Effects of Perinatal PBDE Exposure on Hepatic Phase I, Phase II, Phase III, and Deiodinase 1 Gene Expression Involved in Thyroid Hormone Metabolism in Male Rat Pups

University of North Carolina Curriculum in Toxicology, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA.
Toxicological Sciences (Impact Factor: 3.85). 11/2008; 107(1):27-39. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn230
Source: PubMed


Previous studies demonstrated that perinatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a major class of brominated flame retardants, may affect thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations by inducing hepatic uridinediphosphate-glucoronosyltransferases (UGTs). This study further examines effects of the commercial penta mixture, DE-71, on genes related to TH metabolism at different developmental time points in male rats. DE-71 is predominately composed of PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 with low levels of brominated dioxin and dibenzofuran contaminants. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were orally administered 1.7 (low), 10.2 (mid), or 30.6 (high) mg/kg/day of DE-71 in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21. Serum and liver were collected from male pups at PND 4, 21, and 60. Total serum thyroxine (T(4)) decreased to 57% (mid) and 51% (high) on PND 4, and 46% (mid) dose and 25% (high) on PND 21. Cyp1a1, Cyp2b1/2, and Cyp3a1 enzyme and mRNA expression, regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and pregnane xenobiotic receptor, respectively, increased in a dose-dependent manner. UGT-T(4) enzymatic activity significantly increased, whereas age and dose-dependent effects were observed for Ugt1a6, 1a7, and 2b mRNA. Sult1b1 mRNA expression increased, whereas that of transthyretin (Ttr) decreased as did both the deiodinase I (D1) enzyme activity and mRNA expression. Hepatic efflux transporters Mdr1 (multidrug resistance), Mrp2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein), and Mrp3 and influx transporter Oatp1a4 mRNA expression increased. In this study the most sensitive responses to PBDEs following DE-71 exposure were CYP2B and D1 activities and Cyb2b1/2, d1, Mdr1, Mrp2, and Mrp3 gene expression. All responses were reversible by PND 60. In conclusion, deiodination, active transport, and sulfation, in addition to glucuronidation, may be involved in disruption of TH homeostasis due to perinatal exposure to DE-71 in male rat offspring.

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Available from: Linda S Birnbaum
    • "The glucuronidation of TH, which is catalyzed by UDP glucuronosyltransferases, is one of the major metabolic pathways of TH (Wu et al., 2005). Triclosan, BDE-47, and PBDE mixtures have been reported to induce hepatic microsomal T4-glucuronidation activity and elevate the expression levels of UDP glucuronosyltransferases, which are believed to be responsible for their T4 decreasing effects in rodents (Paul et al., 2010; Richardson et al., 2008; Szabo et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2001). Hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 have also been shown to compete with T4 for binding to the TH transport protein transtherytin and T4 binding globulin (Marchesini et al., 2008; Meerts et al., 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Triclosan, triclocarban, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), and bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported to disturb thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis. We have examined the effects of these chemicals on sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)-mediated iodide uptake and the expression of genes involved in TH synthesis in rat thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells, and on the activity of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) using rat thyroid microsomes. All four chemicals inhibited NIS-mediated iodide uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. A decrease in the iodide uptake was also observed in the absence of sodium iodide. Kinetic studies showed that all four chemicals were non-competitive inhibitors of NIS, with the order of Ki values being triclosan < triclocarban < BDE-47 < BPA. The transcriptional expression of three genes involved in TH synthesis, Slc5a5, Tpo, and Tgo, and three thyroid transcription factor genes, Pax8, Foxe1, and Nkx2-1, was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. No significant changes in the expression of any genes were observed with triclosan or triclocarban. BDE-47 decreased the level of Tpo, while BPA altered the expression of all six genes. Triclosan and triclocarban inhibited the activity of TPO at 166 and > 300 μM, respectively. Neither BDE-47 nor BPA affected TPO activity. In conclusion, triclosan, triclocarban, BDE-47, and BPA inhibited iodide uptake, but had differential effects on the expression of TH synthesis-related genes and the activity of TPO.
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    • "Many in vivo studies have also investigated the relationship of target chemicals with TH-DIO activity. Rat pups exhibit reduced DIO I activity when their mother is administered DE-71, a commercial PBDE mixture (Szabo et al., 2009). Aquatic exposure to DE-71 was reported to up-regulate DIO I gene expression in zebrafish embryos, accompanied with reduced T4 levels (Yu et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The toxic effects of three polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-47, -99, and -209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA), were evaluated by determining their 24 h and 96 h median lethal concentrations using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL. It was found that BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA showed comparative cytotoxicity within the range of 1.2-4.2 μM, and were more toxic than BPA (367.1 μM at 24 h and 357.6 μM at 96 h). However, BDE-209 induced only 15% lethality with exposures up to 25 μM. The molecular stresses of BDE-47, -99, TBBPA and BPA involved in thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and hepatic metabolism were also investigated. Using a reporter gene system to detect zebrafish thyroid hormone receptor β (zfTRβ) transcriptional activity, the median effective concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) was determined to be 9.2 × 10−11 M. BDE-47, BDE-99, TBBPA and BPA alone, however, did not exhibit zfTRβ agonistic activity. BPA displayed T3 (0.1 nM) induced zfTRβ antagonistic activity with a median inhibitory concentration of 19.3 μM. BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA displayed no antagonistic effects of T3-induced zfTRβ activity. Target gene expressions were also examined under acute exposures. The significant inhibition of different types of deiodinases by all of the test chemicals indicated TH circulation disruption. All four chemicals, especially BPA, were able to affect transcripts of phase II hepatic metabolizing enzymes (UGT2A1, SULT1) in vitro. In conclusion, the zfTRβ reporter gene system developed here helps delineate an in vitro model to enable the analysis of the TH disruption effects of environmental pollutants in fish. BPA and the brominated compounds tested were able to disrupt the TH system at the gene expression level, probably through the deiodination pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Aquatic Toxicology
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    • "The potential mechanisms of PBDEs on cognitive function and hyperactivity have been postulated to include induced neuronal apoptosis, decreased neuronal migration, interrupted intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis, and altered neurotransmitter release and function (Dingemans et al. 2011). PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) can bind to the serum binding proteins transthyretin and thyroxine binding globulin, affect deiodinase enzyme activity, and alter thyroid hormone metabolism and excretion, resulting in reduced T 4 levels in experimental animals (Butt et al. 2011; Marchesini et al. 2008; Meerts et al. 2000; Szabo et al. 2009; Zhou et al. 2002). Human studies also observed PBDE-associated thyroid hormones (thyroid stimulating hormone, total and free thyroxine, total and free triiodothyronine) disruption during pregnancy (Chevrier et al. 2010; Herbstman et al. 2008; Lin et al. 2011; Stapleton et al. 2011; Zota et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in furniture, carpet padding, car seats, and other consumer products during the past three decades. Objective: We examined whether in utero exposure to PBDEs is associated with child cognitive function and behavior in a U.S. study sample. Methods: In a prospective birth cohort, we measured maternal serum concentrations of BDE-47 and other PBDE congeners in 309 women at 16 weeks of gestation during 2003–2006 and followed their children in Cincinnati, Ohio. We measured cognitive and motor abilities using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II at ages 1, 2, and 3 years; intelligence using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III at age 5 years; and children’s behaviors using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 annually at ages 2–5 years. We used linear mixed models or generalized estimating equations with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate associations between these outcomes and log10-transformed PBDE concentrations. Results: The geometric mean of BDE-47 in maternal serum (20.1 ng/g lipid) was comparable with U.S. adult national reference values. Prenatal BDE-47 was not significantly associated with Bayley Mental or Psychomotor Development Indices at 1–3 years, but a 10-fold increase in prenatal BDE-47 was associated with a 4.5-point decrease (95% CI: –8.8, –0.1) in Full-Scale IQ and a 3.3-point increase (95% CI: 0.3, 6.3) in the hyperactivity score at age 5 years. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to PBDEs was associated with lower IQ and higher hyperactivity scores in children. Citation: Chen A, Yolton K, Rauch SA, Webster GM, Hornung R, Sjödin A, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP. 2014. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and neurodevelopment in U.S. children through 5 years of age: the HOME study. Environ Health Perspect 122:856–862;
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Environmental Health Perspectives
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