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The Psychological Condition of Burned-Out Teachers with a Nonhumanistic Orientation

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Abstract

Examined the psychological condition of 126 teachers of emotionally disturbed children. Results indicated teachers who were not humanistic in their teaching approach and who were burned out were significantly more dissatisfied and frustrated and believed their needs were either being ignored or subverted. Burned-out teachers reported significantly greater tension, anxiety, anger, hostility, and feelings of depression and dejection. (BL)

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... Studies of work stress have consistently found that a number of occupational stressors lead to work-related strain, of which psychological burnout is one example. Other symptoms of work-related strain include depression (Kahill, 1988;Firth, McKeown, McIntee, & Britton, 1987;Jayaratne, Chess, & Kunkel, 1986) and anxiety and tension (Kahill, 1988;Fimian & Cross, 1986;Gold & Michael, 1985;Morgan & Krehbiel, 1985). Several studies have found significant relationships between burnout and anxiety. ...
... While some authors have proposed that anxiety and tension , particularly trait anxiety, may constitute a relatively stable individual difference in burnoutproneness (Fimian & Cross, 1986;Morgan & Krehbiel, 1985), others have treated anxiety as a correlate of burnout or as another work strain resulting from work stress (Kahill, 1988;Jayaratne & Chess, 1984). Maslach and Jackson (1986) conceptualized burnout as primarily determined by factors in the job setting. ...
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The present study reports the results of a questionnaire survey among 212 health care workers at a hospital in Northern Norway. Measures included burnout, trait anxiety, various job demands and supports, and work attitudes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment). Results provided support for Maslach's conceptualization of the burnout syndrome cross-culturally. Correlations among the three burnout subscales, as well as organizational correlates of burnout were generally consistent with earlier findings. The burnout scores of hospital workers were higher than North American norms, and some occupational differencs among subscales were found. A model of individual characteristics, job demands, burnout, and work attitudes was tested through a series of multiple regressions. Trait anxiety as well as job demands contributed to burnout. The influence of trait anxiety on work attitudes was mediated through emotional exhaustion. However, in addition to emotional exhaustion, both job demands and organizational supports had direct effects on work attitudes. Thus, burnout does not fully operate as a mediating variable between demands and attitudes such as commitment. The study also addressed the issue of individual differences in the burnout response and focused on the need to systematically investigate the relaive importance of situational versus personality variables in future burnout research.
... However, there were a lot of differing opinions about what the "already known state" actually was. These included job dissatisfaction, anomie, job stress, anxiety, anger, depression, or some combination of them [54][55][56] . For example, one psychoanalytic perspective argued that burnout was not distinguishable from either job stress or depression, but represented a failure to achieve narcissistic satisfaction in the pursuit of ideals 57 . ...
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The experience of burnout has been the focus of much research during the past few decades. Measures have been developed, as have various theoretical models, and research studies from many countries have contributed to a better understanding of the causes and consequences of this occupationally-specific dysphoria. The majority of this work has focused on human service occupations, and particularly health care. Research on the burnout experience for psychiatrists mirrors much of the broader literature, in terms of both sources and outcomes of burnout. But it has also identified some of the unique stressors that mental health professionals face when they are dealing with especially difficult or violent clients. Current issues of particular relevance for psychiatry include the links between burnout and mental illness, the attempts to redefine burnout as simply exhaustion, and the relative dearth of evaluative research on potential interventions to treat and/or prevent burnout. Given that the treatment goal for burnout is usually to enable people to return to their job, and to be successful in their work, psychiatry could make an important contribution by identifying the treatment strategies that would be most effective in achieving that goal.
... The investigators reviewed a number of stu,dies that included teacher stress as a dependent variable (Billingsley & Cross, 1992;Fimian, Pierson, & McHardy, 1986;Lawrenson & McKinnon, 1982;Littrell, Billingsley, & Cross, 1994;Morgan & Krehbiel, 1985;Pelsma, Richard, Harrington, & Burry, 1989). None of the instruments used in these studies adequately addressed the concerns being reported to us by E/BD teachers. ...
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This study examined self-reported stressors for teachers of students with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) using a questionnaire developed specifically for the study. The study examined (a) the relationship between reported stressors and reported willingness to leave an E/BD teaching position, (b) the relationship between reported stressors and three personality traits from the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R), and (c) the relationship between the Eysenck personality traits and E/BD teacher-reported injury by students. One expected result was that E/BD teachers reporting the largest number of stressors indicated a greater willingness to leave an E/BD teaching position than their peers with fewer stressors. Importantly, teachers who reported low stress scored significantly lower than teachers who reported high stress on the Psychoticism (P) and Neuroticism (N) scales, but not on the Extroversion (E) scale on the EPQ-R. Teachers who reported low stress were significantly below the normal range for the N scale. Of the sample studied, 19% reported being injured by a student within the past 12 months, a significant increase above those reporting such occurrences in previous studies on teacher injury. Moreover, teachers who had been injured by a student scored significantly higher on Eysenck's P scale than did noninjured teachers, which suggests that such teachers may interact with students in a manner that puts them at greater risk for being injured. The results are discussed, and additional research is suggested.
... s study found that teachers of emotionally disturbed students reported higher levels of stress than other special educators. Utterell, found stress in special educators related to a perception of weak emotional support from principals. Emotional support was the strongest form of support and was the best predictor of job satisfaction and commitment. Morgan and Krehbiel (1985) in a study of burnout in EBD teachers concluded that personality variables (not specified ) combined with job stressors produced their stress. The stress interacted with a predisposition to emotional problems and so to burnout. These researchers recommended more research into the role of personality vari- ables. The literahtre leaves li ...
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Two studies examined the validity of a self-report instrument that assesses occupational stressors in teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Differences were found in the stress management resources of low and high scoring EBD teachers on the measure and between scores of EBD and general education teachers, although not between EBD and other special education teachers. (Contains references.) (DB)
... So sind Frauen stärker empfänglich für negative Emotionen, woraus ein erhöhtes Depressionsrisiko entsteht [6, 29]. Gerade Depressionsneigung ist ein wichtiges Element der Burnout-Problematik [18, 27]. Bei Scheitern einer Situation zeigen Frauen deutlich schneller und häufiger Selbstzweifel [28]. ...
Article
Es hat sich gezeigt, dass psychosomatische Erkrankungen wie z.B. das Burnout-Syndrom, die Hauptursache steigender Raten an Dienstunfähigkeit von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern darstellt. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, äußere Faktoren zu analysieren, die Bewältigungsstrategien von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern beeinflussen und zu untersuchen, inwieweit bestimmte Bewältigungsmuster mit psychosomatischen Beschwerden einhergehen. Das untersuchte Kollektiv dieser Arbeit besteht aus 438 Gymnasiallehrerinnen und –lehrern. Die Daten wurden mittels der arbeitspsychologischen Inventare AVEM und AVEM-Anhang sowie des medizinisch-psychodiagnostischen Verfahrens SCL-90-R erhoben. Zunächst zeigt sich insgesamt eine hohe Anzahl an Risikotypen bei der Auswertung des AVEM-Tests sowie ein großer Anteil Lehrerinnen und Lehrer mit erhöhter Symptombelastung im Ergebnis der SCL-90-R verglichen mit der Referenzgruppe. Den ersten Abschnitt dieser Dissertation bildet der Vergleich zwischen katholischen und staatlichen Gymnasien. Insgesamt lässt sich ein günstigeres arbeitspsychologisches Muster bei Lehrerinnen und Lehrern an den Schulen unter katholischer Trägerschaft erkennen. Bei der Auswertung des AVEM-Tests wies das katholische Lehrerkollektiv eine geringere Burnoutrate und einen höheren Anteil „gesunder“ Kolleginnen und Kollegen auf. Die Belastung mit medizinisch relevanten psychiatrisch-psychosomatischen Symptomen im SCL-90-R zeigt keine signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen katholischen und staatlichen Schulen. Der zweite Teil der Dissertation stellt Stadt- und Landschulen einander gegenüber, wobei sich ein positiver Einfluss der ländlichen Umgebung nachweisen lässt. In einem weiteren Abschnitt wird der Einfluss des Familienstandes auf die Testergebnisse nach Geschlechtern getrennt untersucht. Die Analyse ergibt, dass sich die private Situation auf männliche und weibliche Lehrer unterschiedlich auswirkt. Männliche Kollegen scheinen besonders von einer festen privaten Partnerschaft zu profitieren. Bei Ledigen hingegen ergeben sich günstigere Resultate für Lehrerinnen als für Lehrer. Von den AVEM-Zusatzfragen werden „Klassenstärke“ und „Verhalten schwieriger Schüler“ als mit Abstand stärkste Belastungsfaktoren empfunden. Auch die Punkte „Stundenzahl“, „Koordination von beruflichen und privaten Verpflichtungen“, „Außerunterrichtliche Pflichten“, „Stoffumfang“, „Administrative Pflichten“ und „Neuerungen/Veränderungen im Schulsystem“ werden problematisch erlebt. Zuletzt wird die Korrelation der beiden Instrumente AVEM und SCL-90-R untersucht. Hier zeigt sich, dass die Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster der AVEM-Risikotypen A und B mit stark erhöhtem Risiko gesundheitlicher Beschwerden im SCL-90-R einhergehen. Mittels logistischer Regressionen wurden Prädiktoren für erhöhte T-Werte der SCL-90-R-Dimensionen identifiziert.
... The highest mean value of all SCL-90 R dimensions of B type teachers was accomplished for depression. Earlier studies showed that burnout is associated with a high level of depression [10, 17] and more emotional distress [11] . When the 11 subdimensions of the AVEM / MECCA [18] were analysed for their impact on producing psychopathology (as expressed by GSI points in the SCL90R), the three dimensions ''balance and mental stability'', ''resignative tendencies'', and ''emotional distancing'' had the highest impact (not shown). ...
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Psychosomatic disorders and symptoms that correlate with the so-called burnout syndrome turned out to be the main cause of increasing rates of premature retirement of school teachers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between occupational burden and psychological strain of teachers who are still in work. A sample of 408 teachers at ten grammar schools (am: High school; German: Gymnasium) in south-western Germany was evaluated. To determine the styles of coping with occupational burden we used the measure of coping capacity questionnaire (MECCA). To analyse the psychopathological and psychosomatic symptom load we applied SCL 90 R questionnaire. According to the MECCA questionnaire, 32.5% of the sample suffered from burnout (type B), 17.7% suffered severe strain (type A), 35.9% showed an unambitious (type S) and 13.8% showed a healthy-ambitious coping style (type G). Burnout was significantly higher among women, divorced teachers and teachers working part-time. As part of the MECCA, teachers were asked to rate what they regarded as the strongest factor resulting in occupational burden. Teachers indicated that, besides high numbers of pupils in one class, they regarded destructive and aggressive behaviour of pupils as the primary stress factor. According to the SCL 90 R, 20% of the sample showed a severe degree (defined as >70 points in the SCL90R GSI) of psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. MECCA type B (burnout) correlated significantly with high psychological and psychosomatic symptom load according to the SCL90R. In school teachers, burnout syndrome, a construct that derived from occupational psychology and occupational medicine, is significantly correlated with psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Teachers rate destructive and aggressive behaviour of pupils as the primary stress factor.
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Exceptional children in the schools
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