data collection occurred from 2009 to 2013. Participants completed self-reported measures of community violence exposure, attitudes toward violence, and psychological symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]. Bivariate correlations, hierarchical linear regressions, and mediation analyses examined the associations between exposure, beliefs about violence, and mental health symptoms. Self-reported pro-violence attitudes were positively correlated with depression symptoms (r = 0.32, p < 0.01) and PTSD (r = 0.45, p < 0.01). Pro-violence attitudes significantly mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and depression symptoms (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.003–0.061) and PTSD symptoms (95% CI = 0.046–0.260). Preliminary findings suggest that meaning making through the development of pro-violence attitudes may not protect against symptoms of PTSD and depression among youth. Findings can inform the integration of meaning making processes into community mental health interventions for youth.
... Scholars in the mental models literature emphasize the need to, "unpack the elements that make up the construct of climate change" (Breakwell 2010, p. 859). Constructive-developmental psychology-the study of meaning-making activity (Kegan 1983(Kegan , 1980)-does so by considering why meaning is being organized as it is, beyond the content of what is understood about (in this case) climate change. Preliminary research using this approach in climate change suggests that climate meanings are construed differently depending on the complexity of thought that is employed, the object of awareness that is taken (i.e. ...
... As such, one's meaningmaking process influences the distance at which perception can be wrought out, the abstraction of the phenomena in question (from concrete to more subtle to meta-aware), and the extent to which that phenomena "exists" in one's awareness as salient (Hochachka 2019, p. 5). It is also through one's meaning-making stage that one conceives of their selfidentity and how far one's reach of compassion and care extend, influencing the degree and kind of entanglement in one's self-identity and culture (Graves 1970;Kegan 1980) and one's values and worldviews regarding sustainability (Lynam 2012(Lynam , 2019. The compound result of these above processes is a mental construction of 'what climate change means to me.' ...
Article
Full-text available
The scientific evidence of climate change has never been clearer and more convergent, and calls for transformations to sustainability have never been greater. Yet, perspectives and social opinions about it remain fractured, and collaborative action is faltering. Climate policy seeks to forge a singular sense of climate change, dominated by an ‘information deficit model’ that focuses on transferring climate science to the lay public. Critics argue that this leaves out certain perspectives, including the plurality of meanings uncovered through participatory approaches. However, questions remain about how these approaches can better account for nuances in the psychological complexity of climate change, without getting stuck in the cul-de-sacs of epistemological relativism and post-truth politics. In this paper, I explore an approach through which we might find shared meaning at the interface of individual and collective views about climate change. I first present a conceptual framework that describes five psychological reasons why climate change challenges individual and collective meaning-making, and also provides a way to understand how meaning is organized within that. I then use this framework to inform the use of photo voice as a transformative (action-research) method, examining its ability to overcome some of the meaning-making challenges specific to climate change. I discuss how participants from a coffee cooperative in Guatemala reflected first on their own climate meanings and then engaged in a meaning-making process with other actors in the coffee value chain. Findings suggest a psychosocial approach to climate engagement—one that engages both subjectively and intersubjectively on the complexities unique to climate change—is helpful in acknowledging an ontological pluralism of ‘climate changes ’ amongst individuals, while also supporting a nexus-agreement collectively. This may in turn contribute to a more effective and ethical process of transformation.
... The ways in which our knowledge, skills, and abilities are constructed can be charted along a developmental path. This idea forms the foundation of Constructive Developmental Theory which states that humans construct meaning of their experiences and that these meaning-making structures can change to become more complex (Kegan, 1980). Kegan (1980) noted that the nature of this complexity of meaning making is in the extent to which adults are able to make object that which is subject to them such as their needs, interests, and even identity. ...
... This idea forms the foundation of Constructive Developmental Theory which states that humans construct meaning of their experiences and that these meaning-making structures can change to become more complex (Kegan, 1980). Kegan (1980) noted that the nature of this complexity of meaning making is in the extent to which adults are able to make object that which is subject to them such as their needs, interests, and even identity. When learners are first developing their global mindset, their own culture is subject to them, meaning that it is perceived to be who they are, not something that they have as a result of their experiences. ...
Chapter
Global workforce mobility and the technologies that support collaborative work across the globe lead to the need of knowledge management systems that take into account how adults with various national and ethnic backgrounds learn and share knowledge, and that incorporate both the professional and technical knowledge in organizations, and the diversity of thought and worldviews of their employees. It is incumbent on learning facilitators, instructional designers, and developers of knowledge management systems to enable and empower employees to think at a global level and use and share their knowledge and skills in their organizations to address the global challenges they face. Thus, teaching for globalization is considered both an antecedent and an outcome of knowledge management systems in organizations. This chapter discusses the (a) global context of education and work (the “whys” for teaching for globalization), (b) importance of knowledge management in today’s organizations (the “whys” for knowledge management designed for the global environment), (c) global systems thinking and global mindset (the “whats” of teaching for globalization), and (d) cultivating global systems thinking and global mindset (the “hows” of teaching for globalization). The chapter concludes with implications for the design of knowledge management systems to support continuous learning in organizations, and nurture engaged, creative, and responsible global professionals.
... This development is transcended and included in an open-ended progression throughout adulthood, expressed, for example, in one's worldviews and behaviors (Graves, 1981). Established examples of these human developmental approaches include ego (Loevinger, 1976), morality (Kohlberg, 1969), and cognitive development (Commons & Richards, 2002b;Kegan, 1980). These stages are dependent upon life conditions, meaning the nonlinear ups and downs of existence apply, and ego-identity, cognitive abilities, morality and so on are context dependent. ...
... This study focuses on later stages of development or operation, which refer to those beyond the formal operational (Piaget, 1954) or socialized (Kegan, 1980) developmental stages, known alternatively as postconventional (Cook-Greuter, 2013;Kohlberg, 1969) and postformal stages (Commons & Richards, 2002a). At this point in time, the development of humans into the later stages has been shown to be relatively rare, although this manifestation is projected to increase should life conditions be favorable (Beck & Cowan, 1996;Graves, 1981). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This study provides a heretofore absent methodological foundation and method for researching Next-Stage Organizations and the correlation between adult and organizational development. The research question related to the effectiveness of the method in ascertaining how a Founder/CEO's development informs that of an organization. The larger context was the adaptive challenges of recognizing humanities role in the unprecedented damage wreaked on planet Earth, focusing on organizations and leaders poised to influence policy and strategy and, consequently, individual and group development. This qualitative study employed an embedded, multiple-case study design recruiting 3 participants from the sample of CEO's in Laloux's (2014) Reinventing Organizations. Data were gathered from organizational websites, interviews with each participant, and sentence completion data from O'Fallon's STAGES assessment of each participant, and sorted and analyzed using a unique combination of Nicolescuian transdisciplinarity, integral methodological pluralism, Banathy's three lenses, and O'Fallon's STAGES theory. The findings placed 2 participants and their associated organizations at 4.0, and one at 5.5 with the associated organization at 4.5. Pattern matching showed an alignment with McCauley, Drath, Palus, O’Connor, and Baker (2006) propositions of adult development. Further analysis generated a case-inspired Next-Stage organizational profile using thematic codes. Organizational data showed similar distributions of scores and themes to the 3 participants, implying a direct relationship between the Founder/CEO development and systems of belief and those of the organization. Results further corroborated Laloux’s (2014) assertion that his research is a composite representation of an organization operating at the 4.5 level. A graphic synthesis of Nicolescuian transdisciplinarity, Integral Methodological Pluralism, Banathy’s 3 lenses, and Laloux’s 3 breakthroughs is offered as a unique contribution of this research. This study highlighted the importance of how postformal/postconvential individuals and organizations navigate the postnormal reality, VUCA conditions, and wicked problems of the Anthropocene. Answering these challenges implies a possible path of global collaboration with the potential to lead toward a regenerative planetary populace educated as symbiotic stewards of our planet (Wahl, 2006). Although this research marks a step toward identifying organizations on the cutting edge, much more research needs to be done to ensure the survival and collective evolution of our species. Download Full Text - https://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/2281272979.html?FMT=ABS
... All of these levels represent a radically different interpretation of the world around. The differences are qualitative and well recognized (Kegan, 1980;Kegan, 1982). ...
Article
In the world of organizations, the role of leaders is particularly important, considering that their personalities, behaviour and performance characteristics are relevant not only from their own point of view, but also for the development of the staff and the processes of the whole organization. The 21st century has brought changes and new challenges in the everyday life of employees, and these new challenges are especially noticeable in the business sector and in the lives of leaders. The aim of this study was to explore how mental complexity and personality characteristics are related to attitudes and thinking about leadership. Another goal was to develop a quantitative method for testing mental complexity. In order to assess our hypotheses we applied a quantitative research method (N = 358) and used a Mental Complexity Questionnaire (27 items, 3 scales: Social Complexity Scale, Individual Complexity Scale and Inter-Individual Complexity Scale) (Repaczki, 2014).
... However, the ultimate purpose of my intellectual curiosity is practical: I am seeking to make sense of my life and of the complexity in the human systems in which I work, learn, play, and live in order to facilitate healing and transformation. Some of the theoretical frameworks that inform my work include systems thinking, in particular soft, critical and emancipatory systems perspectives (e.g., Checkland, 1993;Jackson, 1991;Ulrich, 1983;Flood, 1995); complexity and evolutionary theory (e.g., Laszlo, 2004;Maturana, 2002;Heron & Reason, 1997), transformation, learning and adult development (e.g., Mezirow, 2000;Metzner, 1998;Grof, 1988;Kegan, 1980;Freire, 1996, Campbell, 2008, participatory decision making and collective wisdom approaches (e.g., Macy & Brown, 1998;Owen, 2008, Brown, 2005), developmental perspectives of leadership (e.g., Torbert, 2004;Rooke & Torbert, 2005;Merry, 2009;Collins, 2001;Anderson & Adams, 2016), consciousness studies (e.g., Laszlo, 2016;Dalai Lama, 2006;Goswami, 1995), creativity and innovation (e.g., Cameron, 2002;Csikszentmihalyi, 2013;Kelly, 2001) and sustainability and social entrepreneurship (United Nations, 2017;McDonough & Braungart, 2013;Sanford, 2011Sanford, , 2014Mulgan, 2007). Some of the methodological approaches that inform my practice include action research (Burns, 2007;Laszlo & Schulz, 2017), social systems design (Banathy, 1996), design thinking (Brown, 2009), and theory U ( Scharmer, 2009). ...
... Mezirow's (1978b) model, developed after studying women returning to college as adults, included a complex process of encountering a disorienting dilemma where one's perspectives were challenged, followed by critical reflection, and the adaptation of a new perspective. Many have critiqued Mezirow's work as not being culturally relevant, relying too heavily on cognition while ignoring other aspects of learning and the impact of socialization (Dirkx, 1997(Dirkx, , 2001Kegan, 1980Kegan, , 2000King, 2009;Kovan & Dirkx, 2003); however, the theory continues to be widely used in exploring transformative change for adults of all ages. For his theory of contemporary human development, Kegan (1994Kegan ( , 2000 adopted transformational learning as the lens through which to understand growth and change for postmodern adults. ...
Article
The challenge of creating an effective, lasting transformative Christian discipleship has become more difficult in our current cultural milieu. During a narrative study of emerging adult faith development, participants connected disparate life experiences in the process of developing and discussing their faith biographies. These narrative connections created an environment for transformative learning to occur. In this article, I use narrative methods to inform the practice of emerging adult discipleship to encourage transformation. This article forwards narrative as useful in developing an effective method of discipleship for emerging adults.
... Such questions connect sensemaking to the social interaction domain of holistic learning and suggest that sensemaking's connection to learning is indeed an important element to consider within the conceptual framework of this study. Sensemaking may actually provide a way for a scholar-practitioner to create a bridge between holistic learning as a high-level theoretical construct and the practice of biographicity by developing more practical meaning-making activities ( Kegan, 1980). Kegan described such meaning making as a framework that includes cognitive and emotional dimensions and provides a "descriptive, external-frame-of-reference on enduring regularities and distinctions between and within persons in their meaning making" (p. ...
... Constructive developmental theories suggest there are. Many different people explore various nuances of human development through different constructive developmental frameworks (Kohlberg, 1969;Kegan, 1980;Torbert, 1991;Cookgreuter, 2000), yet these theories parallel one another (Wilber, 2000;McCauley et al., 2006). There exists some agreement that three orders of development describe the meaning making systems of most adults (McCauley et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
There is an emerging cultural narrative in the United States that we are entering an age of purpose—that millennials, more than any other generation, are searching for purpose and purposeful work (Sheahan, 2005) and that we are entering an era or economy of purpose (Hurst, 2014). For profit, non-profit, and educational institutions are perceiving and adapting to serve millennials' demand for purpose in life, specifically within the workplace (Klein et al., 2015). Yet, longitudinal studies of purpose do not exist, and millennials are also referred to as GenMe. Existing quantitative research suggests they (we) are increasingly individualistic, materialistic, and narcissistic (Greenfield, 2013). Google's digitization of millions of books and the Ngram Viewer allow for quantified analysis of culture over the past two centuries. This tool was used to quantitatively test the popular notion that there is a rise in demand for purpose. Analysis reveals a growing interest in purpose-in-life and a shift toward collectivistic values emerging over the lifespan of the millennial generation.
... Although not defined as such by those authors, we see their self-esteem construct as a dynamic version of cognitive dissonance, changing in strength and adaptations as the gap between perceived and ideal moderates through feedback and self-development. This iterative process is fundamental to our modeling of opting in and opting out of learning because as Kegan (1980) notes, young peoples' meaning-making systems involve how they make distinctions between themselves and others. And, this process may be distressing. ...
Article
Current student engagement literature fails to fully appreciate the psychosocial aspect of learning, especially the process of "opting out" of learning opportunities. We formulate a model of identity-based disengagement in an attempt to understand why some students choose to reject learning opportunities. Management education in particular may be subject to student disengagement due to learning activities that engender affective, identity-challenging responses. Using social identity theory, we model how some learning activities can trigger elements of students' identities, forcing a cognitive dissonance confrontation. We suggest that students undertake an identity-based risk-reward assessment when determining which learning opportunities to accept or reject. We argue that by increasing sensitivity to the process of disengagement, instructors can help draw students back into learning opportunities. Practical implications of the model and suggestions for future research end the article.
... This chapter focuses on constructive-developmental theory because it is the body of work most often referred to in the leadership and coaching literature. Kegan (1980) was the first to coin the phrase 'constructive-developmental', a body of work that has its origins particularly in psychodynamic, existential and cognitive-developmental theories. Kegan (1982) credits Jean Piaget as being the 'central figure' in the evolution of the constructive-developmental tradition. ...
Chapter
Adult development theories are based on the premise that development is a life-long process, that the way that people think, feel and/or make meaning of the world changes and evolves over time. There exist many theories as to the nature of this process, most describing a series of stages through which people progress with reference to some dimension of self. If the role of the coach includes being able to identify and facilitate changes in the way that people think and feel, then it behoves coaches to familiarise themselves with adult development theories and to decide for how to incorporate that knowledge into their coaching practices. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a high level review of a range of adult development theories and their relevance for academics, researchers and coaching practitioners.
... Constructive developmentalists (e.g., Kegan, 1980) share the fundamental notion of development of SD theorists but have focused more exclusively on social and ego development, and they have also incorporated psychodynamic components into their theories (Loevinger, 1976;Kegan, 1982;Cook-Greuter, 1990; Structural developmentalism is also known as cognitive developmentalism. 2 2004). CD theorists have also focused primarily on adult development, while SD theorists have focused on both adult and child development. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Problem: A range of developmental models have been applied in research on leader development. Such applications often advocate “whole” person approaches to leader growth. They seek to expand social, cognitive, and behavioral capacities, and often reference perspective taking. Many of these approaches define developmental levels in terms of specific content, ideas, and domain-specific capacities. In some models, people are said to be at a given level because they demonstrate a certain kind of perspective taking, and they are also expected to demonstrate that kind of perspective taking because they are at a given level. This circularity largely prevents the investigation of how different capacities change together (or not) over time. Purpose: Using an approach that avoids this kind of circularity it was possible to examine perspectival skills and developmental level independently. I tested three hypotheses about the relationship between change in developmental level and change in perspective taking, seeking, and coordination. It was predicted that these constructs would exhibit patterns of synchronous and asynchronous change, with the former being most prominent. Method: The sample consisted of 598 civil leaders who completed a developmental assessment called the LecticalTM Decision Making Assessment (LMDA) up to 4 times over a 9-month leadership development program. The LDMAs yielded separate scores for Lectical level—a domain-general index of hierarchical complexity—and perspective taking, seeking, and coordination. Perspective taking and seeking scores were disaggregated into component scores for salience, accessibility, and sophistication. Ten scores were analyzed with Latent growth modeling techniques. Four types of models were fit to these data: (a) Univariate latent growth curve models, (b) multivariate parallel process models, (c) univariate latent difference scores models, and (d) bivariate latent difference scores models. Results: All hypotheses were partially confirmed. Change trajectories for most scores were non linear, characterized by dips and spurts. The rate of change in perspective scores was not related to rate of change for Lectical score or initial Lectical score. Initial Lectical score was positively related to initial perspective scores. Lectical score was a leading indicator of subsequent change in seeking and seeking salience. Lectical change positively impacted seeking change, whereas Lectical score positively impacted seeking salience change. Conclusions: The relationship between change in these constructs is more complex than typically portrayed. Evidence suggests that these variables change more independently of each other than claimed in earlier research. Patterns of asynchronous change were three times more common than synchronous change, and Lectical score predicted change in only some aspects of perspectival capacity.Implications for theory, method, and pedagogy, along with study limitations and avenues for future research are discussed.
... In considering how Authentic Leadership (AL) group-coaching may develop such a leadership quality as complex and strategic thinking, we propose a theory of adult development called Constructive Developmental Theory (Kegan 1980;1982;Kohlberg, 1969;Loevinger, 1976;Torbert, 1987). Constructive Developmental Theory has been summarised as the continuing development of a person's meaning-making processes and the complexity with which they see and understand themselves and the world (Keegan, 1980). ...
Article
Full-text available
Much of the emphasis of Authentic Leadership Development (ALD) is placed upon ethical leadership, but our research shows that there is an additional benefit to genuine ALD, namely an increased capacity for strategic leadership. In this article we aim to highlight this somewhat neglected benefit of ALD and demonstrate how Authentic Leadership group-coaching can develop a leader's cognitive complexity and hypothesise this may be as a result of the group-coaching process elevating them through their Leadership Development Levels (Eigel & Kuhnert, 2005).
... Kegan's constructive-developmental theory (Kegan, 1980;Pruyn, 2010) Dweck and her cohorts (Diener & Dweck, 1978;Dweck, 1975;Dweck, 1986;Dweck, 2006;Dweck, 2010;Dweck & Leggett, 1988;Dweck, & Reppucci, 1973;Elliott & Dweck, 1988) indicate convincing evidence that individuals with a fixed mindset possess an entity theory of intelligence therefore setting performance goals for themselves. By adopting performance goals, individuals with a fixed mindset face challenges with a fear of failure. ...
Article
Carol Dweck’s research on fixed vs. growth mindset has led to many opportunities for educational research. According to Dweck, a person with a fixed mindset believes that his or her qualities related to a certain task are unchangeable while an individual with a growth mindset believes that his or her qualities related to a certain task can be changed and improved (Dweck, 2006). A correlative study was conducted to identify relationships that exist between student mindset and scores from the Nebraska State Accountability Test (NeSA). For this study, students in the 7th, 8th, and 11th grade classes at a Plains State school were administered Dweck’s Scale of Mindset. These scores were then correlated with their standardized test scores. A null hypothesis was formed that there is no relationship between student mindset and performance on the NeSA test. A moderate, positive, statistically significant correlation was found between 8th grade and 11th grade reading scores and intelligence mindset. Similarly, a moderate, positive, statistically significant correlation was found between female reading scores and intelligence mindset. Recommendations for further study and implications for practice were given. Advisor: Lloyd Bell
... Global meaning "refers to individuals' general orienting systems, consisting of beliefs, goals, and subjective feelings" and self-view, and is more stable than appraised meaning. When meaning making involves reviewing the past it can be described as a learning process [18], which everyone develops in unique ways [19]. ...
Chapter
The focus of our research is to support designers in fostering a more sustainable behaviour of consumers by creating meaning in products and services. The paper describes the results of a literature study into the process of meaning making and the mechanisms through which meaning affects consumer behaviour. Meaning is defined as a mental representation of possible relationships. An initial model, the Meaning-Behaviour Model, is presented, integrating the mechanisms found in literature. Five possible interventions, derived from the model, show how designers can use meaning as a lever to foster enduring behavioural change. The paper contributes to the discussion of introducing meaning through design by exploring the link between meaning and behaviour.
... In terms of leadership as development, McCauley et al. (2006) outline how constructivist developmental theory can be used to understand key factors in leadership development. They note that Kegan (1980) first introduced the term "constructive developmental" as a way of describing "a stream of work in psychology that focuses on the development of meaning and meaningmaking processes across the lifespan" (McCauley et al., 2006, p. 635). ...
Article
Full-text available
The field of leadership development has suffered from a behavioral training approach. Bringing an adult cognitive developmental perspective to the field offers new possibilities. However, proponents of this approach often still find themselves on the margins of research and application in the field. This article provides an overview of how research and practice at the intersection of these two fields has progressed with some discussion of how it appears in relation to the larger field of leadership discourse. There is a brief survey of some of the more well-known approaches to applying adult development models to leadership development. To illustrate this, an example from client work done from this approach is highlighted in terms of some preliminary research on the impacts on leadership skills from utilizing an adult developmental model for leadership development programs. Concluding remarks identify the need to take advantage of more widespread practitioner application to further research in the field.
... A behódolás az első szakasznak feleltethető meg, az azonosulás a második és a harmadik szakasznak, míg az internalizáció a negyedik szakasznak. Azonban a Bradley-görbében leírt vezetői viselkedés négy szintjének meghatározása Robert Kegan (1980Kegan ( , 1982Kegan ( , 1994 mentális komplexitás elméletével is összeillik. Kegan fejlődéselméleti modellje szerint a fejlődés egy élethosszig tartó folyamatként ragadható meg, amely az úgynevezett mentális komplexitás fokozatos növekedésével jár együtt. ...
Article
A biztonsági kultúra a szervezeti kultúra részét képezi, mely a szervezetben dolgozó munkatársak és vezetőik biztonsággal kapcsolatos attitűdjét és viselkedésmódját határozza meg. Fejlettségének és sikerességének mértékét nagyban befolyásolja a vezető szerepe, biztonságtudatos attitűdje, vezetési stílusa és elkötelezettsége. Vernon Bradley eszköze, a Bradley-görbe négy szinten írja le a szervezet biztonsági kultúráját, amit a cikkben három szinten értelmeznek a szerzők: egyéni, csoportos és szervezeti szint. Az első, reaktív szakasz a passzív vezetésnek feleltethető meg, a második, függő szakaszban a vezetők ellenőrzésen alapuló, szabálykövető vezetési stílust alkalmaznak, míg a harmadik, individuális szakaszban az egyénközpontú, egyénre fókuszáló vezetés jelenik meg; végül a negyedik, kölcsönös függés szakaszban a vezetők a teammunkán alapuló vezetést preferálják, amelyben a vezetők a team részének tekintik magukat a biztonságtudatosság tekintetében. Munkájukban egy erős biztonsági kultúrával rendelkező szervezet harmincöt vezetőjével készítettek interjút, amely tartalomelemzéséből meg lehet tudni, hogyan vélekednek önmaguk biztonságtudatosságáról, valamint beosztottjaik és a szervezet biztonságtudatosságáról.
... I define a Living Mathematics 'teaching pathway' and a 'research pathway' as sequences of Key Actions that could be undertaken by others or myself. The actions involve making meaning (Kegan, 1980) and the identification of an individual's living values and beliefs (Whitehead, 1989). ...
Article
Full-text available
I define my 'living mathematics' as my living-educational-theory of teaching and researching mathematics. I define 'Living Mathematics' as the overarching values-based approach to the teaching and research of mathematics as a parallel to the distinction made between 'living-educational-theory' and 'Living Educational Theory research'. In this article I ask the question 'how do I improve my practice of teaching and researching here?' by exploring how I: (1) As a teacher can support mathematical thinking and the understanding of textbook concepts using a value-based approach and, (2) As a researcher can enhance my mathematical thinking and modify, or create, mathematical models by calling upon my lived experiences, capturing and representing them in a symbolic form. I define teaching and research pathways in Living Mathematics as sequences of useful and focused key actions. Four exemplar case studies of my living mathematics are discussed; two from the teaching pathway and two from the research pathway.
... Educators and their students should actively engage in assignments that require an examination of one's ontological and epistemological assumptions, values, beliefs, experiences, and worldviews (Cranton, 2002;Kegan, 1980;Mezirow, 1997) regarding democracy and accountability. Participating in different spheres enables future educational leaders to become Democratically Accountable Leadership inclusive in their approach to addressing the challenges of student learning and equity (Brown, 2004). ...
Article
This discussion focuses on the intersection of two dissonant concepts of importance in today's educational scene—democracy and accountability. In this article, we describe how these conflicting ideologies might be resolved, theoretically and practically, through democratically accountable leadership—that is, the dual necessity of educational leaders to successfully function as change agents working for social justice. Understanding how educational leaders conceive of these phenomena is an important starting place toward preparing future educational leaders to deal more effectively with them. Hence, we investigated the idea of rethinking accountability around democratic principles and incorporating it into leadership preparation. Specifically, we present results from a study involving doctoral students (i.e., educational leaders) who were asked to link the principles of democracy and accountability to the application of social justice. As such, the article contains suggestions for implementing democratically accountable leadership into practice.
... Kegan and orders of consciousness. Kegan's theorization of self-authorship stems from his work exploring the way individuals make meaning and the subject-object relationship over the lifespan (Kegan, 1980(Kegan, , 1982(Kegan, , 1994. This work built on cognitive-structural and cognitivedevelopmental frameworks offered by Erikson (1950), Kohlberg (1969Kohlberg ( , 1975, Piaget (1954Piaget ( , 1965, and Perry (1970), to look specifically at both what he termed the problem and process present in human development throughout childhood and adulthood (Kegan, 1982). ...
Thesis
The purpose of this study was to explore how student pharmacists at a top ten school of pharmacy in the Pacific Northwest conceive and experience the process of professional identity formation. Using the theoretical framework of self-authorship, final-year student pharmacists participated in semi-structured interviews covering their expectations and experiences while enrolled in the Doctor of Pharmacy program. Analysis of interview transcripts through interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) led to the identification of four superordinate themes. The first three superordinate themes that emerged represent domains of professional identity formation: Defining the Profession, Building Confidence & Competence, and Discerning Values. Development in each domain occurred across three stages that align with the self-authorship framework, which emphasizes the transition between defining one’s experiences based on external factors to relying on an internalized sense of understanding. A fourth superordinate theme, Significant Experiences, illustrated factors that helped to support participants in the professional identity formation process: Early & Sustained Practice Opportunities, Exposure to Multiple Practice Models/Settings, and a Supportive Learning Environment. The results of this study emphasize important considerations for professional training programs in pharmacy and other health professions.
... Research-based, best practices for designing leadership development programs incorporate a variety of learning methods that are both cognitive in nature and through hands-on, experiential learning (Allen & Hartman, 2008;Kolb, 1984), as well as informed by essential principles adult development (Kegan, 1980). While action learning is not explicitly identified among the signature pedagogies of leadership education (Jenkins, 2012), it is related to other important instructional practices such as small group discussions, interactive lecture and reflection journaling. ...
... The constructive-developmental perspective has in recent decades become more explored and applied to the realm of leadership studies (Eigel & Kuhnert, 2016;Joiner & Josephs, 2007;Kegan & Lahey, 2009;McCauley et al., 2006;Reams, 2016;Rooke & Torbert, 2005). Kegan (1980) introduced the term constructive-developmental which can be explicated as follows: ...
Thesis
Full-text available
A review of the fragmented field of leadership studies reveals that little effort has been made to understand the phenomenon of self-disclosure from the subjective viewpoint of the discloser. Self-disclosures are often referred to as "revealing yourself to another", such as sharing mistakes, reactions to feedback, difficult experiences and so on. This study is explorative and based on a Q-methodological inquiry into 20 Norwegian leaders subjectivity on self-disclosure in context of workplace relationships. Factor analysis resulted in four factors that were interpreted and followed up with post-sorting interviews. My research suggests that self-disclosure behaviour is a complex psychosocial phenomenon influenced by a myriad of external and internal factors. Implications from my research are directed towards utilising 'awareness-based approaches' to develop reflexivity and relational capacities in leaders, which could lead to outcomes as increased trust and deepening of workplace relationships.
... This study builds upon the leadership theory which focuses on the individual characteristics of leaders (traits, personality, skills, abilities, individual differences and charisma) (Christensen, et al., 2014;McCauley, Drath, Palus, O'Connor & Baker 2006;Visser, 2011). Within this theoretical stream of inquiry, the Action Logics Development framework of Rooke and Torbert (2005) which applies the constructive development theory of Piaget (1954), then improved by Kegan (1980) andLoevinger (1976) to a managerial level -helps explaining how prominent the role of leadership is in the transition to more advanced stages of CSR. ...
... Educational leadership coursework that requires examination of assumptions, values, beliefs, experiences, and worldviews (Cranton, 2002;Kegan, 1980;Mezirow, 1997) could produce benefits where attention is on the challenges of democracy and accountability, especially as concerns student learning and equity within diverse communities of learners (Brown, 2003). Writing cultural autobiographies, documenting case studies, undertaking equity audits, conducting life history interviews, and participating in prejudice reduction workshops can enable graduate students to develop as critically reflective, policy oriented leaders . ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Social justice leadership is a sea change. A sea change is a profound transformation to a prevailing paradigm that occurs in society and within educational institutions. The work of social justice is inclusive and responsible, alive and dynamic, powerful and life changing. The change that leaders enact at cultural and organizational levels is evident in the felt-transformation of a community's way of thinking or behaving. While democratic processes generate change to educate more broadly and deeply, these can also preserve the status quo. Radical social justice theorist Cornel West (2005), explaining this idea, makes a crucial distinction between types of democracy. In Democracy Matters, he writes that democracy as a verb connotes "a more dynamic striving and collective movement" and that democracy as a noun implies "a static order or stationary status quo" (p. 68). Thus, democracy can reflect a sea change, stasis, or a mere tweaking of what already is. (Full-text of yearbook: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED523727.pdf)
... These conversations were not met without challenge, but, for me, it is likely that as helping professionals we are unwittingly perpetuating discrimination if we are not actively seeking to challenge it. I have used Kegan's (1980) developmental framework to explore my own racial biases. Leonardo's (2002) distinction between Whiteness and White people was an important reconceptualization that enabled me to scrutinise my own perceptions and maintain relationships with colleagues in the helping professions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of cultural competence is widely referred to within the helping professions, alongside issues of social and racial identity and the determinants of life outcomes. This article presents a personal account of the experiences of a Black, British, educational psychologist practitioner. From this vantage point, the concept of cultural competence is described drawing on the sense made within the literature. Visual artworks, grounded within the conceptual art movement, are presented as a tool for cultural competence pedagogy, and a psychological interpretation of the works is presented for reflection on issues of race, racism and racial identity. These novel tools are presented with the aim of contributing to the growing body of knowledge and to support a reconceptualisation of the responsibilities of helping professionals' culturally competent practice. The article concludes with an invitation to colleagues to discuss and collaborate, using the tools presented.
Chapter
Full-text available
At a time when many Piagetian social-cognitive psychologists are applying their theories to real-life problems beyond the school setting (e.g., Gilligan 1982, Noam & Kegan 1982, Selman 1980), applied developmental psychology is gaining increased importance. Application to clinical phenomena is, in turn, renewing an interest in psychoanalytic and developmental integrations and in an inclusive theory of the self. But the integration of Freudian and Piagetian psychologies, which we call clinical-developmental psychology, is a difficult task, involving integration of the study of social-cognitive, developmental, clinical, and affective phenomena. Through this chapter, we hope to advance a few steps in the understanding of ego development, [1] psychopathology, and clinical intervention by reflecting on steps taken previously.
Chapter
Vertical adult developmental models demonstrate that adults move through stages of increasing complexity and maturity characterised by the ability to take wider and wider perspectives on lived experiences. Although not all development is vertical, this theory presupposes that coaching interventions support the stabilisation of a client at one level, or the transformation to the next. In contrast, positive psychology coaching aims to utilise interventions to support individuals to develop their strengths, cultivate resilience and flourish, but to date, does not map this growth on constructive adult developmental theory. This chapter explores the coaching interventions that support client transitions at each of the developmental stages and considers how specific positive psychology interventions (PPIs) can be leveraged at each stage. This bottom-up approach in applying PPIs to developmental coaching is compared and contrasted with a top-down positive psychology approach, which maps various positive psychology elements such as strengths, subjective wellbeing and flow to adult developmental stages. By combining these bi-directional interventions, it is argued that positive psychology coaching and constructive developmental coaching have much to offer each other.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the experience of three formerly abrasive leaders who improved their conduct and management strategies following a workplace intervention. Design/methodology/approach Narrative inquiry, a personal and collaborative research method, revealed the experience of three leaders in their shift from destructive behaviors. Concepts from adult development, specifically Kegan's constructive-development theory (CDT) and Mezirow's transformative learning theory (TL), provided a lens to better understand the leaders' personal development. Findings This study culminated with three co-composed narrative accounts and an analysis of narrative threads. The focus of this paper is the interpretive narrative thread analysis. The developmental experience of these three leaders included disruption, awakening and equipping. Research limitations/implications This study included three leaders. The experience of these leaders may not be representative of other formerly abrasive leaders. Practical implications This initial exploratory study contributes to CDT and TL by suggesting leader interpersonal development is an intensely emotional experience that transcends the mechanics of developmental stages. In practice, this study indicates abrasive leaders may improve their conduct and management strategies with organizational support, including supervisor intervention and specialized professionals. Originality/value This paper offers insight for scholars and human resource (HR) professionals on the emotionally intense experiential journey of leaders who improved their interpersonal conduct. This study introduces concepts from CDT and TL into the study of workplace psychological aggression (WPA), and it expands the limited knowledge of how HR can support positive perpetrator change.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This document provides a summary of innovative Dissertation in Practice (DiP) models currently being considered or implemented by CPED Phase I institutions (Appendix A: Phase I Membership, 2007-2010). It also provides concise design summary details of the key elements in the DiP. Although the CPED working principles and concept definitions are in common, the developed DiP design model framework grounded in CPED-FIPSE1 research clearly illustrates that CPED EdD programs are diverse in both program structure and/or capstone product design. Therefore, the presented DiP framework serves as a basis for new developments in DiPs as they occur, and has benefited from extensive comments from colleagues in response to initial consultations. Faculty, doctoral supervisors and doctoral candidates should view this document as (1) a reference text; (2) an overview of DiP design models; (3) an explanation of key concepts that distinguish the DiP; (4) a catalyst for viewing individual institution’s CPED web pages; and (5) a resource for locating the appropriate contact information for CPED PI’s to address specific questions. Inevitably, there will be diverse reasons for consulting this document, and we hope that readers find it useful for their need.
Article
The Western education system has been criticised by Rupert Murdoch, among others, as a Nineteenth Century system failing to cope with the demands of the Twenty-first Century. Over the course of the Twentieth Century and beyond, research has revealed insights regarding the way in which humans learn. In fields as diverse as neuro-science, quantum physics, psychology, developmental theory and spirituality these insights have tumbled onto the stage. However, few of these insights have impacted significantly on the praxis of education. There is a disturbing sameness about the way in which learning is facilitated in educational institutions and other organisations. In particular, the confusion of knowledge acquisition and memorisation with learning, and narrow conceptions of development have contributed to the situation so harshly judged by Murdoch. In this paper, a new and more comprehensive theory of learning and development is presented. By integrating some of the insights revealed by Twentieth Century research, the process of learning is dissected and reimagined. Similarly, the process of development of the psyche is dissected and reimagined. The two are then integrated into a new theory which, among other things, takes account of the need to unlearn as part of the learning process, and the developmental nature of learning. Implications for educational praxis are discussed and recommendations made for changes in that praxis.
Chapter
What motivates a leader to serve? What motivates them to seek the growth and development of others? Graham (Bus Ethics Q 5:43–54, 1995) suggests that servant leaders are at the post-conventional moral stage, and therefore exhibit moral behaviors that incorporate consideration of others. Sun (Leadersh Q 24:544–557, 2013) extends this perspective by suggesting that servant leaders incorporate a well-defined servant identity. This chapter seeks to examine the motivational foundation for servant behaviors by incorporating these ego, moral, identity, and cognitive perspectives. The chapter also challenges our assumption of self-sacrificing altruism, and examines the possibility that leaders can exhibit servant behaviors from a self-serving angle, and such paradoxical co-existence is in fact beneficial for both leaders and their followers.
Article
The nature of organisations is changing. They no longer sit comfortably in the militarychurch bureaucracy espoused by Weber, and eagerly developed by Taylor and others at the start of the Twentieth Century. Nevertheless, despite the discomfort many organisations cling to these models, while desperately seeking a better one. In the search for new paradigms one common proposal is for the transformation of the organisation into a learning organisation. In the twenty plus years since this concept was popularised by Senge, Argyris and Schön, and Burgoyne, Pedler and Boydell, the debate regarding their appropriateness has raged. Clearly, they have not swept the world with the velocity predicted by Senge in 1990. Although there are numerous success stories, the pathway is strewn with failed attempts to create a learning organisation. In this paper, the conventional wisdom regarding the nature of learning is challenged. It is argued that the approaches to learning in mainstream education systems, as well as in most so-called learning organisations, are contributing to the inability to create organisations more consistent with contemporary demands on them. By integrating research from different disciplines, a model of learning that transcends the industrial paradigm is presented as a key to the changes necessary in education systems and developing organisations.
Article
Research on the multiple uses of religion/spirituality (R/S) in healthcare and on the practices of healthcare chaplaincy support creation of a middle-range, prescriptive theory for chaplaincy for patients who use R/S in their healthcare experiences. Religiously Informed, Relationally Skillful Chaplaincy Theory (RIRSCT) seeks to integrate research into practice in order to improve spiritual care and allow for testing RIRSCT. The components of RIRSCT are: patients whose religion is a significant part of their worldview often use R/S in healthcare to make meaning, to cope, and to make medical decisions; chaplains should be the members of the healthcare team to assess and address R/S; healthcare teams could provide more personalized treatment by integrating patients’ R/S into the treatment plan, which could improve patient experience. This article describes the components of RIRSCT and provides examples of chaplaincy guided by RIRSCT. Selected research articles supporting theory components are reviewed.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Servant leaders focus on their direct reports to enable them to grow to be independent and autonomous leaders. The purpose of this paper is to understand the way personal values and personality traits collectively influence this other-centered behavior. This will go a long way to unravel this unique style of leadership. Design/methodology/approach The study surveys managers and their direct reports. Leaders rated their personality trait and personal values, while their direct reports rated the leader’s servant leadership behaviors. Age, educational level, conscientiousness, extraversion and neuroticism of leaders were used as controls. The study also checked for endogeneity threats. Findings Using a sample of 81 leaders and 279 of their direct reports, the study finds that the personal value of benevolent dependability relates negatively to servant leadership behaviors. In addition, the personality traits of agreeableness and openness/intellect moderate the relationship between benevolent dependability and servant leadership behaviors. Research limitations/implications The findings shed important insights into what motivates servant leaders to engage in other-directed behaviors, thereby enabling future research into individual characteristics that define servant leaders. Originality/value Although studies have examined how values and personality traits influence leadership behaviors, no research has examined both types of individual differences in a single study. Studies examining the individual differences of servant leaders are few, and this study answers the call by Liden et al. (2014) to examine individual characteristics that are both personality based (traits) and malleable (values).
Thesis
Full-text available
This research examined the personal, professional, and developmental impact of introducing a constructive developmental perspective to faculty and students in a post-secondary program in sustainability education and leadership development. It also explored the relationship between adult development and sustainability education, teaching, and mentorship. There is increasing emphasis on integrating human interiors (values, beliefs, worldviews) in sustainability work. However, little research has examined the relationship between adult development and sustainability education. The purpose of this research was to explore deepening the transformative nature of learning and leadership development in graduate education through the use of a developmental framework and assessment, and to contribute to advancing the application of adult developmental research to adult learning and sustainability education. The site of study was Prescott College, and the sample of 11 included four Ph.D. faculty and seven students. This mixed-methods study included semi-structured interviews, a five-month action inquiry process, and a pre and post developmental assessment. The findings demonstrate that sustainability is significantly different for individuals assessed at different developmental stages; learning about adult development is transformative developmentally, personally, and professionally; a developmental awareness may deepen the transformative impact of graduate sustainability education and leadership development; and teaching about adult development is more effective when it is developmentally responsive. Integrating a developmental awareness into graduate and sustainability education is recommended to support learning and growth at all stages of development, support the development of the educators themselves, and support skill development for working well with diverse groups.
Chapter
In today’s competitive environment, an organization’s ability to design innovative solutions and products has become a critical driver for product differentiation and thereby organizational competitiveness. Design is a process of solving real-life problems often in collaboration with professionals in relevant fields. Design is conceived as a process of solving an ill-structured problem, which possesses multiple solutions, multiple solution paths, fewer parameters and uncertainty about what it takes to reach a solution.
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is a complex issue and means different things to different people. Numerous scholars in history, philosophy, and psychology have explored these multiple meanings, referred to as the plasticity of climate change. Building on psychological research that seeks to explain why meanings differ, I present an analytical framework that draws on adult developmental psychology to explore how meaning is constructed, and how it may become increasingly more complex across a lifespan in a nested manner, much like Russian dolls (or matryoshkas). I then use the framework to analyze photo voice data from a case study about local perspectives on climate change in El Salvador. The main finding from this analysis is that a developmental approach can help to make sense of why there is such plasticity of meanings about climate change. Using photos and their interpretations to illustrate these findings, I examine how perspective-taking capacities arrive at different meanings about climate change, based on the object of awareness, complexity of thought, and scope of time. I then discuss implications of this preliminary work on how developmental psychology could help climate change scholar-practitioners to understand and align with different climate change meanings and support local actors to translate their own meanings about climate change into locally-owned actions.
Article
National statistics suggest that an increasing number of students are exhibiting mental health symptoms while in college. Despite this alarming trend, limited research has been conducted for the purpose of better understanding the complex dynamics at play for individuals navigating these challenges. This phenomenological research study provides a descriptive analysis of the lived experience shared by successful college students dealing with a mental health condition. In adopting a strengths perspective that acknowledges achievement, this exploratory research serves as a platform for future studies and introduces several common elements of the phenomena. Five emerging essential themes are defined and discussed: meaning making, goal setting and purpose, spirituality, reciprocal relationships, and altruism. This investigation provides insight into the common factors that promote success for college students living with mental health issues. Study findings should be considered when developing intervention initiatives on college campuses for these historically marginalized students.
Article
We postulate a construct, perception-based perspective, that we consider to be fundamental to the practices of many teachers currently participating in mathematics education reform in the United States. The postulation of the construct resulted from analyses of data from teaching experiments in teacher education classes with a combined group of prospective and practicing teachers and from case studies with individuals from that group. A perception-based perspective is grounded in a view of mathematics as a connected, logical, and universally accessible part of an ontological reality. From this perspective, learning mathematics with understanding requires learners' direct (firsthand) perception of relevant mathematical relationships. Analyses of data are presented and implications of the construct for mathematics teaching and mathematics teacher education are discussed.
Chapter
Terry is fifteen years old. She is admitted to the psychiatric ward of a general hospital by her mother, who can no longer deal with her. She is a chronic truant, will obey none of her mother’s rules, steals money. According to Terry her mother is “stern”, “stubborn”, “nagging”, “unwilling to compromise”, and “headstrong”. Terry experiences her mother, and a lot of other people, as “trying to invade my life”. Terry worries that she is “going to have to submerge my personality”. She feels that she is “no longer whole”. “I feel like others are being woven into me.”
Article
As theories of developmental psychology continue to define educational goals and practice, it has become imperative for educators and researchers to scrutinize not only the underlying assumptions of such theories but also the model of adulthood toward which they point. Carol Gilligan examines the limitations of several theories, most notably Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development, and concludes that developmental theory has not given adequate expression to the concerns and experience of women. Through a review of psychological and literary sources, she illustrates the feminine construction of reality. From her own research data, interviews with women contemplating abortion, she then derives an alternative sequence for the development of women's moral judgments. Finally, she argues for an expanded conception of adulthood that would result from the integration of the "feminine voice" into developmental theory.
Book
Developmental and child psychology remains a vital area in modern psychology. This comprehensive set covers a broad spectrum of developmenal issues, from the psychology of the infant, the family, abilities and disabilities, children's art, imagination, play, speech, mental development, perception, intelligence, mental health and education. In looking at areas which continue to be very important today, these volumes provide a fascinating look at how approaches and attitudes to children have changed over the years. The set includes nine volumes by key development psychologist Jean Piaget, as well as titles by Charlotte Buhler and Susan Isaacs.
Article
This is a report on work in progress. The author requests that readers treat the stage‐descriptions as provisional and as subject to revision based on the results of an extensive cross‐sectional and inter‐generational study he is undertaking in 1974‐75. To date the author and his students have conducted approximately seventy‐five interviews with children, adolescents and adults. The stages described here are based on analysis of those interviews
Article
Considers a neo-Piagetian address to the processes of personality and its implications for counseling and psychotherapy. It is suggested that what may lie at the heart of Piagetian attention is neither "stages" nor "cognition" nor "child psychology" but the process of evolution as a meaning-constitutive activity. Four speculative elaborations on Piaget's basic discoveries are advanced: (a) the consideration of the subject–object differentiation as the "deep structure" of Piagetian and neo-Piagetian theories, (b) the suggestion of a scaffolding for stages of ego development rigorously tied to the Piagetian framework, (c) the recovery of a process- or activity-conception of development, and (d) a framework for considering the goals and processes of counseling and psychotherapy. (66 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
• This work, a second edition of which has very kindly been requested, was followed by La Construction du réel chez l'enfant and was to have been completed by a study of the genesis of imitation in the child. The latter piece of research, whose publication we have postponed because it is so closely connected with the analysis of play and representational symbolism, appeared in 1945, inserted in a third work, La formation du symbole chez l'enfant. Together these three works form one entity dedicated to the beginnings of intelligence, that is to say, to the various manifestations of sensorimotor intelligence and to the most elementary forms of expression. The theses developed in this volume, which concern in particular the formation of the sensorimotor schemata and the mechanism of mental assimilation, have given rise to much discussion which pleases us and prompts us to thank both our opponents and our sympathizers for their kind interest in our work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Harvard University, 1975. Includes bibliography. Typescript (Microfilm copy) xiv, 547 leaves : ill.
Unpublished doctoral disserta-tion The development of natural epistemology in adoles-cence and early adulthood The social world of the child FINGARETTE, H. The self in transformation
  • M Basseches
  • . Dialectical
  • J M Broughton
  • W Damon
BASSECHES, M. Dialectical operations. Unpublished doctoral disserta-tion, Harvard University, 1978. BROUGHTON, J. M. The development of natural epistemology in adoles-cence and early adulthood. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, 1975. DAMON, W. The social world of the child. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1977. FINGARETTE, H. The self in transformation. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. FOWLER, J. W. Toward a developmental perspective on faith. Reli-gious Education, 1974, 69, 207-219.
Developmental psychology Boston: Little, Brown, 1978. GILLIGAN, C. In a different voice: Women's conceptions of the self and of morality
  • H Gardner
GARDNER, H. Developmental psychology. Boston: Little, Brown, 1978. GILLIGAN, C. In a different voice: Women's conceptions of the self and of morality. Harvard Educational Review, 1978, 47, 481-517.
Ego and truth: Personality and the Piaget paradigm. Unpub-lished doctoral dissertation
  • R Kegan
KEGAN, R. Ego and truth: Personality and the Piaget paradigm. Unpub-lished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, 1977.
The development of conceptions of interpersonal relation-ships (Vols. I and II)
  • R Selman
SELMAN, R. The development of conceptions of interpersonal relation-ships (Vols. I and II). Publication of the Harvard–Judge Baker
Freeman-Moir The foundations of cognitive developmental psychology
  • M Parsons
  • Baldwin
  • J M Development
  • D J Broughton
The evolution of meaning
  • R Kegan