Circulating interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 in Parkinson's disease

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Athens National University, Athens, Greece.
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica (Impact Factor: 2.4). 10/2008; 119(5):332-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01103.x
Source: PubMed


Interleukin (IL)-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine produced by activated blood monocytes, macrophages and glial cells. It enhances differentiation and proliferation of T cells and increases production of proinflammatory cytokines. IL-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by both lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes including microglia. Recent studies demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of IL-10. There is little information about the involvement of IL-12 or IL-10 in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD).
The objective of our study was to assess the role of IL-12 as a potential marker of immune reactions in patients with PD and to investigate whether IL-10, an immunosuppressive cytokine, may have a neuroprotective effect in the pathogenesis of PD.
We measured using immunoassay serum IL-12 and IL-10 levels in 41 patients with PD in comparison with serum levels in 19 healthy subjects (controls) age and sex matched. IL-12 and IL-10 levels were tested for correlation with sex, age, disease duration, Hoehn and Yahr stage and the UPDRS III score.
The PD group presented with significantly increased IL-10 levels when compared with the control group (P = 0.02). The increase observed was not affected by the treatment status. A strong and significant correlation between IL-10 and IL-12 levels was observed in patients with PD (R(S) = 0.7, P < 0.000001).
Our findings suggest that IL-10 may be involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms of PD. The elevation of IL-10 and the significant correlation between IL-10 and IL-12, a proinflammatory cytokine, may suggest that immunological disturbances and neuroprotective mechanisms are involved in patients with PD.

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    • "), while changes in circulating cytokine levels have also been linked to neurodegeneration (Reale and others 2009; Rentzos and others 2009; Scalzo and others 2010). More recently , studies have shown that acute administration of LPS into the substantia nigra of rats leads to elevation of IL-1b, TNF-a, IL-6, and nitric oxide (NO) in this tissue (Herrera and others 2000; Arimoto and others 2007; Hernandez-Romero and others 2008) and increased expression of GDNF immunoreactivity in astrocytes (Iravani and others 2012). "
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    • "Noteworthy, IL-10 is thought to be neuroprotective, while IL-12 is considered a pro-inflammatory cytokine [105]. These results suggest a controlled production of these two molecules in PD pathology, where IL-10 is upregulated when IL-12 levels tends to be increased [104]. Hence, due to the ability of IL-12 in binding in cells that mediate inflammation, Annovazzi and colleagues labelled a food and drug administration (FDA)-approved nonradioactive recombinant human IL-12 (rhIL-12) with 99m Tc ( 99m Tc-IL-12) and evaluated it in a mouse model to detect inflammation [106]. "
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    • "IL-10 is a key orchestrator of the immune system with potent anti-inflammatory effects. An increase in IL-10 concentration in the peripheral blood was previously demonstrated in other neurodegenerative disorders, such as PD and HD [26,27]. Although it is less severe, FXTAS shares features with HD including trinucleotide-repeat expansions, the presence of intranuclear inclusions, abnormal movements and cognitive decline. "
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