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Small Corpora as Assisting Tools in The Teaching of English News Language: A Preliminary Tokens-Based Examination of Michael Swan’s Practical English Usage News Language Wordlist

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SmallcorporaasassistingtoolsintheteachingofEnglishnewslanguage:
Apreliminarytokensbasedexamination
ofMichaelSwansPracticalEnglishUsagenewslanguagewordlist.
Pascual Pérez-Paredes
Universidad de Murcia, Spain
Departamento de Filología Inglesa
Plaza de la Universidad s/n, Campus de La Merced
30071 Murcia
Spain
TEL: +34 968364378
FAX: +34 968363185
E-mail: pascualf@um.es
Abstract
One of the methodological challenges for any EFL teacher is to decide on the range of vocabulary to be taught and
used in classroom work. This has an immediate impact on the lexical content of the learning activities and, if
applicable, the scope of language achievement evaluation. Teaching the language of news has become a major
feature of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) courses, even if these have just a General English (GE ) syllabus or
a pre-intermediate audience. EFL teachers find that textbooks and reference books present their very own choices.
This is of great aid and a valuable teaching tool. However, very frequently teachers find this solution far from
satisfactory. In this article, we will discuss the teaching implications which derive from the use of two small 250.000-
word corpora of news language in English and how these relate to the lexical items of news language found in a GE
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word corpora of news language in English and how these relate to the lexical items of news language found in a GE
reference manual: Michael Swans Practical English Usage (OUP). A corpus-based analysis was performed to
examine to what extent Swans particular choice of words matched the actual use of lexical items in natural news
texts. The paper concludes with some critical comments on how small-corpora analyses can, based on evidence,
challenge different sorts of certain mythologies and help teachers focus their efforts in terms of selection of language
contents.
Keywords: ELT, Corpus Linguistics, small corpora, news-language
People in Western countries probably hear more language from the media than they do directly from the lips of their
fellow humans in conversation. (Bell 1991: 1)
I. News-Language and English Language Teaching
Although syllabus design is not usually under their direct influence, language teachers certainly have a say on a wide
range of methodological decisions that affect students learning experiences. Choice of vocabulary is one of them.
Other important vocabulary areas comprise sequencing, format, presentation, monitoring and assessment (Nation
2001a: 384). In this article, we will concentrate on issues related to lexical content selection of the language used in
the news narrative for advanced learners of EFL.
Textbooks usually present vocabulary orderly and in a way that is relevant to the topic under consideration. Once the
study unit is completed, students feel they have a core vocabulary that can meet their communicative needs within a
particular topic. However, when teaching the language of news[1] most textbooks simply list out a small group of
words or, very frequently, a newspaper article is exploited. In Leo Jones Progress to Proficiency (1993), for
example, we find both combined. In Gude and Duckworths Proficiency Masterclass (1994), after discussing
differences between popular and serious newspapers (p. 199), students are asked to complete a twenty-gap cloze
activity on headline news. Note that the two textbooks mentioned above have a worldwide distribution as they are
published by leading and highly respected English Language Teaching (ELT) publishing companies. Any of these
two approaches might, presumably, leave teachers and students, especially very advanced ones, dissatisfied. We
believe that the reason is straightforward. Media, according to Bell (1991), generate a lot of the language that is heard
in society and it is only natural that students feel they need supplementary training in that important area: The
language of news media is prominent and pervasive in society, and it is worth understanding how that language
works (Bell 1991: xxiii). In a similar way, it is sensible to think that material developers should make sure that their
choice of language is representative enough and as comprehensive as possible so as to provide students with ample
opportunities to deal with the language of the news.
In terms of diffusion, the news narrative has been said to be the primary language genre and the one which exerts a
more pervasive influence on a given audience (Jensen and Pauly 1997). We should note here that the term genre has
a complex rendering in ELT contexts as it may subsume different roles. Besides offering a comprehensive account of
the issue, Henry and Roseberry (2001) establish a distinction between genre and register, where the latter is said to
include the language patterns associated with the former. This implies that word choice is a feature of the language
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include the language patterns associated with the former. This implies that word choice is a feature of the language
register which, in turn, makes up a genre. Sanderson (1999:2) presents a wealth of arguments that stresses the
convenience of using this genre in the ELT classroom. According to this author, newspapers in general have an
educational value, carry cultural information which is important for building a good communicative competence in
students, reflect changes in the language rapidly as they are "linguistically topical" and up-to-date, expose varieties of
English, present students with opportunities to read something of interest to them, offer teachers authentic material
which can be easily converted into English for Specific Purposes (ESP) content and, finally, can be used "effectively
with a wide range of levels". On top of this group of advantages, Rademann (1998: 49) claims that newspaper
articles are a much more representative sample of a given language than most others, which makes this genre an
attractive source of interest to both language researchers and teachers. The LSWE (Longman Spoken and Written
English) corpus, which was used for the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English, owes 26.68% of its
word stock to news language[2]. Together with conversation, fiction and academic prose, the authors state that these
four registers are major categories that span much of the range of situational and linguistic variation in English (Biber
et al. 1999: 25).Hence, it is sensible to think that a detailed account of the language used in this context is required if
we are to meet the needs of advanced students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). That account will
necessarily include a selection of lexis that is representative of the news genre as part of what Nation (2001b) calls a
special purposes approach. Within this framework, learner language needs are matched up by research in specialised
vocabulary pertaining to specific language domains or genres. This may eventually lead to better informed choices in
vocabulary selection, particularly in the staging and sequencing processes as frequency stands out as one of the most
obvious criteria for selection and grading of language (White 1998).
Our first step into a general type of special purposes approach will be to consider already published EFL material that
describes the specific vocabulary of newspapers.
II. Swans Newspaper-Language Wordlist
One of the resources frequently used when introducing the language of news is Swans 1995 English Basic Usage
Second Edition. The author himself claims that the
explanations [in the book] deal mainly with standard modern British English, and the examples are as realistic as I
can make them () A good deal of information is given about American usage, but the book is not intended as a
systematic guide to American English (p. xii).
In the blurb on the back of the book, the following can be read:
It answers the learners questions, Is this right or wrong, and why? and the teachers question, How can I explain this
to my classes? It gives information and advice that is practical, clear, reliable and easy to find. Most of the book is
about grammar, but it also covers selected points of vocabulary, idiom, style, pronunciation and spelling.
Interestingly, and for the purposes of our research, this edition offers a comprehensive group of words that are
normally found in newspaper headlines.One may argue that headlines and the rest of the news text do not necessarily
normally found in newspaper headlines.One may argue that headlines and the rest of the news text do not necessarily
share the same lexical properties, but it is a fact that headlines are as much a part of the structure of news stories as
the lead or the body of the news story itself. In this sense Bell (1991: 169) allocates the headline within the abstract
section of the news text model, together with the lead, the other two sections being the attribution, which is not
always explicit, and the story, which can be composed of one or several episodes. Besides, the language of headlines
encapsulates much of the contents developed in the news body as well as the newspaper position towards those
events.
For many English language teachers, especially in Europe, Swans book is a reference and an undisputable authority
when teaching, explaining and accounting for regularities and irregularities of the English language[3]. As a token of
this appreciation, a recent reviewer of the volume said that it "is the bible for the TEFL educator", and continued
"this is the ultimate reference guide"[4]. In this sense it is important to reckon the impact of authorised vocabulary
choices made by native speakers on the EFL professional community. Sinclair (1997:2) states that language teachers
are dependant on those who describe the L2 for their "basic information and its stability and reliability". A good
example of this is Wests (1953) A General Service List of English Words[5] which, according to Bauer and Nation
(1993), is basically a collection of 2000 thousand headwords representing word families. Wests wordlist influenced
ELT authors for decades as his particular selection of common words was behind different learning materials (Nation
1990; Sánchez 2000). Precisely, one of the strengths of this selection was that the words therein were chosen on
frequency claims to meet the communicative needs of a particular group of people[6]. Bauman and Culligan went
further on and, using Bauer and Nation´s (1995) multilevel standard for determining headwords, extended the list to
2284 words and used the Brown [7]Corpus to determine frequency. Nation's (2001b) latest works someway still rely
on this word listing. As we will see now, machine-readable collection of texts have opened up new ways into
vocabulary handling and teaching applications.
III. The Use of Small Corpora in ELT Research and Pedagogy
The sub-corpus, or mini-corpus, approach is gaining recognition and users. The very strength of small corpora is that
they do not need to be as large as a general, big corpus if, considered other design factors, they are representative of
the language domain and instrumental in meeting the needs of designers and corpora users alike. In this respect,
Tognini-Bonelli (2001: 57) put it very straightforwardly when she stated that "it would be difficult to see the reasons
for choosing an unrepresentative corpus". Certainly this is the major asset of small corpora: they are not small
because small is better, but because small can be more authentic and representative in a specific language domain
and genre than reference corpora.
It should be said that using approaches like ours, that is, top-down research where the corpus is assisting teachers and
researchers in checking existing statement against evidence, some of the difficulties which derive from polysemy are
not so much of a problem given the restricted contexts of communication which small corpora represent. Of course,
this is always subject to analysis and revision but it is not likely that words which are characteristic of a language
domain will present 21 meanings on average such as those in West's list[8]. Nation (2001:34) admits that even recent
software like Range or Vocabulary Profile are not capable "of distinguishing different meanings of the same forms".
software like Range or Vocabulary Profile are not capable "of distinguishing different meanings of the same forms".
Different researchers have made use of small corpora[9] in their investigations. For example, Jackson (1997) reports
students use of mini-corpora to implement computer-based stylistic analysis of texts. Cheng and Warren (1999)
collected spontaneous naturally occurring Hong Kong spoken English and built the Hong Kong Corpus of
Conversational English (HKCCE), which comprises around 500.000 words. Gavioli (2000) reports the use of an
English medical corpus of 258.622 words which comprise five specialist sub-domains of similar size. Simpson
(2000) documented a corpus of spoken academic English which consisted of four mini corpora of around 250.000
words each. Other researchers have used portions of existing corpora to narrow the scope of their investigations. One
of these is Westergren (1996: 5) who placed her focus of interest on the place and function of contractions in the
Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen (LOB) Corpus press text categories AC, each representing its own genre. Tribble (2000)
used a similar approach to contrast written genres. In our work the genre is the same but the corpora are different.
Ma (1993) reports using concordancing based on small corpora in English as a Second Language (ESL) settings in
three different domains: as an aid for syllabus design, for classroom teaching and for test construction purposes. This
approach places itself well within the pedagogical approach advocated by Granger and Tribble[10] (1998: 200) and
which can be summarized in the following two basic assumptions: (a) form-based students instruction is conducive to
the success of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and (b) corrective feedback is positive and necessary for
successful SLA. A recent work in this field has been carried out by Kenning (2000) who preferred to lay emphasis
on the use of Key Word in Context (KWIC) software to identify comprehension pitfalls rather than exploiting
concordancing lines for teaching purposes. The author states that
These various forms of remedial action might usefully employ concordance-based materials. Indeed, can there be, for
instance, a more effective means of developing student awareness of the broad range of contexts in which (a
particular node or word) acts () and of the varied ways in which this (syntactic) function is conveyed in English, than
through sets of parallel sentences drawn from concordance data? (p. 168).
These works share an interest in (a) an empiricist approach to language analysis, (b) language performance and (c)
the description of language, together with researchers' evaluation, based on quantitative methods. In this article, we
aim at attempting a reconciliation between statement and evidence (Tognini-Bonelli 2001) by exploring how the
words listed by Swan manifest themselves in two different mini-corpora of news-language. By doing so, we seek to
present teachers and students with the opportunity to reflect on how standard EFL material shapes the way in which
the teaching and learning experience is confronted.
IV. Corpus-aided Analysis
IV.1. Preliminary insights into the mini-corpora used
In our analysis, 157 items in Swans wordlist were scrutinized. These items can be found in Appendix 1[11].
In our analysis, 157 items in Swans wordlist were scrutinized. These items can be found in Appendix 1[11].
Considering the fact that we had applied approach in mind, we decided to accomplish our examination of actual,
authentic and attested data by focusing our attention on two mini-corpora which intentionally differed in different
ways. See Figures 1 and 2 for details.
CORPUS 1
Variety: British English
News content: British home news
Number of tokens: 209.610
Types: 15.706
Corpus origin: Oxford University Press MicroConcord Corpus Collection A: Home News.
Publishing Date: 1993
Texts used: articles from the Home News Page from The Independent and The Independent on Sunday
Figure 1: OUP MicroConcord Corpus
CORPUS 2
Variety: American English
News content: US main stories, European news, Asian stories, entertainment, the environment and human interest
stories. Each scope accounted for a 16.6% of the total
Number of tokens: 254.485
Types: 20.151
Corpus Origin: InfoBeat. URL at http://www.infobeat.com
Compilation date: November1 1999 February 21 2000
Compilation date: November1 1999 February 21 2000
Texts used: summaries of news stories, usually 6-lines long
Figure 2: American Corpus
Corpus 1 is one of the published sources which include the news genre. Other available, commercial corpora were
not considered because their publication date (BROWN or LOB). Both corpora- Stubbs (1996:81) would call them
collection of large texts- or mini-corpora (Tribble 1997), are similar, but not identical, as for length and content are
concerned. Corpus 2 is more varied and one could expect a wider range of types than in Corpus 1. But certainly it is
language variety and language production date that make these two corpora worth contrasting. While the first is
British, the second is American; while the first was published in 1993, and accordingly the language in the corpus
can presumably be dated back to 1991 or 1992, the second is very recent, which implies that both contents and
vocabulary are closer to speakers nowadays. Whether this poses an advantage or not, only researchers and teachers
are to say. However, we believe that when it comes down to teaching a language, proximity is always a plus, not an
extra; a turn-on, never a turn-off for students.
In our case, we thought that using these two mini-corpora would expose the status of the prescriptive wordlist in
Swan (1995) in terms of the different parameters which are usually present in language teaching contexts. Language
variety and date of compilation appear as most outstanding but others such as news content and publication source
also play a major role in the way information and language data are conveyed. Classroom-oriented corpus-based
research, in this sense, is highly beneficial as may become a tool to assess the relevance of native speakers' choices of
vocabulary which, for different reasons, may or may not be adequate to the needs of specific learners.
In a situation of rapid linguistic change (Crystal 2001), teachers must be sensitive to apparently diverging trends in
the English language. Accommodation of native speakers to international standards, on the one hand, and more
flexible attitudes towards variety and language norm, on the other, do coincide. This "dynamic linguistic relativism"
(Crystal 2001: 63) calls for a more active role of teachers in the handling of the contents which are delivered to their
students. This is where small corpora come in. Let us go back to our corpora. Some interesting data are really food
for thought: in Corpus 2, Pinochet accounts for 0.01% of all tokens, Kosovo accounts for 0.04% and Timor accounts
for 0,01%. Which sounds very familiar to our ears, or at least it did at the time Corpus 2 was compiled. In terms of
Data Driven Learning, students can relate to these stories and, no doubt, they will be interested in them as they shape
the perception of the society in which they are living. Now compare the following. In Corpus 1, Margaret accounts
for 0.02% of all tokens, Thatcher accounts for 0.03% and Heseltine accounts for 0.01%. This is just an example of
the important contribution of corpora to the teaching of languages, which, following McEnery and Wilson (1996:
104) can be of two types:
(First) corpus examples are important in language learning as they expose students at an early stage in the learning
process to the kinds of sentences and vocabulary which they will encounter in reading genuine texts in the language
or in using the language in real communicative situations () However, corpora, much more that other sources of
empirical data, have another important role in language pedagogy which goes beyond simply providing more realistic
empirical data, have another important role in language pedagogy which goes beyond simply providing more realistic
examples of language usage. A number of scholars have used corpus data to look critically at existing language
teaching materials.
Although not the main focus of this research, serendipity[12] and DDL are at the heart of corpus based approaches to
FLT. It seems that politicians come and go and this fact must be part and parcel with our experience of life. But one
thing is politicians names and quite another is actual language use. Swan (1995) outlines EC, European Community,
as an important word in English news language. After a word frequency analysis, we found out that Corpus 1
returned 18 tokens of such item; Corpus 2 none. However, Corpus 2 returned 42 occurrences of EU, European
Union; Corpus 1, none. It is in these easily-outdated contexts that small corpora can be highly beneficial to teachers
and learners of a FL. In this sense, Rademann (1998: 66) sees important advantages in using electronic news corpora
as "linguistic features across English-language quality dailies from different nations and international editions of a
given paper" can be easily obtained and researched.
Both corpora are different in two other crucial aspects: readership and distribution. Corpus 1 addresses a cultivated
audience through, say, traditional distribution devices. Corpus 2, as a way of contrast, has a hidden audience of
Internet users who receive the news for free on a daily basis. The information is stored in their e-mail accounts and,
even when e-mail is downloaded, this can be left in the inbox folder. We were interested in comparing two opposing
collection of texts in the hope that this could bring about a richer discussion and a more diversified perspective on the
topic under consideration. In fact, our two corpora are statistically different. We ran a Coefficient Interval Test for
Two Proportions and found out that, considering the token and type magnitudes of both corpora, these differed
significantly: z= -5.41 (p=0.000)[13]. Different sources imply different selections made by language users as, using
Maletzkes 1963 classic model of the mass media, communicators self-image, personality, working team, organization
role, social environment and media constraints all interact even before the content structures and vocabulary
selections are approached. This shows how complex vocabulary selection can get and how necessary tools like small
corpora can be in a context where the teaching of a genre or a domain are implied.
The limitations of analysing language using small corpora are essentially related to corpus size. Biber, Conrad and
Reppen (1998: 30) state that a very large corpus is needed if we are to study the meaning and use of words. Bearing
the LOB corpus in mind, we may consider that one million words are not much to explore all the potential meanings
of a given lexical item. However, it is nonetheless true that the occurrence of moderately uncommon vocabulary is
largely dependant on the topics and text typology represented in the corpus. Engwall (1994:51) thinks that
no scientific criteria exist for determining the size of any corpus. It has to be decided simply with reference to a
balance of depth and breath, but the lack of resources sometimes restricts the desired design.
However, the question of size is of great importance in domain-specific corpora. In fact, one may ask how decisive is
corpus size when specific texts are scanty. There are empirical ways to explore the potential limitations and virtues of
any n-word corpus. The use of the Type-Token-Formula (Sánchez and Cantos 1997) allows us to calculate
estimations of the quantity of types for any given corpus based on n-tokens. Yang et al. (2000) and Cantos (2000)
estimations of the quantity of types for any given corpus based on n-tokens. Yang et al. (2000) and Cantos (2000)
report that the projections of different multi-million token samples are greatly accurate. In our case, using the formula
mentioned above, the types projections for both corpora would be as follows[14]:
Projection over Corpus 1 Corpus 2
Actual number of types 15706 20151
2-million words 48514.835 56491.161
3-million words 59418.299 69187.260
5-million words 76708.695 89320.369
Table 1: Projections of types for Corpus 1 and 2.
This gives us a precise idea of the sort of corpora size needed to encounter a more varied range of types of news
language vocabulary. Based on these data, we may assess how adequate Swans news-language wordlist can be for
an exploratory EFL-oriented analysis. We should remember here that, to the best of our knowledge, there exists no
commercially-available specific corpus of English news language which reaches up figures of standard general
corpora.
With an educational use in mind, corpora 1 and 2 do clearly serve the purpose of presenting us with opportunities to
test the actual occurrence of the specific lexical items listed by Swan. In this sense, we believe that specialized
corpora compiled by teachers or researchers can play an important role in a narrowly-defined contexts such as the
study of how standard and authorized news-language vocabulary (as proposed by Swan) actually can be tracked
down in specific news-language use. This is the scope of the next section.
IV.2. An empirical lexical taxonomy of news-language vocabulary
After running a frequency analysis on both corpora, the original list of lexical items was classified according to
occurrence criteria. Note that tokens are used as primary data in this analysis as Swan´s choice is conceptually
tokens-oriented.
One in 150 tokens[15] was selected as a cut-off point for frequency significance. In Corpus 2, 26 occurrences stand
for a minimum 0.01%, while the figure decreases to 22 for the same percentage in Corpus 1. This is so because of the
different size of both corpora. As an example, we could take deal which in Corpus 1 appeared in 55 instances
reaching a 0.03% token percentage. The same item appeared 101 times in Corpus 2 reaching a 0.04% figure. Despite
the word amount and proportional differences, both corpora present very similar Type/ Token figures, 7.49 (C1) and
7.92 (C2), and similar standardised Type/ Token measures, 46.83 (C1) and 53.43 (C2).
In order to examine the behaviour of Swan's wordlist we decided to classify the items taking into account their
appearance on (a) both or only one corpus and (b) their frequency (> 0.01% or <0.01%). Five different groups
emerged:
Group A. Swans words with frequency >0.01% found in both corpora: 21 words
act, aid, allege, appear, ban, block, call, campaign, charge, claim, clear, cut, deal, hit, IRA, link, move, plant, press,
threat and US.
Table 2: Swan's wordlist Group A
Group B. Swans words with frequency >0.01% found in one corpus only: 14 words
bar, cash, Commons, firm, jail, key, mission, MP, poll, storm, Tory, troops, UK and Ulster.
Table 3: Swan's wordlist Group B
Group C. Swans words with frequency <0.01% found in both corpora: 65 words
alert, bid, blast, blaze, blow, bolster, bond, boom, boost, brink, clash, con, curb, deadlock, dole, drama, edge, foil,
fraud, go-ahead, grab, grip, hail, halt, haul, hike, leak, loom, Lords, mercy, net, odds, oust, pact, peak, peer, peril,
pit, plea, pledge, pull out, raid, rampage, rift, row, rule out, saga, scare, scrap, seize, set to, shed, slate, slump,
spark, split, stake, swap, sway, switch, toll, trio, UN, vow and wed.
Table 4: Swan's wordlist Group C.
Group D. Swans words with frequency <0.01% found in one corpus only: 43 words
axe, BR, chop, crackdown, cutback, envoy, feud, flak, flare, freeze, gag, go for, head for, jobless, landslide,
lashed, leap, marred, mob, nailed, opt for, PC, peg, PM, pools, Premier, probe, push for, quake, quit, quiz, rap,
riddle, sack, slam, slash, snatch, soar, spree, stun, surge, swoop,and walk out.
Table 5: Swan's wordlist Group D
Group E. Swans words not found in any corpus at all: 14 words
BA, clamp down on, dask, demo, gaol, gems, gun down, hit out at, hitch, in the red, mar slay, storm out of and
VAT
Table 6: Swan's wordlist Group E
The percentage distribution of all 5 groups is found on Figure 3.
GROUPA: 13.4% GROUP B: 8.9% GROUP C: 41.4%
GROUP D: 27.4% GROUP E: 8.9%
Figure 3: percentage distribution
Group A and B comprise 35 lexical items which can be tracked down in the language evidence presented here.
These groups stand for 22.3% of Swans words under scrutiny. Group C is composed of 65 lexical items present in
Swans list, that is 41.4% of the items under scrutiny. This is, by large, the word collection which most significantly
contribute to the newsness of our data. The fact that they fail to come over the 0.01% significance cut-off tells us that,
despite their presence, we were only able to track down somewhat sporadic use of the items. Group D is particularly
interesting as 43 lexical items present in Swans list are found in exclusively one corpus, irrespective of which this is,
which implies that their use in highly context-dependent and their usefulness potentially restrictive. These items stand
for 27.4% of Swans items studied here. Groups C and D, those items listed by Swan with <0.01%
representativeness, account for 68.8% of the total wordlist. In Group E we find 14 lexical items which are not found
in either corpus.
The word frequency information we obtained could have very well served rationalist approaches to pedagogical
decisions about news-language representativeness in the time scope and diffusion contexts that our two corpora were
originated. A word of caution is required here, however. Obviously, when listing out items not selected by Swan,
one had to decide on words which, based on intuition, belonged to this particular news-language field. So one had to
approach the issue exactly in the same way as Swan did when he compiled his wordlist, this time using corpora as an
auxiliary tool. For instance, we could hypothesize about Group H, composed of forensic, lured, mocked, slick and
snapped, words not listed out by Swan with frequency <0.01% found in both corpora. It is arguable whether these
should be included in a news-language vocabulary repertoire; however, it is very sensible to acknowledge that, at
least for a period of time, those words were represented in the two collection of news texts. In this respect, it is
interesting to see how wordlists become easily dated. Take pit, one of Swans choices. Coal mines made quite a
splash in British papers during the eighties as the sector problems were a major home issue at the time. While pits are
splash in British papers during the eighties as the sector problems were a major home issue at the time. While pits are
still there, they are no longer a priority in news stories these days, and so the word fails to appear significantly in
either corpus (11 and 5 occurrences in Corpus 1 and 2, respectively). Group F could be composed of words, not
listed out by Swan, with frequency >0.01% found in both corpora: like NATO, spokesman, survey, trial, and Union.
We could have Group G, composed of words, not listed out by Swan, with frequency >0.01% found in one corpus
only: 45 words like abuse, acid, courts or constituency. The percentage distribution of these three groups is found on
Figure 4.
GROUP F: 9% GROUP G: 82% GROUP H: 9%
Figure 4: percentage distribution
Groups F and G comprise 50 lexical items which, potentially, might contribute significantly to the news-language
vocabulary data used for EFL work. Group H is composed of five lexical items which are not found in Swans
repertoire which, as stated above, we must admit rather intuitively, belong to the range of news vocabulary the EFL
community may come up with.
V. Pedagogical considerations
It follows from the results above that Groups A and B, those composed of items listed by Swan with frequency >
0.01 %, reach together 22.3% of the representativeness of the total word stock presented by him, while almost 9% of
his words are not even found once in the 464.095-token joint corpus used in this research. Group C alone makes a
41.4% figure while 27.4 % of the word stock examined is only found in one of the corpora. This shows that low-
frequency words, 68.8% in the joint-corpus, help demarcate topics and carry essential meaning in the context of
news-English. All things considered, several points which stem from these insights are relevant to corpus-based
studies in the field of FLT.
First, surely enough, different corpora will cast different conclusions on the same range of vocabulary under study.
Only unfeasible corpora of all the possible linguistic performances would exactly return the same data, but according
to current standards this is just a chimera. With available machine readable texts, topics of interest to particular FL
students can be narrowed down to fully adjust to learner's needs, interests or classroom learning schedule. In view of
this, it is necessary to reckon that when using small corpora, contrasting and combining different collections of texts,
such as the ones used here, will increase the scope of the lexical analysis to be performed. The use of combined small
corpora will result in a more diversified picture of language behaviour in specific domains where somehow
classroom application is in the agenda:
What sort of corpus do foreign language learners and teachers need then? I would say first of all that they almost
certainly need many corpora rather than one. Students of English want to be able to write different kinds of text and
become effective language users in many different contexts. They need a rich set of potential models for their own
language behaviour (Tribble 1997).
language behaviour (Tribble 1997).
The combination of small corpora of different nature helps teachers make informed choices as to the adequacy of
vocabulary lists such as Swan's. Obviously, the basic, underlying principle advocated here is that frequency, ranging
from absence to statistical significance, has a value in its own and that can be used as a tool by instructors or materials
developers in order to explore and classify the specialised vocabulary to be introduced to learners[16]. Going back to
McEnery and Wilson (1996), we can see that a communion of authentic data, empirical findings about the language
and corpora as a source of materials will play up the sense of purposefulness and language verification which is so
positively valued by students. Besides, the type of work we present here
Second, EFL teachers must be aware of the importance of using materials that effectively meet their students needs,
whether these are more form, communicative, cultural-oriented or even all three combined. Besides, teachers know
that students come to classrooms with their own particular baggage in terms of background knowledge, language,
expectations, learning styles, confidence, motivation and personal circumstances (McKay and Tom 1999). It is
reasonable to think that some groups of students will be pleased to engage in work with one type of vocabulary and
will find another unmotivating, too dated, or simply will reject the idea of working with raw language items. This
circumstance is to be carefully weighed down by teachers when implementing corpus-based selection of vocabulary
and learning activities and, visibly, this is where small corpora outweigh their bigger relatives as teachers can collect
data that is fit to their praxis. In this way we can note here that commercial specialized, non-general, corpora are not
abundant, and, given the availability of machine readable texts, it is reasonable to put forward that FL teachers adopt
an active role in pursuing corpora-gathering efforts which can be pedagogically beneficial to their students.
Third, the type and range of classroom vocabulary work proposed by Hoey (1997) and Tribble (2000) is more
readily accomplished with small corpora as they tend to be more sensitive to specific domains than larger corpora.
The BNC offers, according to Lees BNC Index[17], fifteen texts where news stories are collected. They total
282.500 words. One of the texts is composed of 158.242 words, which actually implies that it alone covers 56% of
the representativeness of the BNC news stories. One wonders how representative[18] this subcorpus can get even if
it is a part of a well-established and reputed larger corpus. Again, we find in this illustration another reason to
advocate the non-commercial compilation and use of specialised corpora for the teaching and learning of well-
narrowed communicative language domains.
As for the corpus-aided selection of news-language vocabulary, we can see how Group G constitutes a highly
context-dependent selection of items as they are found in one corpus only, while group F should rationally be
included in any account of news language vocabulary as the frequency and presence of those words in both corpora
make it a candidate for students learning and teachers description. However, we should be careful here. Corpus-aided
selection and speakers' intuition go hand in hand. Terminological extraction would be fairer in terms of down-to-top
processes -from evidence to statement-, that is, the opposite to the one advocated here which examines statement with
the aid of evidence. In this respect, we recommend that such possibility be explored and results contrasted against the
data we present here.
As already stated, the corpora we used can allow teachers assess the usefulness of the wordlist in terms of frequency
on the two corpora as well as evaluate potential uses ofSwans listing. One may think that the fact that only 14 of
Swans lexical items did notmake it into any corpus wordlist group can tell us about how appropriate his selection
was. Some of the items in this group are too specific and presumably in other news-language contexts they would
appear on the scene (take VAT, for instance). Or, all the way round, others may argue that if 41.4% of his
vocabulary did not even reach the 0.01%significance threshold, Swans very own selection is far from depicting
actual news-language use. An old debate starts again whether corpus-based analyses should exclusively rely on data-
driven procedures and conclusions or whether language data is always to be complemented by teachers and
researchers own insight into the concerning question. Fillmore (1992) addressed the issue a decade ago and recently
(Fillmore 2001) reaffirmed his idea that both resources, that is, raw language data and speakers/ researchers
introspections are necessary to succeed in the language business (2001:1).
Sánchez (2000) holds that digitalized corpora, whether compiled by teachers/linguists or commercial software, are
useful in, at least, three areas (a) as a source of materials for investigation; (b) as a source ofclassroom work and (c) as
a source of information to establish the adequacy of texts being used in the classroom. The work here presented
shows how all three aspects can be interconnected and provide feedback that helps teachers make informed choices
as to what vocabulary is to be introduced in the classroom. By comparing two small, although different, news
language corpora we can present students with contextualized instances of data-driven news language that is
updated, with vocabulary that is based on evidence and which is faithful to native speakers usage, with an account of
vocabulary which is relevant in different varieties (i.e. BrE and AmE). Similarly, the use of different, diverging
corpora may be convenient when the context of communication is also intrinsically interesting asproducer,
readership, distribution and genre may be scrutinized as potential factors for language diversity.
Although it is true that corpora still remain unknown territory to most FL teacher, one of the ideas underlying this
work is that teachers can understand that they can build their own corpora for their own specific purposes, and that
their students can benefit from that in numerous ways:
A corpus is not a magic tool that might solve all the problems teachers have to face. But it helps in solving some of
them and might bring into the classroom real language usage in connection to what modern technology can offer in
assisting teaching. (Sánchez 2000:29)
As for the case of news-language, after our analysis we can say that a teacher, especially a non-native one, is better
equipped to present his or her students with actual examples of such vocabulary through concordancing lines or any
other form he or she may think fit. This contextualized stock will soundly reflect usage at two different points in time
within the same decade and, presumably, will bring about cultural discussion on socio- cultural issues which may
enrich the learning process.
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[1] We understand news language as the English language used when conveying news by a publishing organization,
irrespective of the subgenre.
[2] 10.679.300 words out of 40.025.700.
[3] The book sold around 400 copies in Spain in 2000, according to Oxford University Press representatives in
Spain. They also pointed out that the figure is more than acceptable as the book is not especially promoted in the
OUP catalogue asteachers and students have traditionally bought it for a decade as it is recognized within the ELT
community as an important and very useful reference book.
[4] Review by Kenneth G. Johnson, at amazon.com (10/02/2002)
[5] This list comprises 80 % of the words in any written text according to the Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied
Linguistics.
[6] See Howatt (1984: 245-50) for a discussion.
[7] The Brown Corpus is a collection of 1,014,312 words of running text of edited American English prose printed
in the United States during 1961. Francis, W. N. and Kucera, H. (1979) BROWN Corpus Manual. MANUAL of
Information to accompany a Standard Corpus of Present-Day Edited American English, for use with Digital
Computers.Revised and amplified. Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University.
[8] Johnson and Johnson (1998)
[9] Sinclair (2001: ix) states that corpus sizing is always relative: "the dimensions of a small corpus vary with the date
it is compiled".
[10] For a ground-breaking discussion on Data-Driven Learning see Johns (1991) and Johns (1992).
[11] 23 words were not considered as they conform a group of lexical items very frequently found in non news-
language contexts. They appear italicised in Appendix 1.
[12] See Bernardini, S. 2000a. Systematising serendipity: Proposals for concordancing large corpora with language
learners. In Burnard, L. and T. McEnery (eds). Rethinking language pedagogy from a corpus perspective: Papers
from the third international conference on teaching and language corpora. (Lodz Studies in Language). Hamburg:
Peter Lang. 183-190.
[13] Minitab 13.2 was used to perform this analysis.
[14] If types growth was linear, which is not, and we had 5-million-word corpora, one could expect 374648 and
395917 types in corpus 1 and 2, respectively.
[15]0.01%
[16] Other options include terminological extraction. By doing so, the focus will be placed on terms rather than on
traditional FL vocabulary renderings. This represents a restrictive view of what the language of news might be like in
terms of learnability and familiarity teaching principles.
[17] It can be reached at http://www.davidlee00.freeserve.co.uk/corpus_resources.htm
[18] In terms of purely linguistic research purposes. However, large corpora do not necessarily behave in an identical
way. For instance, in the LSWE corpus, domestic/local/ city news subcorpora are composed of 1.233.900 and
995.000 words in the British and American English varieties, respectively
Appendix I
ACT
AID
ALERT
ALLEGE
APPEAR
AXE
BA
BACK
BAN
BAR
BID
BLAST
BLAZE
BLOCK
BLOW
BOLSTER
BOND
BOOM
BOOST
BR
BRINK
CALL
CAMPAIGN
CASH
CHARGE
CHOP
CITY
CLAIM
CLAMP DOWN ON
CLASH
CLEAR
COMMONS
CON
CRACKDOWN
CRASH
CURB
CUT
CUTBACK
DASK
DEADLOCK
DEAL
DEMO
DOLE
DRAMA
DRIVE
DROP
DUE
EC
EDGE
ENVOY
FACE
FEUD
FIND
FIRM
FLAK
FLARE
FLARE
FOIL
FRAUD
FREEZE
GAG
GAOL
GEMS
GO
GO FOR
GO-AHEAD
GRAB
GRIP
GUN DOWN
HAIL
HALT
HAUL
HEAD
HEAD FOR
HIKE
HIKE
HIT
HIT OUT AT
HITCH
HOLD
IN THE RED
IRA
JAIL
JOBLESS
KEY
LANDSLIDE
LASH
LAUNCH
LEAD
LEAK
LEAP
LIFE
LINK
LOOM
LORDS
MAR
MERCY
MISSION
MOB
MOVE
MP
NAIL
NET
ODDS
ON
OPT FOR
OUST
OUT TO
OVER
PACT
PAY
PAY
PC
PEAK
PEER
PEG
PERIL
PIT
PLANT
PLEA
PLEDGE
PM
POLL
POOLS
PREMIER
PRESS
PROBE
PULL OUT
PUSH FOR
QUAKE
QUIT
QUIZ
RAID
RAMPAGE
RAP
RECORD
RIDDLE
RIFT
ROCK
ROW
RULE OUT
SACK
SAGA
SCARE
SCRAP
SEEK
SEIZE
SET TO
SHED
SLAM
SLASH
SLATE
SLAY
SLUMP
SNATCH
SOAR
SPARK
SPLIT
SPREE
STAKE
STORM
STORM OUT OF
STUN
SURGE
SWAP
SWAY
SWITCH
SWOOP
THREAT
TOLL
TOP
TORY
TRIO
TROOPS
UK
ULSTER
UN
URGE
US
VAT
VOW
WALK OUT
WED
WED
Search
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... ESBP is abbreviated as Business English (BE) in English as foreign language (EFL) countries. Business English researches contained ESP and EAP aspects such as ESP classification (Hutchinson & Water, 1987), teaching (Carter & Nuan, 2001;Hutchinson & Waters, 1987), need analysis (Stapa, 2003;Venkatraman, 2007;Songhori, 2008), textbook design (Rahman, 2011), teacher training (Venkatraman, 2007), corpus research (Fuentes, 2003;Pérez-Paredes, 2003) and assessment (Rahimy, 2007), etc. The theories in the area of research of Business English were focused on the ESP theory and practice, comparative study of ESP and EAP, and other borrowed theories. ...
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This study describes the influence of an explicit focus on keywords in news texts for classroom activities on reading comprehension of news items. The general objective was to examine whether exploiting keywords through various tasks can aid learners in subsequent decoding of information in a text. The specific objective was to conduct a study with business English students at B1 level in which electronic data-driven learning (DDL) is compared with more conventional paper-based activities. The experimental DDL group exploited KWIC concordances of news keywords, while the other group read and answered reading comprehension exercises targeting the same items. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to compare the progress of the two groups, while direct observation, logs and questionnaires provided further insight. From the test results and the participants' feedback, DDL activities focusing on news keywords seem to work favorably for the students' comprehension of news.
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The study of lexical and grammatical patterns in the language that a learner must assimilate is important for pedagogical considerations. Therefore, the linguistic approach in ESP classrooms today is gaining its momentum. Additionally, the adoption of corpus-based language investigation has made the attempts even more accessible; many aspects of the specialised language can be described empirically and systematically. It has been discovered that word and structure frequencies of a specialised corpus are greatly different from a large corpus. They provide insights into the features of the specialised language. Hence, this paper demonstrates the different, yet useful information about a specialised language that can be discerned from the analysis of three types of wordlist; namely, frequency wordlist, keyword list and key-keyword list. The findings inform the features of the specialised language that need to be highlighted in an ESP classroom.
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The purpose of this article is to carry out a corpus-based study on the presence of violence in a selection of eight tales by the Grimm's Brothers by looking at the terms which can be said to relate to the semantic field of violence. More specifically, this study will analyse a selection of eight tales in which the frequency of the words cut, dead and blood will be studied in detail. These words have been chosen due to their possible connection to violence after carrying out a quantitative analysis of the frequency of the whole main corpus. My initial hypothesis is that the corpus-based study of those eight tales would support my intuition regarding the high percentage of violence in the Brothers Grimm collection as opposed to the content of violence in a wider variety of texts. The study initially involved the analysis of frequencies of the lexical units in the Brothers' Grimm corpus and, secondly, a comparison of the results obtained in the frequency test to two reference corpora: the British National Corpus and the Cobuild Concordancer. The comparison and its results seem to indicate that there was a higher than average percentage of the use of words related directly or indirectly to violence.
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Over the past few decades, corpora have not only revolutionized linguistic research but have also had an impact on second language learning and teaching. In the field of applied linguistics, more and more researchers and practitioners treasure what corpus linguistics has to offer to language pedagogy. Still, corpora and corpus tools have yet to be widely implemented in pedagogical contexts. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of pedagogical corpus applications and to review recent publications in the area of corpus linguistics and language teaching. It covers indirect corpus applications, such as in syllabus or materials design, as well as direct applications of corpora in the second language classroom. The article aims to illustrate how both general and specialized language corpora can be used in these applications and discusses directions for future research in applied corpus linguistics.
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Corpus data have emerged as the raw data/benchmark for several NLP applications. Corpus is described as a large body of linguistic evidence composed of attested language use. It may be contrasted against sentences constructed from metalinguist reflection upon language use, rather than as a result of communication in context. Corpus can be both spoken and written. It can be categorized as follows: monolingual, representing one language; comparable, using multiple monolingual corpora to create a comparative framework; parallel corpora, wherein, corpus of one language is considered, and the data obtained, is translated in other languages. The choice of corpus depends on the research question/the chosen application. Adding linguistic information can enhance a corpus. Analysts, human or mechanical, or a combination achieves annotation. The modern computerized corpus has been in vogue only since the 1940s. Ever since, the volume of corpus banks have risen steadily and assumed an increasingly multilingual nature. © Editorial matter and organization Ruslan Mitkov 2003. All rights reserved.