Article

Health Risks of Genetically Modified Foods

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Abstract

As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of these studies should not be conducted separately for each GM food, but according to the effects exerted on certain organs it may help us create a better picture of the possible health effects on human beings. The results of most studies with GM foods indicate that they may cause some common toxic effects such as hepatic, pancreatic, renal, or reproductive effects and may alter the hematological, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. However, many years of research with animals and clinical trials are required for this assessment. The use of recombinant GH or its expression in animals should be re-examined since it has been shown that it increases IGF-1 which may promote cancer.

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... On the other hand, studies reported adverse effects of GM crops such as occurrence of insecticide and herbicide tolerance varieties, transgene stacking, and disturbed biodiversity. Moreover, animal toxicity studies have revealed that GM food may have damaging effect on organs and systems (Dona and Arvanitoyannis, 2009). Environmental implications have become most essential discussion among the researchers and policy makers. ...
... First, GM crops could possess inadvertent influences on ecosystem and environments (Mertens, 2008). Second, GM plants might be dangerous to human health (Dona and Arvanitoyannis, 2009). Therefore, policy makers and researchers are taking interest to explore undesired or unintended effects such as toxicity, gene flow of engineered crop. ...
... GM potatoes expressing Bt gene reported to induce disruption, multinucleation, enlargement, and damage in intestine in rats (Fares and El-Sayed, 1998). Dona and Arvanitoyannis (2009) demonstrated that liver is found to be another organ adversely affected from GM products. Studies reported liver toxicity by altering structure and function in mice, alteration in protein profile in rainbow trout, and induced histopathological changes. ...
Chapter
Agri-biotechnological approaches have introduced an expansion of genetically modified crops (GM) which has immense potential for betterment of agricultural practices. There are several possible benefits of GM crops includes high yield thereby solving food and nutritional security, producing herbicide tolerance, insecticide resistance varieties, reducing dependency on agrochemical thus reducing formers exposure to chemicals. However, potential risk and biosafety concerns are associated directly and indirectly with it. Flow of genetic information, generation of super-weed, adverse effects on beneficial species, development of resistance verities, and adverse effects on existing biodiversity reveal its unintentional adverse impacts on environment. Several health implications such as allergenicity, genetic hazards, and toxicity to different organs are associated with it. Moreover, studies revealed its negative impacts not only in existing biodiversity but in evolutionary patterns also. However, controversial data and ill-conducted investigations are few solid limitations. A matter of high significance is to deliver existing information available along with various concerns, that is, socioeconomic, political, and ethical concerns in GM crop adaptation.
... On the other hand, studies reported adverse effects of GM crops such as occurrence of insecticide and herbicide tolerance varieties, transgene stacking, and disturbed biodiversity. Moreover, animal toxicity studies have revealed that GM food may have damaging effect on organs and systems (Dona and Arvanitoyannis, 2009). Environmental implications have become most essential discussion among the researchers and policy makers. ...
... First, GM crops could possess inadvertent influences on ecosystem and environments (Mertens, 2008). Second, GM plants might be dangerous to human health (Dona and Arvanitoyannis, 2009). Therefore, policy makers and researchers are taking interest to explore undesired or unintended effects such as toxicity, gene flow of engineered crop. ...
... GM potatoes expressing Bt gene reported to induce disruption, multinucleation, enlargement, and damage in intestine in rats (Fares and El-Sayed, 1998). Dona and Arvanitoyannis (2009) demonstrated that liver is found to be another organ adversely affected from GM products. Studies reported liver toxicity by altering structure and function in mice, alteration in protein profile in rainbow trout, and induced histopathological changes. ...
... For example, drought tolerance crops have been successful in many parts of the world under extremely dry conditions (Gosal et al., 2009;Lightfoot et al., 2007). However, again there are discussions about the health impacts of genetically modified agro-products (Dona et al., 2009). Therefore, current practices for making agro-ecosystems resilient are more focused on organic farming practices and incorporating the natural environment process into agriculture. ...
... In a similar sandwich-type MMNP, an attomolar sensitive electrochemical genosensor was developed for the detection and quantification of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) gene, encouraged by its common use in genetically modified organism (GMO) inserts and the potential common toxic effects that they may cause some genetically modified (GM) foods [222]. On the one hand, a core@shell Fe 3 O 4 eAu@Ag nanocomposite (Complex 1) was biofunctionalized with a thiol-modified DNA signal probe (sDNA), where MNPs had double functionality in separation and catalytic processes [223]. ...
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Combining magnetic nanomaterials with materials of other classes can produce multicomponent nanoparticles with an entire ensemble of new structures and unique, enhanced, synergetic, and/or complementary functionalities. Here we discuss the most recent developments in the synthesis of multicomponent magnetic nanoparticles, describe the resulting structures and their novel properties, and explore their application in a variety of fields, including multimodal imaging, nanomedicine, sensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and heterogeneous catalysis. The current synthetic methods (usually bottom-up approaches) of multicomponent nanoparticles can produce a number of tailored morphologies ([email protected], yolk-shell, core-satellite, Janus, nanochains, anisotropic, etc.), making them invaluable for applications in biology, medicine, chemistry, physics, and engineering. But like any new technology, their synthesis methods need to be optimized to be simple, scalable, and as environmentally friendly as possible before they can be widely adopted. In particular, the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) to guide future works toward environmental sustainability is highlighted. Overall, this review not only presents a critical and timely summary of the state-of-the-art of this burgeoning field in both fundamental and applied nanotechnology, but also addresses the challenges associated with understanding the particular structure-property relationships of multicomponent magnetic nanoparticles.
... For example, drought tolerance crops have been successful in many parts of the world under extremely dry conditions (Gosal et al., 2009;Lightfoot et al., 2007). However, again there are discussions about the health impacts of genetically modified agro-products (Dona et al., 2009). Therefore, current practices for making agro-ecosystems resilient are more focused on organic farming practices and incorporating the natural environment process into agriculture. ...
... Agriculture and its products are valuable gifts of nature to the world, but the existing culture of growing crops using agrochemicals (synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides) is a serious threat to the world; recent studies have shown that hybrids and genetically modified crops have successfully led to increased production but, unfortunately, their nutritional content is not beneficial to health as it triggers the development of diseases that are immune to antibiotics. 3 Food directly taken from the field after cultivation might cause dangerous consequences if it was grown using agrochemicals, which are known to be a slow poison that drastically affects the cell signaling system in humans. 4 The excessive use of these agrochemicals affects our health and the surrounding environment by polluting water bodies and reducing soil fertility by disturbing flora and fauna, creating a microbial imbalance that affects our health. ...
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Presently, modern lifestyle diseases (LSD) such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, thyroid etc., are commonly seen among people of different age groups. One of the root causes of this LSD is the type of food that we are eating. Staple crops like rice, sugarcane, vegetables, wheat etc. are grown with the application of agrochemicals (e.g., glyphosate) whose traces comes in our food; after that, it gets ultra‐processed in factories, e.g. chips and snacks are fried using saturated fats (trans fat); sugar and wheat (derivatives bread, buns, cookies) are processed using toxic chemicals (bleaching agents). As a result, the nutrition value of food gets compromised due to low dietary fiber content and synthetic additives, e.g., sucralose (artificial sweetener), which promotes inflammation and weakens our immune system, due to which our body becomes sensitive to microbial infection and many other LSDs. To strengthen the immune system, people start taking synthetically prepared supplements and drugs for a prolonged time, which further deteriorates the body organs and their normal function, e.g., long medication for hypothyroidism poses a risk of heart attack and joint pain. Nanotechnology solves the above problems in the food, nutraceuticals, and agriculture sectors. Nanotechnology‐based naturally processed products such as nano nutraceuticals, nanofood, nanofertilizers, and nanopesticides will benefit our health. They possess desirable properties such as high bioavailability, targeted delivery, least processing, sustain‐released, etc. With the help of nanotechnology, we can get nutritional and agrochemical‐free food. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The new concept for agri-food supply chains designed as a "from field to fork" approach consists of connecting events in the agri-food production, where its process is made of a succession of chain of elements from production to processing, trading, distribution and consumption. Over the last decades, several and diverse crises and food safety incidents impaired the food sector [5,6], such as dioxin in poultry [7], bovine spongiform encephalopathy (well known as mad cow disease) [8], the threat of antibiotic-resistant pathogens [5], contaminated powdered milk [6] and the controversy over genetically modified organisms [9][10][11][12]. Hence, valuable and important reviews have been already written about Agri-food 4.0 [2,[13][14][15]. ...
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Several socio-economic problems have been hidden by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Particularly, the agricultural and food industrial sectors have been harshly affected by this devastating disease. Moreover, with the worldwide population increase and the agricultural production technologies being inefficient or obsolete, there is a great need to find new and successful ways to fulfill the increasing food demand. A new era of agriculture and food industry is forthcoming, with revolutionary concepts, processes and technologies, referred to as Agri-food 4.0, which enables the next level of agri-food production and trade. In addition, consumers are becoming more and more aware about the origin, traceability, healthy and high-quality of agri-food products. The integration of new process of production and data management is a mandatory step to meet consumer and market requirements. DNA traceability may provide strong approach to certify and authenticate healthy food products, particularly for olive oil. With this approach, the origin and authenticity of products are confirmed by the means of unique nucleic acid sequences. Selected tools, methods and technologies involved in and contributing to the advance of the agri-food sector are presented and discussed in this paper. Moreover, the application of DNA traceability as an innovative approach to authenticate olive products is reported in this paper as an application and promising case of smart agriculture.
... Among them, soybeans are the largest [4], accounting for 82% of the total soybean planting area. Although GMCs are increasingly gaining acceptance in the USA, Argentina, Canada and China, there is still strong consumer rejection in European countries due to concerns that genetically modified foods have a potential impact on human health [5][6][7]. The major issue is the unknown risk due to the transplantation of Bt genes into crops. ...
Article
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In this study, we proposed a genosensor that can qualitatively and quantitatively detect genetically modified soybeans using a simple electrode with evenly distributed single layer gold nanoparticles. The DNA sensing electrode is made by sputtering a gold film on the substrate, and then sequentially depositing 1,6-hexanedithiol and gold nanoparticles with sulfur groups on the substrate. Then, the complementary to the CaMV 35S promoter (P35S) was used as the capture probe. The target DNA directly extracted from the genetically modified soybeans rather than the synthesized DNA segments was used to construct the detection standard curve. The experimental results showed that our genosensor could directly detect genetically modified genes extracted from soybeans. We obtained two percentage calibration curves. The calibration curve corresponding to the lower percentage range (1–6%) exhibits a sensitivity of 2.36 Ω/% with R2 = 0.9983, while the calibration curve corresponding to the higher percentage range (6–40%) possesses a sensitivity of 0.1 Ω/% with R2 = 0.9928. The limit of detection would be 1%. The recovery rates for the 4% and 5.7% GMS DNA were measured to be 104.1% and 102.49% with RSD at 6.24% and 2.54%. The gold nanoparticle sensing electrode developed in this research is suitable for qualitative and quantitative detection of genetically modified soybeans and can be further applied to the detection of other genetically modified crops in the future.
... GM crops still face challenges in food safety management, as some scientists insist that the unintended effects of GM crops due to the insertion of foreign genes may remain undetected [22,29]. Nowadays, many methods have been developed, validated and harmonized globally, with a focus on GMO detection [30,31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the safety of commercial genetically modified (GM) soybeans has been well evaluated and GM soybeans are legally sold under government management, some consumers still have concerns about their safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of commercial GM soybeans sold in markets as a food source. In the present study, two commercial GM (GM-1 and -2) soybeans and one non-GM soybean were randomly purchased and subjected to a whole food toxicity assessment. Rats (SD), male and female, were divided into six groups (10/sex/group). Two dosages of 1 g/kg/day and 5 g/kg/day of soybeans were selected for the low- and high-dose groups. Rats were administered the soybeans via daily oral fed for 90 days. The results indicate that the body weight, organ weight, biochemistry, hematology, and urology showed no biologically adverse effects. At necropsy, no significant differences between organ weights were noted between the non-GM- and GM soybeans-treated groups. Moreover, no gross or histopathological lesions were observed in the high-dosage (5 g/kg/day) fed groups of the non-GM and GM soybean fed rats. In conclusion, this food safety assessment revealed that commercial GM soybeans are substantially equivalent to non-GM soybeans in rats.
... Based on the criteria for safety, some GM crops have been approved for food or feed uses in several countries (Oguchi et al. 2010). Consumer concerns regarding GM products related to unexpected health impacts that might arise from GM products consumption (Dona and Arvanitoyannis 2009;Martinez-Povida et al. 2009). As recommended by food safety agencies, biosafety and nutritional assessment of GM crops is an important aspect (Chassy 2010). ...
... In vitro production of meat has been proposed as a humane, safe and environmentally beneficial alternative to slaughtered animal flesh as a source of nutritional muscle tissue ( Datar and Betti, 2010 ). In any case, the feeding of humanity will not be possible without significant scientific and technological progress, including in particular breeding using genetically modified organisms (GMO) methods ( Qaim andKouser, 2013 , Gruissem, 2015 ), although this is criticised by part of the scientific public ( Dona, 2009, Jacobsen et al., 2013, Urfusova et al., 2020. However, the eth-ical foundations of biotechnology are founded on justice, nonmaleficence, and beneficence (balancing risks and benefits in production and consumption). ...
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Currently, there is an alarming increase in food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic in many countries throughout the world. This will be seen particularly in the countries of the Global South (developing countries). Many countries are trying to show efforts to keep agriculture, food industry and markets running, the supply chains and access to the markets and affordable food is still not secured. Disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic are going to/or already have affected the poor and other marginalised groups, mainly those with less purchasing power. It is necessary to mitigate the pandemic's impacts across the food system, enhance the resilience of food systems and avoid any potential food shortages. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of past pandemics and tries to synthesise the main lessons learned from these while also outlining visions of post-COVID-19 agriculture and the effects on food security.
... XAS is an element-specific technique that can use to identify elements that are localised in crystalline and non-crystalline materials (Lombi & Susini, 2009;Yano & Yachandra, 2009 (Uzogara, 2000). Antibiotic resistance, allergenicity, toxicity and carcinogenicity are other potential health risks associated with GM foods (Dona & Arvanitoyannis, 2009). The impacts of GM wheat products on human or animal consumption can be evaluated before they are commercialised in order to reduce risks for consumers. ...
Article
Zinc (Zn) is an important micronutrient in the human body, and health complications associated with insufficient dietary intake of Zn can be overcome by increasing the bioavailable concentrations in edible parts of crops (biofortification). Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) is the most consumed cereal crop in the world; therefore, it is an excellent target for Zn biofortification programs. Knowledge of the physiological and molecular processes that regulate Zn concentration in the wheat grain is restricted, inhibiting the success of genetic Zn biofortification programs. This review helps break this nexus by advancing understanding of those processes, including speciation regulated uptake, root to shoot transport, remobilisation, grain loading and distribution of Zn in wheat grain. Furthermore, new insights to genetic Zn biofortification of wheat are discussed, and where data are limited, we draw upon information for other cereals and Fe distribution. We identify the loading and distribution of Zn in grain as major bottlenecks for biofortification, recognising anatomical barriers in the vascular region at the base of the grain, and physiological and molecular restrictions localised in the crease region as major limitations. Movement of Zn from the endosperm cavity into the modified aleurone, aleurone and then to the endosperm is mainly regulated by ZIP and YSL transporters. Zn complexation with phytic acid in the aleurone limits Zn mobility into the endosperm. These insights, together with synchrotron-X-ray-fluorescence microscopy, support the hypothesis that a focus on the mechanisms of Zn loading into the grain will provide new opportunities for Zn biofortification of wheat.
... Except USA where PIPs are included as biopesticides, many countries regulatory authorities do not consider PIPs as biopesticides due to consumer concerns for GM crops (Seiber et al., 2014). Frequent intake of produce from GM crops may cause health problems (hormonal and neuronal disruption) in their consumers (Dona and Arvanitoyannis, 2009;Paparini and Romano-Spica, 2004). ...
Chapter
Since the middle of the last century, crop protection has comprehensively relied on synthetic pesticides to rapidly cope with agricultural pest challenges. Overwhelming dependency on pesticides stimulated resistance in crop pests and challenged health and the environment. These problems invigorated interest to their alternative like biopesticides. These are pesticidal products, naturally occurring or derived from natural resources. Biopesticides are recognized in three categories by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) including (1) biochemical biopesticides based on certain natural compounds; (2) plant-incorporated protectants i.e. transgenes that impart natural synthesis of pesticidal compounds in the crops; and (3) biocontrol organisms such as microbial pesticides containing fungi, bacteria, virus or nematodes. These products are target specific, less toxic and quickly biodegradable, therefore suitable for inclusion into pest management programs. In this chapter, we discuss role of different classes of biopesticides in context of insect and weed pest management.
... The safety of GM crops is an argumentative topic for both the scientific community and food consumers. It is fact that some previously scientific studies showed that GM technology is attended as a potentially harmful solution causing health-related issues (Dona & Arvanitoyannis, 2009). Therefore, consumers who are risk-aversed might carefully consider the latent impacts of GM foods to their health. ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the point of view of consumers in developing and emerging market about the genetically modified and non-genetically modified food based on the evidence from soymilk non-genetically modified product. The experimental auction method was employed to explicit the willingness-to-pay of Vietnamese consumers for a non-genetically modified soymilk products. Regression analysis was applied to determine factors influencing consumer's WTP for non-genetically modified product. The results indicated that consumers are willing to pay 84% premium for soy milk with non-genetically modified attribute information in comparison with the conventional one. The level of WTP derived from the auction is not much different from the market price of the product being auctioned. Notably, consumers with high level of risk aversion were likely to purchase non-genetically modified food. This was a predominant factor that determines who would accept or deny the consumption of non-genetically modified food
... Certain secondary metabolites from these plant sources can also be toxic to humans, like the steroidal glycoalkaloids in a green potato skin. This compound causes gastrointestinal discomfort in humans at high concentrations [7], [41]. ...
Article
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The world food production may not support the population that is growing at an exponential rate. Genetically modified crops and foods may therefore provide solutions for such shortcomings. However, uncertainties and myths such as the socio-economic impact of genetically modified foods on humans, the environmental and health risks may impede the use of these foods and instil fear among the public. Contrarily, it was learned that genetically modified crops and foods were generally deliver a positive outlook as they improved the socio-economic qualities in the farmers of third world countries. Besides, it was also noted that the genetically modified crops and foods impose a minimal adverse effect on the environment and human health while more benefits were attested. As genetically modified crops and foods seem to be more advantageous to humanity in general, long-term studies and meta-analyses are still required to ascertain the safety of these genetically modified organisms as staple foods.
... Potential benefits include faster cultivar development, unique aesthetic characteristics, disease resistance, pest protection, enhanced nutrition and shelf life, increased outputs, and lower costs of production and ultimately food prices [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Despite the potential benefits, several questions about the safety, risks, and economic viability of genetically modified (GM) products have been raised, including potential loss of biodiversity, insect resistance to insecticides, consumption safety, market acceptance, product development costs, and regulatory approval challenges [3,5,[9][10][11][12][13][14]. Together, these studies highlight the perplexing discussion on the benefits and costs of genetic modification in plant and food production. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has identified subjective and objective knowledge as determinants of consumers’ acceptance of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the medical and food industries. In contrast to a large body of literature on the effects of attitudes or knowledge on food preferences, the extent to which consumers’ knowledge affects their valuation of non-GMO food producing plants (i.e., plants grown for food or ornamental purposes) is less understood. This manuscript investigates the relationship between consumers’ knowledge of relevant non-GMO certification programs and their acceptance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for non-GMO plants. The first study used an Internet respondent panel and choice experiment, while the second study utilized an in-person experimental auction. In line with previously reported low public acceptance of genetically modified food products, respondents were receptive of and willing to pay premiums for non-GMO food producing plants. This study found that subjective and objective knowledge impacted the premiums for non-GMO labels, with the high subjective and low objective knowledge group generating the highest WTP. Low subjective and low objective knowledge resulted in the lowest WTP. Findings suggest a disconnect between subjective and objective knowledge of non-GMO certification programs, which in turn influences consumer valuation of those products.
... Based on the criteria for safety, some GM crops have been approved for food or feed uses in several countries (Oguchi et al. 2010). Consumer concerns regarding GM products related to unexpected health impacts that might arise from GM products consumption (Dona and Arvanitoyannis 2009;Martinez-Povida et al. 2009). As recommended by food safety agencies, biosafety and nutritional assessment of GM crops is an important aspect (Chassy 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Genetically modified (GM) crops were approved for edible use in several countries but their biosafety for organisms remains to be crucial. The objectives of this work were to compare GM wheat (Triticum aestivum) Hi-line 111 (GMW) with native non-GMW wheat (NGMW) to find the differences, if any, in their biosafety. Three groups of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were used to study the biosafety of GMW for 30 days. Group 1 was fed on a basal diet (control), and group 2 on a control diet with 30 % replacement of starch with NGMW, while group 3 was fed on the control diet with 30 % replacement of starch with GMW. There were no significant signs of adverse impacts noted in the clinical appearance of animals fed on GMW in terms of initial body weight, absolute or relative organ weights and serum profile in comparison with the control group. However, slight histopathological changes were observed in the organs of animals fed on GMW. Though our results demonstrate GMW biosafety regarding its biochemical parameters, however, detailed description of submucosal edema and further studies on allergenic potential with long feeding periods should be performed to conclude its impacts on health.
... Following Iran's accession to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, the process of drafting the Biosafety Law of the Islamic Republic of Iran began and finally, in 2009, this law was approved by the Islamic Parliament. Not only this law has allowed performing all the affairs associated with GMOs but also it has obliged the government to facilitate release, cultivation, production, consumption, export, and import of GM products regarding local technology based on legal regulations 29,30 . Hence, an organization called as "Biosafety Council" was established in Iran by forming a secretariat in Department of Environment responsible for producing and supplying GM products 31 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, there has been a development in transgenic technologies in many countries to meet nutritional needs of increasing worlds҆ population. However, there are some concerns about possible risks in the field of growing genetically modified (GM) food, such as threats of biodiversity and food allergies making their use a challenge. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the economic effects and political scopes of GM foods in production sector and policies made by different countries in the world and Iran. Moreover, essential (practical and legal) solutions and guidelines were provided for production and consumption of GM foods, which are useful for governmental entities, Iranian politicians, and consumers' rights. The latest situation of transgenic crops in the countries with which Iran has the highest exchange of agricultural products (including Turkey, Pakistan, and the European Union (EU)) was also studied. Although, Iran has been one of leading Asian countries not only in the field of transfer of technical knowledge of genetic engineering, but also in development of the specialized knowledge of biosafety, and despite production of several transgenic plant lines by Iranian researchers, unfortunately no GM crop has obtained release and cultivation license except for GM rice that its growing process was banned after change of government. According to findings of this study, in Iran, growing and production process of GM crops does not follow the global trend owing to scientific and legal infrastructures.
... Following Iran's accession to the Cartagena Biosafety Protocol, the process of drafting the Biosafety Law of the Islamic Republic of Iran began, and nally in 2009 this law was approved by the Islamic Parliament. Not only has this law allowed all of affairs associated with GMOs but also obliged the government to facilitate release, cultivation, production, consumption, export and import of Gm products regarding local technology based on the legal regulations (87,88). Hence, an organization called "Biosafety Council" has been established in Iran by forming a secretariat in Department of Environment responsible for producing and supplying GM products (5). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Transgenic technologies expanded in many countries regarding the nutritional needs of the increasing population. There are, however, some concerns about possible risks in growing genetically modified (GM) food such as threats of biodiversity and food allergies making it a challenge. This study aimed at examining the economic effects and political scopes of GM food in the production sector and policies made by different countries in the world and Iran. Moreover, essential (practical and legal) solutions and guidelines for GM food production and consumption are provided, which are useful for governmental entities and Iranian politicians and consumers' rights. transgenic technology has been accepted by high-rank farmers to produce genetically modified crops due to an increase in net profit caused by improved yield in spite of the high cost of transgenic seeds. Among 11 countries producing GM crops in the world in 2018, the USA is the first country followed by Brazil and Argentina at second and third ranks. In 2018, 78, 76, 30 and 29% of soybean, cotton, corn and canola production areas respectively were under cultivation of GM varieties. Although Iran has been one of the leading Asian countries not only in the field of transfer of technical knowledge of genetic engineering, but also in the development of specialized knowledge of biosafety, and despite the production of several transgenic plant lines by Iranian researchers, no GM crop has obtained release and cultivation license except for genetically modified rice that its growing process was banned after government change. This study implies that GM crops growing and production process does not follow the global trend owing to scientific and legal infrastructures.
... Genome edit crop have the potential to produce enough under diverse environmental conditions (Ghosh et al. 2011). The area undergoing genome-engineered crops is increasing with every passing year, however, regulatory concerns need the attention of researchers and governing bodies (Dona and Arvanitoyannis 2009). Meanwhile, several countries have adopted policies to cultivate genome-engineered crops and it can be expected the opposition to novel techniques may reduce (Ronald 2011). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Global food security is increasingly challenging in the light of population increase, the impact of climate change on crop production, and limited land available for agricultural expansion. Plant breeding and other agricultural technologies have contributed considerably to hunger reduction over the last few decades. The classical breeding approaches lack the ability to meet global food requirements. The complexities of different cultural or geographic systems, combined with changing needs, technologies and environments have made the application of broad, universal solutions for sustained food security difficult. Therefore, genetic‐engineering approaches are powerful tools that we have at our disposal to overcome substantial obstacles in the way of efficiency and productivity of current agricultural practices. The genome edited crops have shown economic benefits in terms of yield, nutritional quality and resistance for biotic and abiotic stresses. The genome‐editing technology involves targeted changes in the genetic makeup in a very small and well‐defined manner. The knowledge of genomics has further improved our understanding for modern and genome‐editing techniques available to plant breeders. In this chapter, a detailed highlight is given for genetic‐engineering approaches widely utilized in the crop production system. Moreover, the discussion has taken place on the importance of genomics for the crop improvement programs. The knowledge of both classical and modern breeding efforts can help to understand the underlying mechanism important to ensure food security. The novel plant‐breeding techniques (NPBTs) can help to accelerate breeding programs with high efficiency and reliability.
... It is stated that they may impair the natural diversity due to gene transfer to untargeted organisms, and that they may also cause possible new virus and toxin formations. Another doubt about GMOs is that they may increase the level of anti-nutrients (Dona & Arvanitoyannis, 2009). ...
Article
Research aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the consumers’ opinions about genetically modified (GM) foods in Turkey. A framework was conceptualized and conducted in educated consumers. Method: A questionnaire about consumers’ knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions was performed to 1307 individuals. Data were collected through face-to-face conversations with the questionnaire. The convenience sampling method was used for data collection and a voluntary basis was taken into account while selecting the participants. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0. According to the results the genetically modified foods knowledge scores (4.53±0.74) of married individuals are high (p<0.001), single individuals’ GM foods attitude, behavior and perception scores have also been found to be statistically significantly high (26.55±5.95) (p<0.001). Findings: Furthermore, there exist a positive correlation between the attitude, behavior and perception scores. Age, gender and marital status of highly educated consumers’ influence their knowledge and attitudes about GM foods, but the attitude, behavior and perception scores show that individuals are concerned about GM foods. Conclusions: It is seen that consumers do not have sufficient knowledge about genetically modified foods but that they want to be informed. According to the results of this study, consumers focus more on the harmful aspects of the benefit/harm relationship of GM foods. In this study, it was determined that women were suspicious of genetically modified foods compared to men. This study reflects about consumers opinions and provides information about the studies and enforcements will be executed in this regard in the future.
... thuringiensis (Bt)], herbicide resistance, disease resistance, nutritional, and other enhancements such as golden rice. GM crops can meet the growing global demand for food using a limited amount of land in the future (Dona and Arvanitoyannis, 2009;Arya, 2015). Gene editing is the latest version of GE that relies on species-specific nucleases (SSNs) to insert, delete, or modify specific genes. ...
... The question of the safety of GM crop consumption is a burning question with large societal, economic and political consequences for agricultural and food systems. Some reviewers have drawn attention to laboratory animal feeding studies that indicate signs of toxicity arising from diets containing GM crop ingredients (de Vendomois et al., 2009;Dona and Arvanitoyannis, 2009;Krimsky, 2015), whilst other commentators report no safety issues connected GM foods (Delaney et al., 2018;Nicolia et al., 2014;Ricroch, 2013;Snell et al., 2012). ...
Preprint
Safety concerns arising from the consumption of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops remains a highly debated and controversial subject. We report here a faecal microbiota compositional analysis in Wistar rats from the GMO90+ study, which fed glyphosate-tolerant NK603 (+/− Roundup application during cultivation) and Bt toxin MON810 GM maize for 6 months (at 11 and 33% composition of the feed) in comparison to their closest non-GM isogenic lines. We first integrated the faecal microbiota compositional data with results from plasma metabolomics to establish a baseline allowing us to understand which bacterial species can influence host metabolism. Coriobacteriaceae and Acetatifactor significantly predicted plasma metabolic profile in males, while Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus were able to predict female plasma metabolites. We then investigated the differences in fecal microbiota composition between group of rats fed MON810 or NK603 GM maize varieties in comparison to their respective isogenic lines. Bacterial community richness was not altered by the test diets. There were no statistically significant differences in taxa abundance in the rat faecal microbiota that we could attribute to the consumption of either MON810 or NK603 GM maize varieties. In conclusion, we show that the consumption of the widely cultivated GM maize varieties NK603 and MON810 even up to 33% of the total diet had no effect on the status of the faecal microbiota compared to non-GM near isogenic lines.
... Discussions on the social, economic and political consequences regarding the safety of GM crop consumption in agriculture and food sectors continue increasingly. Some researchers report that laboratory animals fed diets containing GM product toxic problems [13,14], while others report that GM-containing feeds have no safety issues [15][16][17]. ...
Article
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The possibility of Genetically Modified (GM) feeds to change animal products and their effects on human health have been frequently discussed in recent years. In this study, it was aimed to determine how the purchasing decisions of consumers change in case of feeding animals with GM feeds. For this purpose, data was collected by surveying 384 subjects from the central districts of Istanbul province by face-to-face interview with one-step random sampling method. Descriptive analysis and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data obtained from the survey. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0 software. It was determined that the food consumed by the animals was GM feeds in the preferences of the consumers to purchase chicken meat, which negatively affected the consumers. 2.9% of consumers who participated in the survey stated that feeding animals with GM feeds will not affect their purchasing decisions at all, 22.4% will affect less, and 74.7% will affect too much. According to the results of the research, feed consumption with GM affects the purchasing decisions of male consumers more negatively than female consumers and older consumers than younger consumers and they reduce the amount of chicken meat they buy. In addition, as the number of people in the families of the respondent's increases, the use of GM feed in animal feeding affects the purchase decision more. As the income status of consumers increases, the rate of affecting the purchase decision increases. Research results have shown that consumers of chicken meat have a deep suspicion that the use of GM feeds in animal feeding will negatively affect their health, and, if possible, they tend not to consume products obtained from animals fed GM feeds.
... terms like "substantial equivalence" not herein considered to prevent misleading data the possible toxicity/safety issues for human GM plant fitness [13, 14,15]. Below is the Fig. 1 showing the development steps of GM plant. ...
Article
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The health of genetically engineered foods/plants, which is one of the significant issues has been raised in recent years. Various non-governmental organizations and customers recommended that all GM foods before authorization for human consumption should be subject to long-term animal feed studies. The fundamental purpose of this review is to assess the new potential harmful impact/safety assessment of genetically engineered plants for the use of humans. A balance in the number of research groups, depending on their research, a variety of GM crops (maize and soybeans in particular) are varied as for traditional non-genetically modified plants. It is worth remembering that most of the experiments were carried out in biotechnology firms that sell these GM plants. In this review, we discussed in detail the risk assessment of genetically modified plants.
... Based on the criteria for safety, some GM crops have been approved for food or feed uses in several countries (Oguchi et al. 2010). Consumer concerns regarding GM products related to unexpected health impacts that might arise from GM products consumption (Dona and Arvanitoyannis 2009;Martinez-Povida et al. 2009). As recommended by food safety agencies, biosafety and nutritional assessment of GM crops is an important aspect (Chassy 2010). ...
Article
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Genetically modified (GM) crops were approved for edible use in several countries but their biosafety for organisms remains to be crucial. The objectives of this work were to compare GM wheat (Triticum aestivum) Hi-line 111 (GMW) with native non-GMW wheat (NGMW) to find the differences, if any, in their biosafety. Three groups of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were used to study the biosafety of GMW for 30 days. Group 1 was fed on a basal diet (control), and group 2 on a control diet with 30 % replacement of starch with NGMW, while group 3 was fed on the control diet with 30 % replacement of starch with GMW. There were no significant signs of adverse impacts noted in the clinical appearance of animals fed on GMW in terms of initial body weight, absolute or relative organ weights and serum profile in comparison with the control group. However, slight histopathological changes were observed in the organs of animals fed on GMW. Though our results demonstrate GMW biosafety regarding its biochemical parameters, however, detailed description of submucosal edema and further studies on allergenic potential with long feeding periods should be performed to conclude its impacts on health.
... nett, Phipps, Strange, & Grey, 2004;Dona & Arvanitoyannis, 2009). Many countries have established the regulation rules that transgenic foods should be labeled; however, in other places, such as Hong Kong, where there is no mandatory labeling, consumers are unsure whether foods they purchase contain genetically modified organism products or not(Crespi & Marette, 2003;Vigani, Raimondi, & Olper, 2012). ...
Article
As a global public health problem, food safety has attracted increasing concern. To minimize the risk exposure of food to harmful ingredients, food quality and safety inspection that covers the whole process of “from farm to fork” is much desired. Fluorescent sensing is a promising and powerful screening tool for sensing hazardous substances in food and thus plays a crucial role in promoting food safety assurance. However, traditional fluorphores generally suffer the problem of aggregation‐caused quenching (ACQ) effect, which limit their application in food quality and safety inspection. In this regard, luminogens with aggregation‐induced emission property (AIEgens) showed large potential in food analysis since AIEgens effectively surmount the ACQ effect with much better detection sensitivity, accuracy, and robustness. In this contribution, we review the latest developments of food safety monitoring by AIEgens, which will focus on the molecular design of AIEgens and their sensing principles. Several examples of AIE‐based sensing applications for screening food contaminations are highlighted, and future perspectives and challenges in this emerging field are tentatively elaborated. We hope this review can motivate new research ideas and interest to aid food safety and quality control, and facilitate more collaborative endeavors to advance the state‐of‐the‐art sensing developments and reduce actual translational gap between laboratory research and industrial production.
... GMO comes with developed insect-resistant plants (B. thuringiensis), herbicide resistance, disease resistance, nutritionally enriched crop (golden rice), and other benefits (Dona and Arvanitoyannis, 2009;Zilberman et al., 2018). Some of the common GMOs are soybean, corn cotton and tomato, brinjal, rice, and many others have been genetically manipulated to enhance either higher yield or size and durability (Mishra and Singh, 2013;Singh et al., 2017b;Potrykus, 2017;Kumar et al., 2019). ...
Chapter
In the classical era, the application of microbial technology was restricted to foods and beverages. With the progress in physical sciences, microbial biotechnology accelerated and led to innovations in biological science, food science, sustainable agriculture, and medical science. Development in biotechnological techniques allows the quick identification of novel molecules, accurate nomenclature of microorganisms, or strains improvement of known species through the involvement of genetic manipulations techniques. Currently, several beneficial microbes have been exploited for various purposes; however, the role of microbes in agriculture as plant growth promoters and biocontrol against phytopathogens have been widely explored. Besides the crucial role of microbes in agriculture, various microbes are also discovered and manipulated for industries application and value addition in food products, search and production of secondary metabolites of wide uses, drug productions through microbial interventions, and microbial biosensors are the prime attractions of microbial biotechnology in the modern era. Further, microbes have been recognized as biofactories and have been utilized for the synthesis of diverse chemicals, fuel molecules, industrial polymers, and genetically modified strains which are environmentally important due to their decomposing or adsorption capacity. Hence, in the current chapter, an attempt has been made to cover the wide application of microbial biotechnology that benefited not only humanity but also extended benefits for attaining environmental sustainability in the modern era.
... thuringiensis (Bt)], herbicide resistance, disease resistance, nutritional, and other enhancements such as golden rice. GM crops can meet the growing global demand for food using a limited amount of land in the future (Dona and Arvanitoyannis, 2009;Arya, 2015). Gene editing is the latest version of GE that relies on species-specific nucleases (SSNs) to insert, delete, or modify specific genes. ...
Chapter
Sustainable agriculture is one of the fundamental segments to achieve zero hunger and contributes to the development of economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainability. Sustainable development in agriculture practices started with focusing on farmers and the information they need to make the lands suitable for growing crop varieties, bring their harvest and get them into the market. To achieve sustainable agriculture, research attention was given to microbes as they are the engineers in the soil and contribute to promoting plant growth, soil fertility, and disease control. Microbes also play a vital role in regulating climate change via production and consumption of greenhouse gases, removal of pollutants from the environment, and recycle them. They are the sole drivers of the economy to the bioprocess industries and related sectors. Realizing these potentials, microbial biotechnology has made its contribution to sustainable agriculture through producing biofertilizers and improved strains of rhizosphere microbes which assist in other physiological processes such as biological nitrogen fixation, pest control, mineral solubilization, and lignocellulose degradation. Microbial biotechnology is now employed to increase the profitability and productivity of the farm, and also in disease prevention and therapy, thereby directly contributing to diverse sustainable development goals. Modern agriculture technologies and management practices have already doubled the production of food over the past half-century. It is believed that a combined operation of an enhanced farming system along with a functional market could contribute to an improved economy, food security, income for farmers, and better land management.
... Several studies have reported a higher accumulation of ANFs like PIs, allergenic compounds, and lower protein quality in genetically modified crops [70,71]. Additionally, in the strategy of implementing PIs through transgenic plants, the phytopathogens can develop resistance against inhibitors intrinsically produced by the plant. ...
Article
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Legumes are affected by biotic factors such as insects, molds, bacteria, and viruses. These plants can produce many different molecules in response to the attack of phytopathogens. Protease inhibitors (PIs) are proteins produced by legumes that inhibit the protease activity of phytopathogens. PIs are known to reduce nutrient availability, which diminishes pathogen growth and can lead to the death of the pathogen. PIs are classified according to the specificity of the mechanistic activity of the proteolytic enzymes, with serine and cysteine protease inhibitors being studied the most. Previous investigations have reported the efficacy of these highly stable proteins against diverse biotic factors and the concomitant protective effects in crops, representing a possible replacement of toxic agrochemicals that harm the environment.
... Humans continue to have limited knowledge and information about the carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and mutagenicity of GM foods (Domingo and Bordonaba 2011). It is possible that genetic alterations could change biochemical, haematological, and immunologic parameters, unintentionally making GM produce toxic to the vital internal organs and health of humans (Dona and Arvanitoyannis 2009) and potentially disrupting the environment, the food chain ecosystem, and natural biodiversity (Bawa and Anilakumar 2013;Zhang, Wohlhueter and Zhang 2016). There is a lingering fear that the preferred genetic engineering technique of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 systems used by biotechnologists might produce off-target mutations, resulting in cell death or transformation (Rodriguez 2016). ...
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The Malaysian government recognises the potential contribution of biotechnology to the national economy. However, ongoing controversy persists regarding its ethical status and no specific ethical guidelines have been published relating to its use. In developing such guidelines, it is important to identify the underlying principles that are acceptable to Malaysian society. This paper discusses the process of determining relevant secular and Islamic ethical principles and establishing their similarities before harmonising them. To achieve this, a series of focus group discussions were conducted with 23 knowledge experts representing various stakeholders in the biotechnology community. Notably, several principles between the secular and Islamic perspectives are indirectly or directly similar. All the experts agreed with the predominant six ethical principles of secular and Islamic philosophy and their importance and relevance in modern biotechnology. These are beneficence and non-maleficence as the main or overarching principles, the preservation of religious and moral values, the preservation of the intellect and the mind, the protection of human safety, the protection of future generations, and protection of the environment and biological diversity. Several adjustments were made to the terminologies and definitions of these six principles to formulate acceptable guiding principles for the ethics of modern biotechnology in Malaysia. These can then be adopted as core values to underpin future national guidelines on modern biotechnology ethics. These principles will be particularly important in guiding the policy makers, enforcers, industries and researchers to streamline their activities. In so doing, modern biotechnology and its products can be properly managed without jeopardising the interests of the Muslim community as well as the general public. Importantly, they are expansive and inclusive enough to embrace the religious sensitivity of diverse quarters of Malaysia.
... A particularly atrocious paper that embodies two kinds of scientific misconduct appeared in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition in 2009. 7 The article, "The Health Risks of Genetically Modified Foods" by Dona and Arvanitoyannis of the Universities of Athens and Thessaly, respectively, cited non-peer-reviewed "evidence" and myths found on anti-technology websites, as well as some long-discredited papers such as those described above; at the same time, it systematically omitted numerous key references that, contrary to the authors' conclusions, establish the safety of genetically engineered crops. ...
Article
Research in crop science in recent years has advanced at an unprecedented rate, and the intermingling of old and new crop breeding technologies has made the term “genetically modified” – and its variant, Genetically Modified Organism, or “GMO” – virtually obsolete. A kind of pseudo-category, it is primarily used pejoratively to refer to the use of the newest, most precise, most predictable, molecular genetic techniques. Prodigious amounts of time, effort and care have been expended to ensure that crops developed for commercialization using molecular techniques are safe, and that new traits are beneficial. Â Yet, despite these advances, some skepticism persists about them, partly due to the publication of fraudulent, poorly designed, and biased studies by a few “rogue scientists” whose intention is to contaminate the scientific literature and sow mistrust about molecular genetic modification among regulators and the public. We discuss how such flawed studies make it to publication and how the scientific community can combat such disinformation.
... The included full-text articles reported that a wide range of health consequences associated with consumption of GM foods [83][84][85][86]. Possible hazards of GM foods include the potential for pleiotropic and insertional effects (silencing of genes, changes in their level of expression or, potentially, the turning on of existing genes that were not previously being expressed), effects on animal and human health resulting from the increase of anti-nutrients, potential effects on human health resulting from the use of viral DNA in plants, possible transfer of antibiotic-resistant genes to bacteria in gastrointestinal tract, and possible effects of GM foods on allergic responses [156][157][158][159][160][161]. However, the health effects of genetically modified foods are still debatable. ...
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Background: Food safety in the food market is one of the key areas of focus in public health, because it affects people of every age, race, gender, and income level around the world. The local and international food marketing continues to have significant impacts on food safety and health of the public. Food supply chains now cross multiple national borders which increase the internationalization of health risks. This systematic review of literature was, therefore, conducted to identify common public health risks related to food safety issues in the food market. Methods: All published and unpublished quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method studies were searched from electronic databases using a three step searching. Analytical framework was developed using the PICo (population, phenomena of interest, and context) method. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using mixed methods appraisal tool (MMAT) version 2018. The included full-text articles were qualitatively analyzed using emergent thematic analysis approach to identify key concepts and coded them into related non-mutually exclusive themes. We then synthesized each theme by comparing the discussion and conclusion of the included articles. Emergent themes were identified based on meticulous and systematic reading. Coding and interpreting the data were refined during analysis. Results: The analysis of 81 full-text articles resulted in seven common public health risks related with food safety in the food market. Microbial contamination of foods, chemical contamination of foods, food adulteration, misuse of food additives, mislabeling, genetically modified foods (GM foods), and outdated foods or foods past their use-by dates were the identified food safety-related public health risks in the food market. Conclusion: This systematic literature review identified common food safety-related public health risks in the food market. The results imply that the local and international food marketing continues to have significant impacts on health of the public. The food market increases internationalization of health risks as the food supply chains cross multiple national borders. Therefore, effective national risk-based food control systems are essential to protect the health and safety of the public. Countries need also assure the safety and quality of their foods entering international trade and ensure that imported foods conform to national requirements.
Book
This comprehensive three-volume set book, Biotechnologies and Genetics in Plant Mutation Breeding, aims to help combat the challenge of providing enough food for the world by use of the advanced process of genetics to improve crop production, in both quantity and quality. Volume 2: Mutagenesis and Crop Improvement first deals with mutagenesis, cytotoxicity, and crop improvement. It discusses the processes, mutagenic effectiveness, and efficiency and mechanisms of mutagenesis and covers the principles, applications, and scope of mutagenesis as well. Several chapters focus on mutation-induced cytological aberrations and cytotoxicity. There is also emphasis on improvement of agronomic characteristics by manipulating the genotype of plant species, resulting in increase in productivity.
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As a general observation we can say that there exists imbalance of power between producers and consumers of genetically engineered food. This paper, using a doctrinal legal approach, examines three issues: 1) the rationality of protecting consumers of genetically engineered food, 2) the rights of consumers of genetically engineered food, and 3) the effectiveness of consumer protection for genetically engineered food. Arguably, the same situation exists between producers and consumers of genetically engineered food. Disparities and power imbalance relating to knowledge, capital – or simply power – determines the answer to those questions above.
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The technology of genetically modified (GM) can overwhelm agricultural and nutritional difficulties in the food industry, food safety and security by increasing resistance to pests and herbicides, drought tolerance, rapid ripening and ultimately increasing yield and food quality. However, in the last few decades, significant dangers of GM foods to humans, animals, and the environment have been identified. Nevertheless, there is insufficient scientific evidence to prove the harmful effects of these foods on human and animal health. In this article, several advantages and disadvantages of this technology are reviewed. Therefore, it is necessary to perform all the requested risk assessments before releasing any GM product and next post-release checking to track probable gene flow and limit any possible contamination of the food chain catastrophe. Therefore, the safe use of this technology, in compliance with all protocols of environmental health and safety assessment at the national and international levels are demanded.
Chapter
Through the previous chapters, we are now well versed with the broad spectrum of advances in the Recombinant DNA Technology (RDT) and wide applications of RDT in all the domains of our lives. The recombinant DNA technology has application in medical and diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and industry as well as environmental sciences. A quick look into the safety and ethical concerns would help them understand the perils associated with irresponsible and random usage of techniques.KeywordsBiosafetyEthical issuesRisk of engineered organismsRegulators agenciesRules and guidelines
Article
Background: The production of healthy and nutritious food, in an ecologically sustainable and safe way, has become one of the great ethical issues of our time. The recent G 20 urged the "promotion and work on the social determinants of health to address other critical health issues such as food and nutrition". Objective: The aim of this work is to analyze the current scientific literature regarding the role of obesity in the severe COVID-19 outcomes. In the light of the indications of the G20, the main causes of obesity are examined, and lifestyles are suggested with particular regard to proper nutrition in order to prevent/treat overweight since childhood. Methods: Multidisciplinary work, in which the biological and legal perspectives provide a meta-legal analysis of the obesity problem. Results: Unhealthy habits induce metabolic imbalance and increase in the body weight promoting obesity. This condition is the result of many factors (genetic predisposition, social position and "junk food" consumption) and is associated with a high risk of diseases, among them exacerbations from viral respiratory infections, including the current COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The industrial food revolution changed our eating habits, leading to production of too much unhealthy food, absent in ancient diet, thus contributing to the onset of some disorders. The business of food industry should be downsized in favor of morally or ethically fair choices for consumers and for the well-being of society, together with an ethical food distribution, governmental food education programs, and balanced oversight of food production.
Article
BT799 was Bacillus thuringiensis-genetic modified (GM) maize, and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with different diet formulations containing BT799 maize grain (33% and 66%) or its non-transgenic Zhengdan 958 (ZD958, 33% and 66%). The feeding lasted for 10 (P)/14 (F1 and F2) weeks. The reproductive capacity and pathological responses were detected in each generation of rats fed with BT799 and ZD958. During the growth and development of parental rats, each group showed the same trend in body weight gain and food intake, with a few fluctuations at individual time points. No statistically significant difference was observed in reproductive data (copulation index, fertility index, and live birth rate) of rats fed with transgenic maize compared with non-transgenic maize. We observed some apparent changes in reproductive data (sperm numbers and motility) and pathological responses (organ relative weights, hematological parameters, serum chemistry parameters, and sex hormone levels) among rats fed with BT799 maize grain. However, these differences were within the laboratory's historical normal range of control SD rats and not maize grain dose-dependent. These changes were not considered to be adverse or toxic. No significant difference in macroscopic or histological adverse effects was observed between rats consuming transgenic BT799 diet and non-transgenic diet. In conclusion, the long-term intake of BT799 maize was as safe as the corresponding non-transgenic maize for three-generation SD rats.
Article
The term ‘genetically modified organisms (GMO)’ is still an under-discussion topic since it was introduced decades ago. Beside public concerns against GM products, some of the scientists claim it is a vital tool to improve plant breeding in the future, while others emphasize potential harmful effects of the technology. In this paper, advantages, risks, and some technological developments of GMOs technology were discussed with old and recent studies to understand where we are at GMO technology in 2020s. GMO technology also has a great impact on global economy with a total of US$ 224.9 billion profit between 1996 and 2018. Its economic impact makes the technology inevitable in the future. Thus, this paper will also explain legal perspectives of the countries against GM crop breeding and marketing.
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Zusammenfassung Die COVID-19-Pandemie verdeutlicht, dass es nicht eingeplante Gesundheitsrisiken gibt, die erhebliche Auswirkungen auf Gesellschaft, Unternehmen und Menschen haben können. Unabhängig von der COVID-19-Pandemie sind daher Unternehmen und ihr Gesundheitsmanagement gut beraten, sich auf mögliche zukünftige Gesundheitsrisiken vorzubereiten. In unserem Beitrag zeigen wir potenzielle Quellen solcher Risiken auf und versuchen, potenzielle Trends zu identifizieren. Wir nutzen hierfür die soziologische Human-Condition-Perspektive von Talcott Parsons unter Zuhilfenahme empirischer Befunde. Die Quellen der Gesundheitsrisiken werden aus dieser systemtheoretischen Perspektive im telischen System, physikalisch-chemischen System, biologischen System und Handlungssystem gesehen. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf dem menschlichen Handlungssystem, aus dem die relevantesten Gesundheitsrisiken, aber auch die wichtigsten Ressourcen stammen. Es wird ein Sechs-Punkte-Programm vorgeschlagen, das den Unternehmen und dem Betrieblichen Gesundheitsmanagement helfen kann, auf zukünftige Gesundheitsrisiken besser vorbereitet zu sein.
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Initial evidence on the endocrine-disrupting effects of genetically modified (GM) food motivated us to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of GM and non-GM plant-derived edible oils in female Wistar rats. Sunflower (non-GM), maize (GM), and canola (GM) oils as popular resource dietary oils were purchased from the local market. After tracking the target sequence of CaMV 35S and Nos terminator in all selected batch numbers of edible oils by real-time PCR, oil samples were daily gavaged to 10 weeks Wistar rats for 28 days. Clinical factors, serum lipid levels, sex hormones, and gonadotropins as well as the histopathological changes were compared among groups by statistical analysis. Besides normal lipid profile, gonadotropin levels, and LH/FSH ratio at day 28, serum estradiol levels were raised in both GM (canola oil (p=0.04)) and non-GM (sunflower oil (p=0.008)) groups. In necropsy studies, ovarian atrophies were detected in canola (p<0.001) and sunflower groups (p<0.043) although uterine remained unchanged in all groups. In histopathological evaluations, all sections showed severe congestion and multiple follicular cysts in the sunflower oil group. Simple and secondary cysts in the maize group were the other type of ovarian toxicity in this short period of time. Remarkable estrogenic properties of GM and non-GM plant-derived edible oils with signs of ovarian atrophy, congestion, and cysts may contribute to phthalate or other xenoestrogenic contaminations; therefore, analytical studies of samples and further human populations studies are highly recommended.
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Due to the increasingly heated debate on the potential threat of genetically modified (GM) crops to human health and environment, regulations and laws relevant to GM crops have been issued in many countries and regions to strictly restrict their cultivation and application. Therefore, fast and accurate method to realized on-site detection of GM crops is greatly demanded. In this work, a novel isothermal amplification method termed denaturation bubble-mediated strand exchange amplification (SEA) was proposed first time to detect GM crops. Fluorescence assay based on SEA could accurately distinguished GM and non-GM soybean by detecting agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, which was widely incorporated in GM crops. Moreover, this feasible and specific method could detect NOS terminator from as low as 200 pg/μL total genomic DNA of GM soybean. In addition, in the actual sample detection, the result of colorimetric assay based on SEA results could be directly observed by the naked eyes within 58 min. Compared with the traditional methods based on PCR, which normally required complex equipment, skilled technicians and long operation time, this simple, fast and precise method is more desirable for the on-site GM crops detection.
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This article aims to propose the response of Buddhism to environmental degradation by analyzing the conceptual framework of Five Niyāma namely:- 1. Utu-niyāma 2. Bīja-niyāma 3. Citta-niyāma 4. Kamma-niyāma 5. Dhamma-niyāma. Such conceptual framework is foundation of valuable knowledge found in the commentarial works. The researcher rendered as a conceptual framework to expound the phenomenon of a rapidly degraded environment. Each facet of the degradation is natural network linking overlap, with the main cause of human beings. Starting from the world’s overall heat degradation (Utu-niyāma), degradation of heredity caused by human’s intelligent innovation of genetic engineering in crops and animals (Bīja-niyāma), mental degradation that has been overlooked by era (Citta-niyāma), moral or action degradation to abduct human to be a lower-human (Kamma-niyāma), natural and environmental degradation where people live their lives (Dhamma-niyāma). These are a journey from “change” toward a point called “degradation” by using human being’s craving as a center of nature and the cosmos. An answer or guidance to clear up these problems, is tangibly reflected through the law of kamma (Kamma-niyāma). Such principle works basically on action and its results. Buddhist view on action is an universal responsibility, human beings are as nature, and as a part of nature at the same time. In addition, the law of kamma also demonstrates the significance of nature, as well as expressing of respect and gratitude to natural environment, in order to live together harmoniously and permanently between human beings and nature. By focusing on desirable actions of human beings, which cause desirable results.
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This article aims to understand the responses of Buddhism to environmental degradation by analyzing the conceptual framework of the Five Niyāma, namely:-1. Utu-niyāma 2. Bīja-niyāma; 3. Citta-niyāma; 4. Kamma-niyāma; 5. Dhamma-niyāma. Such framework is a foundation of valuable knowledge found in the commentarial works. The researcher used this framework to expound the phenomena of a rapidly degraded environment. Each facet of the degradation is a natural linking network, with the main cause from human being. Starting from the world's overall heat degradation (Utu-niyāma); degradation of heredity caused by human's intelligent innovation of genetic engineering in crops and animals (Bīja-niyāma); mental degradation that has been overlooked in this era (Citta-niyāma); moral or action degradation to reduce humans to be a lower-human (Kamma-niyāma); natural and environmental degradation in which people live their lives (Dhamma-niyāma). These are a journey from "change" towards a decadent point called "degradation" by using human being's cravings as a center of nature and the cosmos. An answer or guidance to cope with these problems is tangibly reflected through the law of kamma (Kamma-niyāma). Such a principle works basically on action and its particular results. The Buddhist view on action is of universal responsibility, human beings are regarded as nature and a part of nature in the same time. In addition, the law of kamma also demonstrates significance of nature, as well as expression of respect and gratitude to the natural environment, in order to live together harmoniously and permanently between human beings and nature. By truly understanding the working of kamma one has to understand not only on the desirable actions and results, but the undesirable facets as well.
Chapter
This chapter examines a dimension of eco-justice that has yet to be explored fully within the green criminological literature from a political economic perspective: food justice. To be sure, some green criminologists have addressed some of the concerns associated with various aspects of food justice (Walters 2004, 2006, 2007, 2010; Johnson and Walters 2014). There is also a considerable sociological literature on this subject.
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(We are ignoring the comments of P. Christou, as they bear little relationship to the actual article that we submitted, and was published in your Journal. Our remarks are directed to the critiques from Hull, R., Covey, S. N. and Dale, P. of The John Innes Centre, and from Oliver Rautenberg of Biolinx.)
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Via a historical reconstruction, this paper primarily demonstrates how the societal debate on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) gradually extended in terms of actors involved and concerns reflected. It is argued that the implementation of recombinant DNA technology out of the laboratory and into civil society entailed a “complex of concerns.” In this complex, distinctions between environmental, agricultural, socio-economic, and ethical issues proved to be blurred. This fueled the confusion between the wider debate on genetic modification and the risk assessment of transgenic crops in the European Union. In this paper, the lasting skeptical and/or ambivalent attitude of Europeans towards agro-food biotechnology is interpreted as signaling an ongoing social request – and even a quest – for an evaluation of biotechnology with Sense and Sensibility. In this (re)quest, a broader-than-scientific dimension is sought for that allows addressing the GMO debate in a more “sensible” way, whilst making “sense” of the different stances taken in it. Here, the restyling of the European regulatory frame on transgenic agro-food products and of science communication models are discussed and taken to be indicative of the (re)quest to move from a merely scientific evaluation and risk-based policy towards a socially more robust evaluation that takes the “non-scientific” concerns at stake in the GMO debate seriously.
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 The fate of ingested recombinant plant DNA in farm animals (cattle and chicken) being fed a diet containing conventional maize or recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin-maize (Bt-maize) is described. The probability of the detection by polymerase chain reaction of chloroplast-specific gene fragments of different lengths (199 bp and 532 bp) and a Bt-maize-specific fragment [truncated version of CryIA(b)] is shown. First data indicated that only short DNA fragments (<200 bp) derived from plant chloroplasts could be detected in the blood lymphocytes of cows. In all other cattle organs investigated (muscle, liver, spleen, kidney) plant DNAs were not found, except for faint signals in milk. Furthermore, Bt-gene fragments possibly recording the uptake of recombinant maize, were not detected in any sample from cattle. However, in all chicken tissues (muscle, liver, spleen, kidney) the short maize chloroplast gene fragment was amplified. In contrast to this, no foreign plant DNA fragments were found in eggs. Bt-gene specific constructs originating from recombinant Bt-maize were not detectable in any of these poultry samples either.
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The spore-forming soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces parasporal inclusion bodies composed by δ-endotoxins also known as Cry proteins, whose resistance to proteolysis, stability in highly alkaline pH and innocuity to vertebrates make them an interesting candidate to carrier of relevant epitopes in vaccines. The purpose of this study was to determine the mucosal and systemic immunogenicity in mice of Cry1Ac protoxin from B. thuringiensis HD73. Crystalline and soluble forms of the protoxin were administered by intraperitoneal or intragastric route and anti-Cry1Ac antibodies of the major isotypes were determined in serum and intestinal fluids. The two forms of Cry1Ac protoxin administered by intraperitoneal route induced a high systemic antibody response, however, only soluble Cry1Ac induced a mucosal response via intragastric. Serum antibody levels were higher than those induced by cholera toxin. Systemic immune responses were attained with doses of soluble Cry1Ac ranging from 0.1 to 100 μg by both routes, and the maximal effect was obtained with the highest doses. High anti-Cry1Ac IgG antibody levels were detected in the large and small intestine fluids from mice receiving the antigen via IP. These data indicate that Cry1Ac is a potent systemic and mucosal immunogen.
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Food composition data are currently being used in ways not well-anticipated several years ago. Consequently, some of our criteria of quality, of both data per se and of databases, need to be re-examined, expanded, or otherwise adjusted. Among the key criteria for reassessment for the future vision are the concepts of representativeness, completeness, and a harmonized approach. The controversial issues related to these concepts are food biotechnology and biodiversity, climate change and other environmental phenomena, risk assessment, trade and regulatory requirements, and evidence for diet/disease relationships.
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(We are ignoring the comments of P. Christou, as they bear little relationship to the actual article that we submitted, and was published in your Journal. Our remarks are directed to the critiques from Hull, R., Covey, S. N. and Dale, P. of The John Innes Centre, and from Oliver Rautenberg of Biolinx.)
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This review aims at providing an update of the current European Union (EU) Regulations and Directives on food-related issues. Initially, a brief presentation of EU legislation in terms of structure (horizontal, vertical) was attempted. EU Regulations and Directives were classified into the following categories: food safety (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points, pesticides, radioactive, hormones, contaminants, freezing – ionisation, food additives, flavourings, packaging), genetically modified organisms, food quality, labelling, food products of plant or animal origin, imports from third countries. Apart from a synoptical presentation of all laws related to the above-mentioned topics, proper tables were compiled where the main points of each law are cited in conjunction with its effect on previous laws (repeal, modification, amendments, replacement). In such a way the reader can rapidly acquire a first approach to the topic of his interest.
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In the present paper a bio-economic model was constructed to estimate the impact of a biotechnology innovation in EU agriculture. Transgenic Bt maize offers the potential to efficiently control corn borers that cause economically important losses in maize growing in Spain. Since 1998, Syngenta has commercialised the variety Compa CB, equivalent to an annual maize area of about 25 000 ha. During the 6-year period 1998–2003, a total welfare gain of 15.5 million euros was estimated from the adoption of Bt maize, of which Spanish farmers captured two thirds, the rest accruing to the seed industry.
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Vegetable protein sources like soybeans, canola and maize gluten are good alternatives to fish meal. However, a large proportion of such products available on the international market may possess genetically modified (GM) components. This report concerns a study to investigate the fate and survival of ingested GM soy DNA fragments (120 and 195 bp) and a 180-bp fragment of the lectin gene of soybean (Glycine max) during feeding trials with Atlantic salmon post-smolt. Specifically, the study focused on the fate of selected GM soy DNA fragments from feed to fish to investigate their survival through the fish gastrointestinal (GI) tract and whether the DNA could be traced in a variety of fish tissues. Fish were fed three experimental diets for 6 weeks, which were formulated from defined components and represented either GM or non-GM materials (17.2% of the fish meal was replaced with either GM or non-GM soy). A control diet composed of fish meal as the only protein source was used for comparison purposes. The transgenic sequences (120 and 195 bp) and the lectin gene (180 bp) could be detected in the GM soy feed. In the fish GI tract, however, only the smaller DNA fragment (120 bp) could be amplified from the content of the stomach, pyloric region, mid intestine and distal intestine. No transgenic or conventional soy DNA fragments could be detected in liver, muscle or brain tissues resected from sacrificed fish. The sensitivity limit of the method was evaluated to be 20 copies. These data indicate that GM soy transgenic sequences may survive passage through the GI tract but that they cannot be traced in fish tissues.
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The risk assessment of GM stacked events, which are considered as a new GMO in the EU, could be less extensive than the assessment of the parental GM events. This will be the case when the latter have been proven to be safe for the human health and the environment for the same uses as the GM stacked event. Criteria for the risk assessment of GM stacked events combining positively assessed GM parental lines are proposed. Molecular and comparative analysis data are put forward as minimum requirements. Additional food/feed safety testing and environmental studies are considered relevant on a case-by-case basis.
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The effect of diets in which 50% of casein-gelatin protein was replaced with extracted soybean meal (SBM) or soybean protein concentrate (SPC) on first-feeding rainbow trout and juvenile South American pacu was examined following 3–6 fold body weight gain. A casein-gelatin-based diet supplemented with essential amino acids, lipids and other ingredients was used as control. After 4-weeks feeding, rainbow trout growth was significantly depressed in both SBM- and SPC-replacement treatments whereas pacu, the adults of which are considered omnivorous or frugivorous, showed significantly improved weight gain on the SBM-replacement diet. The enterocytes of posterior intestine of all control fish, and SBM-fed pacu showed regular shapes. Their supranuclear regions contained numerous small absorptive vacuoles. In trout fed SPC and SBM diets, and in SPC-fed pacu, posterior intestine enterocytes were excessively vacuolized. The highest pancreas activity (measured as the number of proenzyme granules) occurred in control fish. The liver cells showed regular development in both species fed the control diet and in pacu fed SBM and SPC diets. On the contrary, the hepatocytes of SBM and SPC-based diet fed rainbow trout showed anomalies. In both species, the average hepatocyte nuclear volumes significantly differed among the feeding groups. The results of histological analyses indicated that absorption and transport of nutrients to liver and pancreas were affected by the presence of soybean products in experimental diets. The SBM diet was beneficial for pacu but adversely affected rainbow trout, while the SPC diet resulted in extensive pathologies of digestive tract and most likely affected nutrient utilization in both species.
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Foreign DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is part of our environment. Considerable amounts of foreign DNA of very different origin are ingested daily with food. In a series of experiments we fed the DNA of bacteriophage M13 as test DNA to mice and showed that fragments of this DNA survive the passage through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in small amounts (1-2%). Food-ingested M13 DNA reaches peripheral white blood cells, the spleen and liver via the intestinal epithelia and cells in the Peyer's patches of the intestinal wall. There is evidence to assume that food-ingested foreign DNA can become covalently linked to mouse-like DNA. When M13 DNA is fed to pregnant mice the test DNA can be detected in cells in various organs of the fetuses and of newborn animals, but never in all cells of the mouse fetus. It is likely that the M13 DNA is transferred by the transplacental route and not via the germ line. The consequences of foreign DNA uptake for mutagenesis and oncogenesis have not yet been investigated.
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The most important results from the EU-sponsored ENTRANSFOOD Thematic Network project are reviewed, including the design of a detailed step-wise procedure for the risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops based on the latest scientific developments, evaluation of topical risk assessment issues, and the formulation of proposals for improved risk management and public involvement in the risk analysis process.
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Genetic engineering of livestock is expected to have a major effect on the agricultural industry. However, accurate assessment of the consequences of transgene expression is impossible without multigenerational studies. A systematic study of the beneficial and adverse consequences of long-term elevations in the plasma levels of bovine growth hormone (bGH) was conducted on two lines of transgenic pigs. Two successive generations of pigs expressing the bGH gene showed significant improvements in both daily weight gain and feed efficiency and exhibited changes in carcass composition that included a marked reduction in subcutaneous fat. However, long-term elevation of bGH was generally detrimental to health: the pigs had a high incidence of gastric ulcers, arthritis, cardiomegaly, dermatitis, and renal disease. The ability to produce pigs exhibiting only the beneficial, growth-promoting effects of growth hormone by a transgenic approach may require better control of transgene expression, a different genetic background, or a modified husbandry regimen.
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Cows and ewes fed estrogenic forage may suffer impaired ovarian function, often accompanied by reduced conception rates and increased embryonic loss. Males are relatively unaffected, but the mammary glands in females and castrate males may undergo hypertrophy of the duct epithelium, accompanied by secretion of clear or milky fluid. In cows, clinical signs resemble those associated with cystic ovaries. The infertility is temporary, normally resolving within 1 mo after removal from the estrogenic feed. However, ewes exposed to estrogen for prolonged periods may suffer a second form of infertility that is permanent, caused by developmental actions of estrogen during adult life. The cervix becomes defeminized and loses its ability to store spermatozoa, so conception rates are reduced, although ovarian function remains normal. Importantly, both temporary and permanent infertility in ewes often occur without observable signs and can be detected only by measurement of phytoestrogens in the diet, or measurement of their effects on the animal. Low background concentrations of dietary phytoestrogens are suggested to play an important role in prevention of disease in humans and laboratory rats, but subclinical effects of phytoestrogens in cattle have not yet been described. Effects of low concentrations of phytoestrogens on reproductive function in ruminants are likely to receive increasing attention.
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There are a number of components present in soybeans that exert a negative impact on the nutritional quality of the protein. Among those factors that are destroyed by heat treatment are the protease inhibitors and lectins. Protease inhibitors exert their antinutritional effect by causing pancreatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia, which ultimately results in an inhibition of growth. The lectin, by virtue of its ability to bind to glycoprotein receptors on the epithelial cells lining the intestinal mucosa, inhibits growth by interfering with the absorption of nutrients. Of lesser significance are the antinutritional effects produced by relatively heat stable factors, such as goitrogens, tannins, phytoestrogens, flatus-producing oligosaccharides, phytate, and saponins. Other diverse but ill-defined factors appear to increase the requirements for vitamins A, B12, D, and E. The processing of soybeans under severe alkaline conditions leads to the formation of lysinoalanine, which has been shown to damage the kidneys of rats. This is not generally true, however, for edible soy protein that has been produced under milder alkaline conditions. Also meriting consideration is the allergenic response that may sometimes occur in humans, as well as calves and piglets, on dietary exposure to soybeans.
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In late 1989, an epidemic of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) that resulted in several thousand cases of the syndrome and 36 deaths was recognized in the United States. Physicians in New Mexico linked the epidemic to the ingestion of L-tryptophan (LT). Results of studies indicated that one or more trace contaminants in LT were likely causes of the EMS epidemic. Investigators traced the LT that was taken by most patients with EMS to a single manufacturer, Showa Denko K.K. of Japan. We now report results of high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of LT samples from this manufacturer. Three sets of blind-coded samples were analyzed: the priority case lot set, which included 54 case-associated LT lots and 50 noncase-associated LT lots that were taken by case and control subjects who used only one brand of LT; the single lot case set, which included 73 case-associated LT lots and 25 noncase associated LT lots taken by case and control subjects who used only a single lot of LT; and the South Carolina tablet set, which included LT tablets taken by case subjects (n=26) and by control subjects (n=52). We statistically compared the concentration of each contaminant in case-associated, noncase-associated, and control samples of each sample set. The analyses showed that there were more than 60 minor contaminants in the LT from Showa Denko K.K., and that six of these contaminants were associated with EMS. The structures of three contaminants are known, but the identities of the other three contaminants are currently unknown. In this paper, we discuss each sample set and results of the analysis of each, the combined results of all sets, the identity of the six contaminants, and implications for future research into the etiology of EMS.
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One important aspect of the safety assessment of genetically engineered crops destined for food and feed uses is the characterization of the consumed portion of the crop. One crop currently under development, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS), was modified by the addition of a glyphosate-tolerance gene to a commercial soybean cultivar. The composition of seeds and selected processing fractions from two GTS lines, designated 40-3-2 and 61-67-1, was compared with that of the parental soybean cultivar, A5403. Nutrients measured in the soybean seeds included macronutrients by proximate analyses (protein, fat, fiber, ash, carbohydrates), amino acids and fatty acids. Antinutrients measured in either the seed or toasted meal were trypsin inhibitor, lectins, isoflavones, stachyose, raffinose and phytate. Proximate analyses were also performed on batches of defatted toasted meal, defatted nontoasted meal, protein isolate, and protein concentrate prepared from GTS and control soybean seeds. In addition, refined, bleached, deodorized oil was made, along with crude soybean lecithin, from GTS and control soybeans. The analytical results demonstrated the GTS lines are equivalent to the parental, conventional soybean cultivar.