Internet Delivered Support for Tobacco Control in Dental Practice: Randomized Controlled Trial
The dental visit is a unique opportunity for tobacco control. Despite evidence of effectiveness in dental settings, brief provider-delivered cessation advice is underutilized. To evaluate an Internet-delivered intervention designed to increase implementation of brief provider advice for tobacco cessation in dental practice settings. Dental practices (N = 190) were randomized to the intervention website or wait-list control. Pre-intervention and after 8 months of follow-up, each practice distributed exit cards (brief patient surveys assessing provider performance, completed immediately after the dental visit) to 100 patients. Based on these exit cards, we assessed: whether patients were asked about tobacco use (ASK) and, among tobacco users, whether they were advised to quit tobacco (ADVISE). All intervention practices with follow-up exit card data were analyzed as randomized regardless of whether they participated in the Internet-delivered intervention. Of the 190 practices randomized, 143 (75%) dental practices provided follow-up data. Intervention practices' mean performance improved post-intervention by 4% on ASK (29% baseline, adjusted odds ratio = 1.29 [95% CI 1.17-1.42]), and by 11% on ADVISE (44% baseline, OR = 1.55 [95% CI 1.28-1.87]). Control practices improved by 3% on ASK (Adj. OR 1.18 [95% CI 1.07-1.29]) and did not significantly improve in ADVISE. A significant group-by-time interaction effect indicated that intervention practices improved more over the study period than control practices for ADVISE (P = 0.042) but not for ASK. This low-intensity, easily disseminated intervention was successful in improving provider performance on advice to quit. clinicaltrials.gov NCT00627185, http://www.webcitation.org/5c5Kugvzj.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) oversees the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. The feasibility of a large-scale, nationwide, group-randomized implementation trial of VHA outpatient practices has not been reported. We describe the recruitment and enrollment of such a trial testing a clinician-directed, Internet-delivered intervention for improving the care of postmyocardial infarction patients with multiple comorbidities. With a recruitment goal of 200 eligible community-based outpatient clinics, parent VHA facilities (medical centers) were recruited because they oversee their affiliated clinics and the research conducted there. Eligible facilities had at least four VHA-owned and -operated primary care clinics, an affiliated Institutional Review Board (IRB), and no ongoing, potentially overlapping, quality-improvement study. Between December 2003 and December 2005, in two consecutive phases, we used initial and then intensified recruitment strategies. Overall, 48 of 66 (73%) eligible facilities were recruited. Of the 219 clinics and 957 clinicians associated with the 48 facilities, 168 (78%) clinics and 401 (42%) clinicians participated. The median time from initial facility contact to clinic enrollment was 222 days, which decreased by over one-third from the first to the second recruitment phase (medians: 323 and 195 days, respectively; p < .001), when more structured recruitment with physician recruiters was implemented and a dedicated IRB manager was added to the coordinating center staff. Large group-randomized trials benefit from having dedicated physician investigators and IRB personnel involved in recruitment. A large-scale, nationally representative, group-randomized trial of community-based clinics is feasible within the VHA or a similar national healthcare system.0Comments 2Citations
- "Most GRTs do not report a response rate as they have a target number of "groups" or practices to recruit for the purposes of statistical power  and do not identify, or at least report, a sampling denominator. Our facility and clinic response rates were much higher than the 27% of nursing homes in a GRT study of osteoporosis fracture prevention  or the 33% of practices in a managed-care organization's study to increase chlamydia screening . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although screening for tobacco use is increasing with electronic health records and standard protocols, other tobacco-control activities, such as referral of patients to cessation resources, is quite low. In the QUIT-PRIMO study, an online referral portal will allow providers to enter smokers' email addresses into the system. Upon returning home, the smokers will receive automated emails providing education about tobacco cessation and encouragement to use the patient smoking cessation website (with interactive tools, educational resources, motivational email messages, secure messaging with a tobacco treatment specialist, and online support group). The informatics system will be evaluated in a comparative effectiveness trial of 160 community-based primary care practices, cluster-randomized at the practice level. In the QUIT-PRIMO intervention, patients will be provided a paper information-prescription referral and then "e-referred" to the system. In the comparison group, patients will receive only the paper-based information-prescription referral with the website address. Once patients go to the website, they are subsequently randomized within practices to either a standard patient smoking cessation website or an augmented version with access to a tobacco treatment specialist online, motivational emails, and an online support group. We will compare intervention and control practice participation (referral rates) and patient participation (proportion referred who go to the website). We will then compare the effectiveness of the standard and augmented patient websites. Our goal is to evaluate an integrated informatics solution to increase access to web-delivered smoking cessation support. We will analyze the impact of this integrated system in terms of process (provider e-referral and patient login) and patient outcomes (six-month smoking cessation). Web-delivered Provider Intervention for Tobacco Control (QUIT-PRIMO) - a randomized controlled trial: NCT00797628.0Comments 14Citations
- "We will randomize 160 primary care clinical microsystems to the intervention or comparison group. For both the intervention and comparison groups, we will adapt protocols used in prior successful Internet-delivered provider interventions to recruit practices and implement the system in prac- tices [31,32]. Because our trial targets both practices and patients, patients within practices undergo a second level of randomization, as described below. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Engaging busy healthcare providers in online continuing education interventions is challenging. In an Internet-delivered intervention for dental providers, we tested a series of email-delivered reminders - cues to action. The intervention included case-based education and downloadable practice tools designed to encourage providers to increase delivery of smoking cessation advice to patients. We compared the impact of email reminders focused on 1) general project announcements, 2) intervention related content (smoking cessation), and 3) unrelated content (oral cancer prevention focused content). We found that email reminders dramatically increased participation. The content of the message had little impact on the participation, but day of the week was important - messages sent at the end of the week had less impact, likely due to absence from clinic on the weekend. Email contact, such as day of week an email is sent and notice of new content post-ing, is critical to longitudinal engagement. Further research is needed to understand which messages and how frequently, will maximize participation.0Comments 42Citations
- "As previously published, our randomized trial was successful in increasing rates of smoking cessation advice in these dental practices, compared with control . Intervention dental practices increased rates of smoking cessation advice by 11% from a baseline rate of 44% (OR = 1.55 [ Nearly all providers report having access to the Internet [6,11] but with the growth in new health care knowledge, staying up-to-date can be challenging. "