Lipedema is a common but rarely diagnosed disease or frequently confused with obesity. Patients are almost exclusively women. It is characterised by symmetrical, circumscribed, in advanced form deforming fat tissue accumulation on the legs that is associated with lymphedema. Spontaneous pain, pain to pressure and tendency to hematoma are characteristic. One of the possible causes of a fat leg, that is a very common complaint, is lipedema. Main differential diagnoses are obesity, lipohypertrophy and primary and secondary lymphedema. It is often associated with chronic venous and lymphatic insufficiency, early degenerative articular disease and obesity. The disease is rarely recognized and the treatment modalities are not widely known. Therefore patients feel very frustrated that leads to psychologic disorders. Until recently only conservative treatment was possible (combination of manual or intermittent pneumatic drainage, compression bandages and garments and physiotherapy). More recently surgical intervention (liposuction) is also included in the treatment options. The significance of lipedema is due not only to the disease itself, but also to the combination of lipedema and the group of associated and secondary diseases (articular and venous diseases, lymphedema, obesity, psychologic disorders). The more diseases coexist, the worse is the prognosis of lipedema itself. To prevent and delay this disease, it is indispensable to recognise it as early as possible and to treat it expertly and follow up patients suffering from lipedema.