Postprandial Improvement of Endothelial Function by Red Wine and Olive Oil Antioxidants: A Synergistic Effect of Components of the Mediterranean Diet

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.45). 09/2008; 27(4):448-53. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2008.10719724
Source: PubMed


Consumption of olive oil may cause postprandial impairment of endothelial function, while acute ingestion of red wine seems to improve it. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined postprandial effects of two essential components of the Mediterranean diet, red wine and olive oil, on endothelial function.
Fifteen healthy subjects were enrolled in the study, which was comprised of 4 study days. Subjects were asked to consume a standard meal at each study day containing 50 gr of olive oil and 250 ml of wine. Two types of wine (red and white; rich and poor in antioxidants respectively) and two types of olive oil (green and refined; rich and poor in antioxidants respectively) were used in a 2*2 design. Endothelium dependent, flow mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured with a B-Mode ultrasound device at fast and 1, 2 and 3 hours postprandially.
Combined consumption of red wine and green olive oil (both rich in antioxidants) improved FMD postprandially (p = 0.002, ANOVA for repeated measures), which remained significant 1 hour (p = 0.002) and 2 hours (0.037) following the meal compared to fasting levels. No other combination of wine and olive oil caused any significant alteration on FMD.
Acute consumption of both red wine and green olive oil, rich in antioxidants, led to an improvement in the postprandial endothelial function in healthy subjects. These findings provide an additional favorable effect of components of the Mediterranean diet and of their antioxidant substances on endothelial function, at the postprandial state.

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    • "Correspondingly, the potent antioxidant and anticancer activities observed for the PKE tested are attributed to the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals present in plant-based foods [48]. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of a Mediterranean diet is attributed to the favorable effect of mixing different foods together [49]. Therefore, a Korean diet, which includes the combination of several plant-based and antioxidant-rich side dishes within a single meal, has the potential to provide additive, anti-inflammation effects. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The traditional Korean diet is plant-based and rich in antioxidants. Previous studies have investigated the potential health benefits of individual nutrients of Korean foods. However, the cumulative effects of a Korean diet on inflammation remain poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a plant-based Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Using data from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 75 individual plant food items were selected which represent over 1% of the total diet intake of the Korean diet. These items were classified into ten different food groups, and the vegetable (Veg) and fruit (Fruit) groups were studied based on their high antioxidant capacity. For comparison, a mixture of all ten groups (Mix) was prepared. To produce a model of inflammation with which to test these Veg, Fruit, and Mix plant-based Korean food extracts (PKE), RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RESULTS Levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were found to be lower following PKE treatment. Furthermore, PKE treatment was found to suppress tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) via the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Overall, the Mix group exhibited the greatest anti-inflammatory effects compared with Veg and Fruit PKE group. CONCLUSIONS Inhibition of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators by the PKE tested was found to involve an inhibition of NF-kB activation. Moreover, PKE tested have the potential to ameliorate various inflammation-related diseases by limiting the excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators.
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    • "A similar conclusion has been obtained from other cohort studies (Masala et al., 2008). Altogether, it seems that the presence of fish in the Mediterranean diet model can add synergistic beneficial effects in endothelial function (Harris et al., 2003) in addition to those provided by olive oil, vegetable and even moderate red wine consumption (Karatzi et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ω-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation.
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    • "Moreover, we also found an improvement in capillary flow along the postprandial phase after consumption of the Med diet. Olive oil-rich diets have been proven to improve the flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) dilatation in healthy subjects (Karatzi et al. 2008). This improvement in capillary flow was even more evident when the Med diet was supplemented with CoQ, which is consistent with other studies showing that dietary supplementation with CoQ reduce blood pressure (Hodgson et al. 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. We have investigated whether the quality of dietary fat alters postprandial cellular oxidative stress and whether the supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) lowers postprandial oxidative stress in an elderly population. In this randomized crossover study, 20 participants were assigned to receive three isocaloric diets for periods of 4 week each: (1) Mediterranean diet supplemented with CoQ (Med+CoQ diet), (2) Mediterranean diet (Med diet), and (3) saturated fatty acid-rich diet (SFA diet). After a 12-h fast, the volunteers consumed a breakfast with a fat composition similar to that consumed in each of the diets. CoQ, lipid peroxides (LPO), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), protein carbonyl (PC), total nitrite, nitrotyrosine plasma levels, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and ischemic reactive hyperaemia (IRH) were determined. Med diet produced a lower postprandial GPx activity and a lower decrease in total nitrite level compared to the SFA diet. Med and Med+CoQ diets induced a higher postprandial increase in IRH and a lower postprandial LPO, oxLDL, and nitrotyrosine plasma levels than the SFA diet. Moreover, the Med+CoQ diet produced a lower postprandial decrease in total nitrite and a greater decrease in PC levels compared to the other two diets and lower SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the SFA diet. In conclusion, Med diet reduces postprandial oxidative stress by reducing processes of cellular oxidation and increases the action of the antioxidant system in elderly persons and the administration of CoQ further improves this redox balance.
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