Increased Expression of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan on the Cultured Renal Epithelial Cells during Oxalate Exposure
Department of Urology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Japan.The Kurume Medical Journal 01/2008; 55(1-2):19-28. DOI: 10.2739/kurumemedj.55.19
We have previously reported that heparan sulfate (HS) / heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG, syndecan-1) expression significantly increased in the rat kidney during calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. Although the exact mechanism of the increased syndecan expression still remains unclear, HS/syndecan is thought to have some important roles in CaOx crystal formation. The present study examined the role of HS during oxalate exposure by using a newly developed cell line (KIC-synd-1) that expresses human heparan sulfate proteoglycan (syndecan-1). Quantitative competitive (QC)-RT-PCR was used to examine change of syndecan-1 mRNA expression in KIC-synd-1 cells. Production of syndecan-1 core protein and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were also confirmed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and HPLC, respectively. Wild type Mardin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were also examined in the same manner. The stable expression of syndecan-1 gene and production of both core protein and HS chains were confirmed in the newly developed KIC-synd-1 cell line. Increased syndecan-1 mRNA expression and production of core proteins were confirmed in KIC-synd-1 cells during oxalate exposure. MTT assay revealed that the cell viability decreased significantly in the MDCK cells after 1 mM oxalate exposure (p<0.05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the oxalate exposed KIC-synd-1 cells. However, the cell viability in KIC-synd-1 cells pretreated with heparitinase digestion decreased significantly before oxalate exposure (p<0.05). The present data suggests that both exogenous and endogenous HS exerts protective effect against oxalate-induced cell injuries. Previous studies in our laboratory have indicated that hyperoxaluria and deposition of CaOx crystals resulted in renal tubular cellular injury inducing the synthesis of HSPG to protect and repair the damaged epithelial cell surface. The present data offers strong support for this hypothesis. Finally, HS could be potent inhibitor of CaOx nephrolithiasis and the absence of this substance on the tubular surface may increase the risk of CaOx crystal formation and retention.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the comprehensive intracrystalline protein profiles of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals precipitated from the same human urine samples. Three separate batches of COM and COD crystals were precipitated from pooled healthy human urine by the addition of sodium oxalate at calcium concentrations of 2 and 8 mM, respectively. Proteins in whole extracts of demineralised COM and COD crystals, as well as in spots excised from 2D-PAGE gels of the extracts, were identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The number and type of individual proteins differed between COM and COD: 14 substantive proteins were found inside COM crystal extracts and 34 inside COD, with 9 proteins occurring in both crystal types. Numerous keratins were detected. However, in line with consensus in the proteomics literature, as well as a lack of published evidence linking them to urolithiasis, they were excluded as contaminants, leaving very few consistently detected proteins. On the basis of their known association with stone disease or identification in multiple runs, the principal proteins in COM crystal extracts were prothrombin fragment 1, protein S100A9, and IGkappaV1-5, while those in extracts of COD crystals included osteopontin, IGkappaV1-5, protein S100A9, annexin A1, HMW kininogen-1, and inter-alpha-inhibitor (IalphaI). In general, proteins incorporated into both hydromorphs were acidic (pI<6), smaller than 55 kDa, and calcium binders. We concluded that the incorporation of proteins into urinary COM and COD crystals is selective and that only a few of the urinary proteins associated with the two hydromorphs are likely to play any significant role in stone pathogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: The early use of fresh frozen plasma as a resuscitative agent after hemorrhagic shock has been associated with improved survival, but the mechanism of protection is unknown. Hemorrhagic shock causes endothelial cell dysfunction and we hypothesized that fresh frozen plasma would restore endothelial integrity and reduce syndecan-1 shedding after hemorrhagic shock. A prospective, observational study in severely injured patients in hemorrhagic shock demonstrated significantly elevated levels of syndecan-1 (554±93 ng/ml) after injury, which decreased with resuscitation (187±36 ng/ml) but was elevated compared to normal donors (27±1 ng/ml). Three pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon-γ, fractalkine, and interleukin-1β, negatively correlated while one anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, positively correlated with shed syndecan-1. These cytokines all play an important role in maintaining endothelial integrity. An in vitro model of endothelial injury then specifically examined endothelial permeability after treatment with fresh frozen plasma orlactated Ringers. Shock or endothelial injury disrupted junctional integrity and increased permeability, which was improved with fresh frozen plasma, but not lactated Ringers. Changes in endothelial cell permeability correlated with syndecan-1 shedding. These data suggest that plasma based resuscitation preserved endothelial syndecan-1 and maintained endothelial integrity, and may help to explain the protective effects of fresh frozen plasma after hemorrhagic shock.
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ABSTRACT: This paper investigated the inhibitory effect of degraded soybean polysaccharide (DPS) on the growth of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals. The results were compared with that of soybean polysaccharide without degradation (SPS). The data showed that DPS exhibited a much higher efficiency to inhibit CaOxa growth and stabilize calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) compared with SPS. As DPS concentration increased, the soluble Ca2+ ions significantly increased, the aggregation degree of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals decreased, the shape of COD crystals became round and blunt, and the Zeta potential on CaOxa crystal surface reduced. The above results were all conducive for the inhibition of CaOxa crystallization. In addition, DPS displayed a distinct repairing effect on oxidative injured renal epithelial cells in African green monkey (Vero), with enhanced cell viability and extracellular superoxide dismutase activity after repair. The morphologies of the repaired cells and their regulatory capability on CaOxa growth were between the control and injured cells. The results indicated that the risk of stone formation can be reduced by DPS, and that DPS may be a potential green drug to prevent the formation of CaOxa stones.
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