Rapidly Progressive Neurological Deterioration in a Child with Alpers Syndrome Exhibiting a Previously Unremarkable Brain MRI
Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. Neuropediatrics
(Impact Factor: 1.24).
07/2008; 39(3):179-83. DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1093334
Alpers syndrome is a fatal disorder due to mutations in the POLG gene encoding the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (Pol gamma) involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. We describe a case of Alpers syndrome due to POLG mutations, with rapidly progressive course, a fatal outcome, and an essentially normal brain MRI in the early oligo-symptomatic phase. Our observation suggests that Alpers syndrome should be considered even in patients with an initially unremarkable brain MRI. The patient was found to harbor the p.Q497H, p.W748S and p.E1143G mutations in cis on one allele, and a fourth mutation, the p.G848S on the other allele. Although the individual mutations detected in the presented case have been previously reported, the specific genotype formed by the particular combination of these is novel.
Available from: Jaakko L O Pohjoismäki
- "The p.G848S mutation in compound heterozygosity has been reported in patients with Progressive External Ophtalmoplegia (PEO) and Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome with mtDNA depletion –. Similar to our case, the p.G848S mutation in compound with a heterozygous p.T251I mutation has been found in a family with autosomal recessive PEO and multiple mtDNA deletions in muscle . It is not clear how the same mutation can be associated with either multiple deletions or depletion of mtDNA, but variability of clinical and molecular phenotypes seem to be common in PolG disease mutations . "
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ABSTRACT: Adult human heart mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has recently been shown to have a complex organization with abundant dimeric molecules, branched structures and four-way junctions. In order to understand the physiological significance of the heart-specific mtDNA maintenance mode and to find conditions that modify human heart mtDNA structure and replication, we analyzed healthy human heart of various ages as well as several different heart diseases, including ischemic heart disease, dilated as well as hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, and several mitochondrial disorders. By using one- and two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, various enzymatic treatments and quantitative PCR we found that in human newborns heart mtDNA has a simple organization, lacking junctional forms and dimers. The adult-type branched forms are acquired in the early childhood, correlating with an increase in mtDNA copy number. Mitochondrial disorders involving either mutations in the mtDNA polymerase gamma (PolGalpha) or mtDNA helicase Twinkle, while having no obvious cardiac manifestation, show distinct mtDNA maintenance phenotypes, which are not seen in various types of diseased heart or in mitochondrial disorders caused by point mutations or large-scale deletions of mtDNA. The findings suggest a link between cardiac muscle development, mtDNA copy number, replication mode and topological organization. Additionally, we show that Twinkle might have a direct role in the maintenance of four-way junctions in human heart mtDNA.
Available from: Georgianne L Arnold
- "These cases have been described in more details elsewhere (Milone et al., submitted; Bao et al., 2008; Brunetti-Pierri et al., 2008). "
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in the POLG gene have emerged as one of the most common causes of inherited mitochondrial disease in children and adults. They are responsible for a heterogeneous group of at least 6 major phenotypes of neurodegenerative disease that include: 1) childhood Myocerebrohepatopathy Spectrum disorders (MCHS), 2) Alpers syndrome, 3) Ataxia Neuropathy Spectrum (ANS) disorders, 4) Myoclonus Epilepsy Myopathy Sensory Ataxia (MEMSA), 5) autosomal recessive Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia (arPEO), and 6) autosomal dominant Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia (adPEO). Due to the clinical heterogeneity, time-dependent evolution of symptoms, overlapping phenotypes, and inconsistencies in muscle pathology findings, definitive diagnosis relies on the molecular finding of deleterious mutations. We sequenced the exons and flanking intron region from approximately 350 patients displaying a phenotype consistent with POLG related mitochondrial disease and found informative mutations in 61 (17%). Two mutant alleles were identified in 31 unrelated index patients with autosomal recessive POLG-related disorders. Among them, 20 (67%) had Alpers syndrome, 4 (13%) had arPEO, and 3 (10%) had ANS. In addition, 30 patients carrying one altered POLG allele were found. A total of 25 novel alterations were identified, including 6 null mutations. We describe the predicted structural/functional and clinical importance of the previously unreported missense variants and discuss their likelihood of being pathogenic. In conclusion, sequence analysis allows the identification of mutations responsible for POLG-related disorders and, in most of the autosomal recessive cases where two mutant alleles are found in trans, finding deleterious mutations can provide an unequivocal diagnosis of the disease.
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ABSTRACT: Deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) deficiency is a frequent cause of mitochondrial DNA depletion associated with a hepatocerebral phenotype. In this study, we describe a new splice site mutation in the DGUOK gene and the clinical, radiologic, and genetic features of these DGUOK patients. This new DGUOK homozygous mutation (c.444-62C>A) was identified in three patients from two North-African consanguineous families with combined respiratory chain deficiencies and mitochondrial DNA depletion in the liver. Brain MRIs are normal in DGUOK patients in the literature. Interestingly, we found subtentorial abnormal myelination and moderate hyperintensity in the bilateral pallidi in our patients. This new mutation creates a cryptic splice site in intron 3 (in position −62) and is predicted to result in a larger protein with an in-frame insertion of 20 amino acids. In silico analysis of the putative impact of the insertion shows serious clashes in protein conformation: this insertion disrupts the α5 helix of the dGK kinase domain, rendering the protein unable to bind purine deoxyribonucleosides. In addition, a common haplotype that segregated with the disease in both families was detected by haplotype reconstruction with 10 markers (microsatellites and SNPs), which span 4.6 Mb of DNA covering the DGUOK locus. In conclusion, we report a new DGUOK splice site mutation that provide insight into a critical protein domain (dGK kinase domain) and the first founder mutation in a North-African population.
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