Article

Does cursive handwriting have an impact on the reading and spelling performance of children with dyslexic dysgraphia: A quasi-experimental study.

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Research on dysgraphia has been rather sporadic and this becomes even more obvious when the focus is on dyslexic dysgraphia. Although dyslexia and dysgraphia appear unrelated, they are often found to co-exist. In addition to the problems encountered in phonological decoding or reading, children with dyslexic dysgraphia also manifest difficulties in spontaneous writing or spelling, but they are able to draw or copy and their finger-tapping speed (a measure of fine-motor speed) is within the normal range for age and grade levels. Twelve children aged between 7 years 10 months and 9 years 7 months were randomly selected to participate in this quasi-experimental study which used the single-group pre-test-post-test research design to determine if cursive handwriting as an intervention strategy was effective to improve their reading and spelling performance. The results showed that both reading and spelling processes were more closely intertwined than cursive handwriting with either reading or spelling process. Hence, the impact of cursive handwriting on either reading or spelling or both was found to be insignificant.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Book
Full-text available
This series about individual education plans (IEPs) focuses on significant areas of SEN as documented in the 1994 Code of Practice. It provides key principles, institutional self-reviews, and ideas for action with additional photocopiable INSET activities sheets and case studies. The series recognizes progress made since 1994 and considers IEPs as a mechanism for involving the whole school in the implementation of inclusive educational practice. Each book in the series adopts an educational model in which schools can develop integrated approaches and in which IEPs should have a genuine impact on children's learning and behaviour.
Article
Full-text available
TWO STUDIES were designed to investigate the role of morphemic structure on students' word reading. The first study asked whether familiar morphemes in words facilitate word reading for elementary students. Results showed that lower and upper elementary students read words with two morphemes (derived words with a base word and one suffix, such as shady) faster than words with one morpheme (e.g., lady). The second study was designed to investigate the effects of phonological transparency on middle and high school students' reading of derived words. Results showed that phonologically transparent words, words in which a base form is intact in the pronunciation of the derived word (e.g., classic in classical), were recognized and read faster than derived words that are less phonologically transparent (e.g., colonial), pinpointing an aspect of morphemic structure that affects reading derived words. The results indicate that reading derived words is not accomplished solely by familiarity with letter-sound associations or syllables; morphemes also play a role. Results also suggest value in emphasizing morphemic structure in models of word-reading acquisition.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Individuals with severe aphasia may fail to regain spoken language, so that treatment should target other communication modalities such as writing. There is relatively limited documentation of successful writing treatment, particularly in individuals with severe aphasia. Aims: The present study was designed to examine treatment outcomes in response to two writing treatment protocols intended to rebuild single-word vocabulary for written communication. Methods & Procedures: Writing treatments were implemented with four individuals who had significant aphasia and severe agraphia. Two participants received Anagram and Copy Treatment (ACT) which involved arrangement of component letters and repeated copying of target words, along with a homework programme called Copy and Recall Treatment (CART) that included copying and recall of target words. The other two participants received the homework-based CART only. Single-subject multiple-baseline designs were used with sets of words sequentially targeted for treatment. Outcomes & Results: All four participants responded positively to treatment. Three of the participants had severely limited spoken language, so that mastery of written words provided a much-needed means of communication. The fourth participant, who had adequate spoken language for face-to-face conversation, employed his improved spelling for written messages such as e-mail. Conclusions: Single-word writing abilities may improve with treatment despite long times post onset and persistent impairments to spoken language.
Article
Full-text available
Many new words middle school children encounter in books they read are relatively transparent derived forms whose meanings might be figured out through analysis of the word parts. Of importance is whether students can not only read and recognize the structure of morphologically complex words but also determine their meanings. This issue was addressed by investigating the relationship of third and fifth graders' awareness of the structure and meanings of derived words and the relationship of these forms of morphological awareness to word reading and reading comprehension. The results showed that awareness of structure was significantly related to the ability to define morphologically complex words; some aspects were also significantly related to the reading of derived words. The three morphology tasks accounted for significant variance in reading comprehension at both grade levels, but the contribution was stronger for the fifth than the third grade. It may be educationally noteworthy that morphological analysis contributed significantly to reading comprehension for the third graders because they are presumably just beginning to learn to read and understand morphologically complex words.
Article
Full-text available
The articles in this special issue share a concern with the role of morphological skills in the learning of alphabetic orthographies. They offer a crosssection of different perspectives, techniques and populations. Some of the studies concern morphological skills in the development of reading ability, others concern morphological skills and the acquisition of spelling. Some employ experimental tasks that measure explicit knowledge, others are more tacit, some are limited to derivational morphology, others consider inflectional morphology as well. The majority of the papers concern readers of English orthography, but studies of Dutch and French are also included. Why should morphemes have anything to do with alphabetic writing systems, in particular? Such systems are, by definition, phoneme-based transcriptions of language; it is logographies, not alphabets, that transcribe morphemes. A general reason for linking morphemes and the alphabet, noted by Byrne (1996), concerns the fact that orthographic systems can represent several levels of language simultaneously. While it is true that alphabets contain unique graphemes for the phonemes of a language they also contain unique graphemes and grapheme sequences for morphemes (as well as for syllables and words units). Consistent with Bryant’s point about the presence of grapheme-to-morpheme consistency, adult readers appear sensitive to the morphological structure of printed words under a variety of conditions in a variety of alphabetic writing systems both ‘deep’ like English and ‘shallow’ like Serbo-Croatian (for references and more details, see Feldman 1995). One of the papers in this issue turns to the ‘shallow’ Dutch orthography to show that, even in a writing system where the relation between phonemes and letters is highly regular, skilled readers are nonetheless sensitive to the fact that certain letter sequences commonly represent prefixes. A second, more specific reason, why morpheme-sized units would be important to readers of an alphabet arises from a consideration of ‘deep’ alphabets such as English. In contrast to ‘shallow’ alphabets, deep alphabets transcribe spoken words at a lexical level of representation rather that
Article
Full-text available
The English orthography represents both phonemes and morphemes, implying that sensitivity to each of these units could play a role in the acquisition of decoding skills. This study offers some new evidence about sensitivity to morphemes and the decoding skills of American children in grades three to six. It focuses on knowledge of derivational suffixes, which is examined with sentence completion and sentence acceptability tasks that manipulate the suffixes in real words (e.g., electric, electricity) and nonsense derived forms (e.g., froodly, froodness). Both written and spoken materials are considered over the course of two experiments in which the children also received various reading tests, as well as tests of phonological awareness, vocabulary and intelligence. The results indicate that knowledge of derivational suffixes increases with grade level, along with decoding ability and phoneme awareness. Path analyses further reveal that, although there is a consistent correlation between performance on the derivational suffix materials and phoneme awareness and decoding ability, performance on the derivational suffix materials makes an independent and increasing contribution to decoding ability throughout the higher elementary grades.
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of cognitive neuropsychological treatment studies of acquired dysgraphia have been published in recent years, but to our knowledge there are no corresponding studies of developmental dysgraphia. This paper reports a cognitive neuropsychological treatment programme designed for a child with developmental surface dysgraphia. The treatment aim was to improve functioning of the orthographic output lexicon, and so treatment methods targeted irregular word spelling. Treatment methods were based on previous successful treatments employed in cases of adult acquired surface dysgraphia (Behrmann, 1987; De Partz, Seron, & Van der Linden, 1992; Weekes & Coltheart, 1996). Results showed a significant treatment effect for both spelling and reading of irregular words that was largely stable over time and that generalised partially to spelling of untreated irregular words. Homophone words were not treated but some aspects of homophone reading and spelling also improved, though homophone confusion errors remained. Comparison of treatment effectiveness with and without mnemonics suggested that the mnemonic cue itself was not necessary to achieve treatment success for irregular word spelling. Analyses revealed that untreated irregular words whose spellings became correct as a result of treatment generalisation were those whose original misspellings were closest to being correct prior to treatment. Results also provided preliminary evidence that the mechanism underlying treatment generalisation involved improved access to orthographic representations, resulting in an increased tendency to employ orthography for spelling attempts and reduced reliance on phoneme to grapheme conversion.
Article
Full-text available
A rhyming and short-term memory task with visually presented letters were used to study brain activity in five compensated adult developmental dyslexics. Their only cognitive difficulty was in phonological processing, manifest in a wide range of tasks including spoonerisms, phonemic fluency and digit naming speed. PET scans showed that for the dyslexics, a subset only of the brain regions normally involved in phonological processing was activated: Broca's area during the rhyming task, temporo-parietal cortex during the short- term memory task. In contrast to normal controls these areas were not activated in concert. Furthermore the left insula was never activated. We propose that the defective phonological system of these dyslexics is due to weak connectivity between anterior and posterior language areas. This could be due to a dysfunctional left insula which may normally act as an anatomical bridge between Broca's area, superior temporal and inferior parietal cortex. The independent activation of the posterior and anterior speech areas in dyslexics supports the notion that representations of unsegmented and segmented phonology are functionally and anatomically separate.
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a neuropsychological theory of motor skill learning that is based on the idea that learning grows directly out of motor control processes. Three motor control processes may be tuned to specific tasks, thereby improving performance: selecting spatial targets for movement, sequencing these targets, and transforming them into muscle commands. These processes operate outside of awareness. A 4th, conscious process can improve performance in either of 2 ways: by selecting more effective goals of what should be changed in the environment or by selecting and sequencing spatial targets. The theory accounts for patterns of impairment of motor skill learning in patient populations and for learning-related changes in activity in functional imaging studies. It also makes a number of predictions about the purely cognitive, including accounts of mental practice, the representation of motor skill, and the interaction of conscious and unconscious processes in motor skill learning.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive causes underlying spelling difficulties in a case of developmental surface dysgraphia, AW. Our results do not support a number of possibilities that could be the cause of AW's poor orthographic lexicon, including difficulties in phonological processing, phonological short-term memory, configurational visual memory, and lexical semantic memory. We have found instead that AW performs poorly in tasks that involve detection of the order of adjacent letters in a word or the order of adjacent units in strings of consonants or symbols. Finally, he performs poorly in tasks that involve reconstructing the order of a series of complex visual characters (Japanese and Hindi characters) especially when these are presented sequentially. We advance the hypothesis that AW's poor spelling and good reading skills stem from an underlying pattern of cognitive abilities where a very good visual configurational memory is coupled with a poor ability to encode serial order. This may have resulted in a holistic word-based reading strategy, which, together with the original problem of encoding order, may have had detrimental effects for the acquisition of spelling.
Article
Full-text available
This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to analyze in more detail the implications of the phonological impairments of dyslexics in dealing with larger units of language such as morphemes. First, the performance of dyslexic children in a series of morphological tasks was compared with the performance of children matched on reading-level and chronological age. In all the tasks, the dyslexic group performed below the chronological age control group, suggesting that morphological awareness cannot be developed entirely independently of reading experience and/or phonological skills. Comparisons with the reading-age control group indicated that, while the dyslexic children were poorer in the morphemic segmentation tasks, they performed normally for their reading level in the sentence completion tasks. Furthermore, they produced more derived words in the production task. This suggests that phonological impairments prevent the explicit segmentation of affixes while allowing the development of productive morphological knowledge. A second study compared dyslexic subgroups defined by their degree of phonological impairment. Our results suggest that dyslexics develop a certain type of morphological knowledge which they use as a compensatory reading strategy.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of specific types of tasks on the efficiency of implicit procedural learning in the presence of developmental dyslexia (DD). Sixteen children with DD (mean (SD) age 11.6 (1.4) years) and 16 matched normal reader controls (mean age 11.4 (1.9) years) were administered two tests (the Serial Reaction Time test and the Mirror Drawing test) in which implicit knowledge was gradually acquired across multiple trials. Although both tests analyse implicit learning abilities, they tap different competencies. The Serial Reaction Time test requires the development of sequential learning and little (if any) procedural learning, whereas the Mirror Drawing test involves fast and repetitive processing of visuospatial stimuli but no acquisition of sequences. The children with DD were impaired on both implicit learning tasks, suggesting that the learning deficit observed in dyslexia does not depend on the material to be learned (with or without motor sequence of response action) but on the implicit nature of the learning that characterises the tasks. Individuals with DD have impaired implicit procedural learning.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate morphological knowledge in spoken language and its relationship to written representation of morphemes by normally achieving second graders, language-learning disabled children, and adults with literacy problems. Research dealing with the written expression of populations with language-learning difficulties has consistently indicated that these populations tend to make morphemic errors when spelling words. If a deficit in morphological knowledge is an underlying factor, then these individuals might also be expected to perform poorly on tasks that require them to apply morphological rules in spoken language (an implicit level of morphological knowledge) or to analyze the morphemic structure of spoken words (an explicit level of morphological knowledge). Analyses found both these levels of morphological knowledge to be highly related to morpheme use in written language samples, and suggest that morphological knowledge does not develop solely as a function of maturation or exposure to language. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention are addressed.
Article
Many students struggle to produce neat, expressive written work, whether or not they have accompanying physical or cognitive difficulties. They may learn much less from an assignment because they must focus on writing mechanics instead of content. After spending more time on an assignment than their peers, these students understand the material less. Not surprisingly, belief in their ability to learn suffers. When the writing task is the primary barrier to learning or demonstrating knowledge, then accommodations, modifications, and remediation for these problems may be in order. There are sound academic reasons for students to write extensively. Writing is a complex task that takes years of practice to develop. Effective writing helps people remember, organize, and process information. However, for some students writing is a laborious exercise in frustration that does none of those things. Two students can labor over the same assignment. One may labor with organizing the concepts and expressing them, learning a lot from the 'ordeal.' The other will force words together, perhaps with greater effort (perhaps less if the language and information has not been processed), with none of the benefits either to developing writing skills or organizing and expressing knowledge. How can a teacher determine when and what accommodations are merited? The teacher should meet with the student and/or parent(s), to express concern about the student's writing and listen to the student's perspective. It is important to stress that the issue is not that the student can't learn the material or do the work, but that the writing problems may be interfering with learning instead of helping. Discuss how the student can make up for what writing doesn't seem to be providing --are there other ways he can be sure to be learning? Are there ways to learn to write better? How can writing assignments be changed to help him learn the most from those assignments? From this discussion, everyone involved can build a plan of modifications, accommodations, and remediations that will engage the student in reaching his best potential.
Article
Contemporary psycholinguistic models assume at least two routes in writing. These models have been verified on the basis of neuropsychological observations of patients suffering from acquired dysgraphia. Many studies have discussed the architecture of the phonological and graphemic lexicons, their relations to semantic knowledge, and their disruption following neuropsychological damage, but few have dealt with the nature of the sub-word level writing routine and its disruption. This may be due to the fact that, although this routine has importance in languages such as Italian, where orthography is much more regular and predictable, it appears to have a relatively reduced impact on the spelling abilities of educated English-speaking adults. The present paper describes the rehabilitation of dysgraphia along the sub-word-level route in Italian dysgraphic patients. Particular emphasis is given to the treatment of the unit that allows the phonological analysis of the auditory string to be written. The treatment procedure was tested on two patients (RO, and DR suffering from severe dysgraphia. After treatment, the spelling ability of the two subjects was restored to practically normal levels on most subsets of items. Both patients were also able to apply the restored skills to spontaneous writing and to written naming tasks. Results are discussed in relation to the contemporary writing models and the principles of cognitive neurorehabilitation.
Article
Reading research supports the necessity for directly teaching concepts about linguistic structure to beginning readers and to students with reading and spelling difficulties. In this study, experienced teachers of reading, language arts, and special education were tested to determine if they have the requisite awareness of language elements (e.g., phonemes, morphemes) and of how these elements are represented in writing (e.g., knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences). The results were surprisingly poor, indicating that even motivated and experienced teachers typically understand too little about spoken and written language structure to be able to provide sufficient instruction in these areas. The utility of language structure knowledge for instructional planning, for assessment of student progress, and for remediation of literacy problems is discussed. The teachers participating in the study subsequently took a course focusing on phonemic awareness training, spoken-written language relationships, and careful analysis of spelling and reading behavior in children. At the end of the course, the teachers judged this information to be essential for teaching and advised that it become a prerequisite for certification. Recommendations for requirements and content of teacher education programs are presented.
Article
Text structures are considered important organizational schemes underlying effective comprehension and production of expository discourse. The present study examined the differential text structure skills in reading and writing of learning disabled students and two groups of regular class students. The results revealed significant differences between learning disabled students and their regular class peers in the use of text structure in both reading and writing expository discourse. The data support the notion that knowledge of discourse types underlies effective comprehension and production and that learning disabled students' conceptual understanding of these structures is limited.
Article
Afferent dysgraphia is an acquired writing deficit characterized by deletions and duplications of letters and strokes. The commonly accepted interpretation is that patients do not use visual and kinaesthetic input. In this paper, we describe a woman who, following right brain damage, made errors almost exclusively involving letters with repeated strokes. She was normal at a kinaesthetic recognition task and, like the control subjects, produced more errors when blindfolded. We conclude that afferent dysgraphia does not result neither from an impairment of vision and kinaesthesis, or from an attentional deficit. Rather, it results from a defective mechanism, specific to handwriting, which computes afferentinformation to keep track of position in letter and stroke sequences.
Article
This booklet, in a "flipchart" format, provides a ready resource of selected core terms and their definitions from "The Literacy Dictionary: The Vocabulary of Reading and Writing" that bear upon reading and writing instruction. Some entries in the booklet also refer to related terms that can be further examined in "The Literacy Dictionary." The 41 terms in the booklet are arranged in sections entitled Literacy; Read, Reading, Reading Process; Reading Methods; Readability; Assessment; Remedial/Corrective Reading; and Writing. Six essays from "The Literacy Dictionary" are included--the essays were selected for their topical currency and for the clarity of viewpoints expressed by their authors. The booklet is designed for two uses: as a handy, portable reference for core terms common to the literature of reading and writing; and as an invitation to explore in greater depth the diverse yet related terminology assembled in "The Literacy Dictionary." (RS)
Article
This position paper of the American Federation of Teachers contends that the most fundamental responsibility of schools is teaching students to read. The paper states that the type of literacy instruction that includes a range of research-based components and practices has not made its way into every classroom, and that, indeed, a chasm exists between classroom instructional practices and the research knowledge base on literacy development. It finds that well-designed, controlled comparisons of instructional approaches have consistently supported these components and practices in reading instruction: (1) direct teaching of decoding, comprehension, and literature appreciation; (2) phoneme awareness instruction; (3) systematic and explicit instruction in the code system of written English; (4) daily exposure to a variety of texts, as well as incentives for children to read independently; (5) vocabulary instruction that includes a variety of complementary methods designed to explore the relationships among words and the relationships among word structure, origin, and meaning; (6) comprehension strategies that include prediction of outcomes, summarizing, clarification, questioning, and visualization; and (7) frequent writing of prose to enable deeper understanding of what is read. The paper also discusses an effective curriculum for teacher preparation and inservice development. Contains 47 notes and 49 references. Appended is a suggested core curriculum for teacher candidates. (NKA)
Article
Singaporean Chinese children diagnosed with dysorthographia in English language undergo an intensive spelling intervention program that teaches them to use either of the two spelling methods: lexical and/or phonological spelling strategies. Nevertheless, many of them continue to perform poorly in their spelling. A pretest-posttest experimental design was used to determine whether 20 children ages 9 to 10 years old diagnosed with dysorthographia who were taught both lexical and phonological spelling strategies would improve in spelling more than a matched control group of 20 children, also diagnosed with dysorthographia who were taught lexical spelling strategies alone. Both groups of children received five lessons per week over seven weeks. The results showed that while both groups improved in spelling performance significantly from pretest to posttest, the experimental group which was taught both lexical and phonological spelling strategies improved significantly more than the control group which was taught lexical spelling strategies alone.
Article
This six-month study using the single-group pre-test/post-test research investigated the effectiveness of concrete poetry as a strategy to improve word recognition of ten K-2 Chinese children with low oracy/literacy in English language. Concrete poems (a unique genre of poetry) come in all kinds of shapes, sizes, colours, textures, and even flavours. A concrete poem can be static or dynamic. These K-2 children randomly selected from the preschools were taught to compose their own concrete poems and through them learned to recognize many words. It was hypothesized that concrete poetry could help improve receptive and expressive oral vocabulary, which in turn increased word recognition.
Article
Background: There have been relatively few studies concerned with the treatment of spelling deficits. Among these, there have been a small number that have targeted specific components of the spelling process. Although most of these studies report success using treatments that involve repeated spelling and/or copy, the results have been mixed, especially as concerns the generalisation of treatment benefits to untreated items. Aims: This investigation was designed to examine the responsiveness to the same treatment protocol of deficits affecting different cognitive mechanisms of the spelling process. Methods & Procedures: We applied the same delayed-copy treatment protocol to two individuals with selective deficits of the orthographic output lexicon and the graphemic buffer. The two individuals were otherwise matched in terms of the severity of their deficits and their general cognitive profiles. Outcomes & Results: Both individuals exhibited long-lasting word-specific benefits from the treatment. However, they differed in that the graphemic buffer deficit exhibited generalisation to untreated words, whereas the orthographic output lexicon did not. Conclusions: The absence of presence of generalisation effects in response to the successful treatment of target items is determined by the specific cognitive component/s that constitute the source of the deficit.
Article
Written stories of normally achieving and learning disabled children in grades one through three were compared, using a Handwriting Evaluation Scale designed for this study. The subjects also were given tests for receptive language, figure copying and spelling. The Non-LD and LD groups differed on figure copying, spelling and written productivity, but not receptive language. The Non-LD grade level groups differed significantly on two components of the handwriting scale (Letter Size and Control), while the LD grade level groups differed on three components (Letter Formation, Alignment and Spacing, and Letter Size). The most pronounced differences between the LD and normally achieving children were on Formation and Size. A separate analysis of the third grade stories revealed that handwriting was less related to productivity than spelling and visual-motor skills. Nevertheless, the results indicated that many LD students have weak visual-spatial-motor skills. Implications for intervention are discussed.
Article
This manuscript is based on The Samuel Torrey Orton and June Lyday Orton Memorial Lecture, presented by Marcia K. Henry at the 48th Annual Conference of the International Dyslexia Association. The paper provides a selective biography of Samuel T. Orton, discusses his educational ideas and how they came to be, and considers how current educational research validates much of Orton’s early thinking.
Article
This paper discusses the necessity for teaching children to have readable automatic handwriting. As demonstrated by a search of the literature, educational institutions in both the United States and Great Britain display a lack of concern about the importance of handwriting in school curricula. Researchers display a similar lack of concern as evidenced by the scarcity of major research studies on handwriting. They appear to be unaware of the benefits of effective early teaching. Often the choice of what to teach, how to teach, and when to teach is left up to the discretion of individual teachers, who typically have been given inadequate preparation for teaching handwriting. The decision of whether to begin with manuscript or cursive seems based on custom and opinion instead of any solid empirical evidence. The special needs of left-handed children and dyslexic children are seldom addressed. Yet, these children need to be taught handwriting meticulously. More attention needs to be focused on how all children can acquire the essential skill of legible serviceable handwriting.
Article
Eleven learning disabled elementary students were asked to attempt spellings of unknown words using a standard written dictation test and an imitation-modeling procedure (Jobes, 1975; Kauffman, Hallahan, Haas, Brame, & Boren, 1978) to provide corrective feedback but minimal instruction. Dictations were repeated until 100% accuracy was achieved. A second list of words sharing the same orthographic features was then administered without specific instructions designed to promote generalization, followed by administration of a third list that included specific instructions to use information about previous spellings in attempting words on the new list. Results showed that all but one student reached mastery in fewer than 10 trials, subjects obtained more correct spellings on the first trial of each new list, subjects required fewer trials on each successive list to reach criterion, and subjects demonstrated systematic improvements in quality of spelling attempts across both trials and lists. The data were interpreted to mean that when these LD students were permitted sufficient, though individually variable, exposure to minimal correction procedures, they were able to spontaneously generalize what had been learned about spelling features of one list to another.
Article
A computer-controlled rehabilitation for aphasics with writing impairments is presented. Subjects were asked to type words under dictation. Each time a letter was typed in its correct position, it was displayed on a screen. If the contrary, the error was not displayed, thus avoiding visual reinforcement of false choices. This method of rehabilitation has proved efficient as concerns typewriting. More importantly, some learning transfer to handwriting was observed at the completion of experimental training. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of misspelled words as well as in the erroneous choice and serial ordering of letters. The stability of the observed improvement is discussed in relationship to variables such as the time elapsed since brain damage and the type of writing difficulty.
Article
This article reviews the ways that computers can support writing by students with learning disabilities, with an emphasis applications that go beyond word processing. Following an overview of research on word processing is a discussion of software assists with the basic processes of transcription and sentence generation, including spelling checkers, speech synthesis, prediction, and grammar and style checkers. Next, applications that support the cognitive processes of planning are review including prompting programs, outlining and semantic mapping software, and multimedia applications. Finally, the use of computer networks to support collaboration and communication with diverse audiences is addressed.
Article
Translation from French of A-Pitres (1884). Considérations sur l’agraphie. Revue de Médicine, 855–873.
Article
In this study, visual-orthographic skills were defined as the ability to recognize whether letters and numerals are correctly oriented. Aims were to investigate whether visual-orthographic skills would contribute independent variance to reading, and whether children with a visual-orthographic deficit would be more impaired readers than similar children without this deficit. Participants were 207 children, aged 8 to 10 years, who attended school in a small suburban community. Because of the evidence that phonological awareness and naming speed are strongly related to reading, visual-orthographic skills were entered into hierarchical regression analyses following these variables. With age, verbal IQ, and verbal short-term memory also controlled, visual-orthographic skills accounted for significant independent variance in all reading measures. When children with a visual- orthographic deficit (29% of the sample) were compared with those without this deficit, they were significantly lower on all reading variables. At 8 to 10 years of age, reading progress of some children continues to be hampered by a problem in orthographic memory for the orientation of letters and numerals. Such children will require special attention, but their problems may be overlooked. As recommended by Willows and Terepocki (1993), there is need for further research on the phenomenon of letter reversals when they occur among children beyond first grade.
Sensitivity to text structure in reading and writing: A comparison of learning disabled and non-handicapped students SPED501: Learning and behaviour problems of children and youth with disabilities: Technology assistance for students with dysgraphia
  • C S Englert
  • C C Thomas
Englert, C.S., and Thomas, C.C. (1987). Sensitivity to text structure in reading and writing: A comparison of learning disabled and non-handicapped students. Learning Disability Quarterly, 10, 93-105. rJournal of Reading & Literacy Vol.1, 2009 pp.60-99 Fincher, D.V. (1997). SPED501: Learning and behaviour problems of children and youth with disabilities: Technology assistance for students with dysgraphia. Mallorca, NJ: College of New Jersey
Remedial training for students with specific disability in reading, spelling and penmanship (8th edition). Cambridge, MA. Educators Publishing Service Inc. rJournal of Reading & Literacy Vol Does a visual-orthographic deficit contribute to reading disability?
  • A Appelle
  • V Banyas
  • K Goranson
Appelle, A., Banyas, V., and Goranson, K. (1997). Remedial training for students with specific disability in reading, spelling and penmanship (8th edition). Cambridge, MA. Educators Publishing Service Inc. rJournal of Reading & Literacy Vol.1, 2009 pp.60-99 Badian, N. (2005). Does a visual-orthographic deficit contribute to reading disability? Annals of Dyslexia, 55(1), 28-52
The Missing Foundation in Teacher Education: Knowledge of the Structure of Spoken and Written Language Teaching reading is rocket science: what expert teachers of reading should know and be able to do
  • L Moats
  • L Moats
Moats, L. (1994) The Missing Foundation in Teacher Education: Knowledge of the Structure of Spoken and Written Language. Annals of Dyslexia, 44, 81-102 Moats, L. (1999) Teaching reading is rocket science: what expert teachers of reading should know and be able to do. American Federation of Teachers, 7, 1-40