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The Intersection of Race, Poverty, and Risk: Understanding the Decision to Provide Services to Clients and to Remove Children

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Studies have found that certain racial groups, particularly the children of African American families, are placed in foster care at a higher rate than children of other races. These families are also sometimes found to be afforded fewer services that might prevent these removals, relative to families of other races. It is unclear why this is so. Poverty has been suspected, and sometimes found, to be the primary cause of the disparity. Lacking in some of these analyses, however, was how risk of future abuse/neglect to the child entered into the decisions and particularly, how assumptions about race, poverty, and risk are factored into the decision-making process. It is important to understand this process if we are to find a way to correct it. The current study addresses this process.
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0009–4021/2008/0208151-168 $3.00 Child Welfare League of America 151
The Intersection of Race, Poverty,
and Risk: Understanding the
Decision to Provide Services to
Clients and to Remove Children
Stephanie L. Rivaux, Joyce James, Kim Wittenstrom,
Donald Baumann, Janess Sheets, Judith Henry, and
Victoria Jeffries
Studies have found that certain racial groups, particularly
the children of African American families, are placed in fos-
ter care at a higher rate than children of other races. These
families are also sometimes found to be afforded fewer
services that might prevent these removals, relative to fami-
lies of other races. It is unclear why this is so. Poverty has
been suspected, and sometimes found, to be the primary
cause of the disparity. Lacking in some of these analyses,
however, was how risk of future abuse/neglect to the child
entered into the decisions and particularly, how assump-
tions about race, poverty, and risk are factored into the
decision-making process. It is important to understand
this process if we are to find a way to correct it. The
current study addresses this process.
Stephanie L. Rivaux LMSW is Lecturer and Doctoral Candidate, The University of Texas
and Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, Austin, Texas. Joyce James
LMSW-AP is Assistant Commissioner for Child Protective Services, Texas Department of
Family and Protective Services, Austin, Texas. Kim Wittenstrom PhD is Research Analyst,
Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, Austin, Texas. Donald Baumann is
Head, CPS Evaluation, Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, and Faculty
Member, Saint Edwards University, Austin, Texas. Janess Sheets and Judith Henry are
Program Specialists, Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, Austin, Texas.
Victoria Jeffries is Doctoral Candidate, Simon Frazier University, Burnaby, Canada.
152 CHILD WELFARE • VOL. 87, #2
Findings indicate that even when controlling for risk and
poverty (as well as other relevant factors), race affects the
decision to provide services and to remove children. We
find that poverty is associated with higher risk scores. We also find
that the risk scores of African American families in cases that
are closed, those receiving Family Based Safety Services, and
those resulting in children being removed are lower than the
risk scores for Anglo families in the same groups. This suggests
that rather than racial bias in the assigning of the risk score
itself, disproportionality may be better explained by racial/ethnic
differences in the risk threshold workers use to decision to take
action on a case. In particular, the risk threshold for providing
services or removing a child is higher for Anglo Americans than
for African Americans.
The young caseworker stands at the doorway of the home. As
she looks at her surroundings, she sees a home in some disrepair
and a neighborhood that has seen better times. From her drive
down the block, she recalls cracked sidewalks and streets, broken
and boarded windows on homes, graffiti, and groups of African
American youth standing on corners. She needs to make several
decisions soon that will affect the safety of the child she is about to
see. The intake call sounded serious. Aside from deciding whether
or not to substantiate the case, she must determine whether the
risk of future harm is sufficient to provide services or regrettably,
if high enough, to place the child in foster care. How will she make
this decision? How will the poverty she has seen affect this judg-
ment? Will race play a role? Will she confuse them with risk?
It is important to know the answers to these questions because
if the judgment she makes is unduly influenced by these external
factors, we would want to know this so that steps can be taken to
improve the uniformity and consistency of caseworkers’ responses.
Knowing these factors would allow us to do two things. First, if
Address reprint requests to Donald Baumann, Texas Department of Family and Protec-
tive Services, Mail Code W157, P.O. Box 149030, Austin, TX 78714-9030. E-mail:
donald.baumann@dfps.state.tx.us.
Rivaux et al. 153
we could determine that the risk instrument is racially biased, we
could repair it. Second, if the decision error is a misjudgment asso-
ciated with the way in which she thinks about risk, race, and
poverty, it is possible that we can inoculate her against this
through training or other strategies. An example of one type of
error that may be implicated here is the fundamental attribution
error, which refers to the tendency to underestimate the influence
of situational forces in the lives of those we are observing and to
overestimate the influence of personal factors, such as traits and
attitudes (Ross, 1977). In the example of our caseworker, it means
that poverty (a situational factor) is discounted in decision making
in favor of race (a personal factor).
How might we proceed in order to learn more about how risk,
race, and poverty may impact our caseworker’s decision to close,
open the case for services, or remove the child? Research in this area
has focused on identifying a racial difference in the rate at which
children in the Child Protective Services system are removed or
given Family Based Safety Services (FBSS).
1
These researchers have
found that African American children are more likely to be removed
from their homes and less likely to be given FBSS than Anglos
(Curtis, Dale, & Kendall, 1999; Garland, Hough, et al., 2000; Garland,
Landsverk, & Lau, 2003; Hill, 2006; Sedlak & Broadhurst, 1996;
Stoltzfus, 2005; Texas Health and Human Services Commission and
Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, 2006; U.S. Chil-
dren’s Bureau, 1997; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
[USDHHS], 2005, 2006; Wulczyn, Barth, Yun, Jones-Harden, &
Landsverk, 2005).
Studies have also examined factors that may explain dispro-
portionate representation of African Americans in more intrusive
intervention case decisions and findings from these studies are
mixed regarding the role of race. Examples of factors that have
been studied as possible explanations of the race/case decision as-
Acknowledgment: We wish to thank two anonymous reviewers who provided helpful
comments that improved this article.
1 In many parts of the United States, this is known as Family Preservation Services.
154 CHILD WELFARE • VOL. 87, #2
sociation include maltreatment reason, maltreatment history,
poverty, single parenthood, neighborhood crime level, and parental
employment. Some studies find no race effect when controlling for
these factors (Ards, Chung, & Myers, 1998; Harris, Tittle, & Poert-
ner, 2005; Katz, Hampton, Newberger, Bowles, & Synder, 1986;
Lindsay, 1994; Runyan, Gould, Trost, & Loda, 1981; Sedlak &
Broadhurst, 1996; Texas Health and Human Services Commission
and Department of Family and Protective Services, 2006; U.S. Chil-
dren’s Bureau, 1997) However, other studies find that race is a pre-
dictor of placement in and exit from foster care even when other
factors are taken into account (Chibnall et al., 2003; Hill, 2005;
Lu, Landsverk, Ellis-MacLeod, Newton, Ganger, & Johnson, 2004;
Needell, Brookhart, & Lee, 2003; Sedlack & Schultz, 2005; USD-
HHS, 2005; Wulczyn et al., 2005). One possible reason for this in-
consistency in the literature is that measures of risk are not always
included or adequately measured in some studies. Another possible
reason is that studies do not always separate the factors identify-
ing risk and factors affecting the decision to take action in a case.
In this study, we explicitly explored the relationship between race,
poverty, and risk for the decision to take action on a case (to provide
FBSS services or remove a child). To do so we employed a multi-
variate model that used these three factors along with others found
to be significant in prior studies. We also examined the role of risk
thresholds in explaining the findings.
Hypotheses
Our first hypothesis was that, above and beyond risk and income,
race would predict whether further action would be taken on a
case. Specifically, we hypothesized that Anglo American families
would be more likely to have their cases closed while African
American families would be more likely to have their cases acted
upon. Our second hypothesis was that race would predict the type
2 We included these other variables as controls because they had a known association with our crite-
rion and could possible covary with our variables of interest.
Rivaux et al. 155
of CPS action taken, and specifically, that when risk levels, income,
and other factors are controlled for,
2
Anglo American families
would be more likely to receive FBSS than are African American
families, and African American children would be more likely to
be removed from their homes than are Anglo children. Factors that
we controlled for in these analyses included sociodemographic
variables, variables related to the initial report to the Department
of Family and Protective Services (DFPS), and variable interactions
that are explained in detail.
Methods
Three analyses were conducted on cases that reached the end of an
investigation. In the first, mean differences in risk scores were ex-
amined as a function of race and income. In the second and third,
we tested the previously stated hypotheses.
The overall sample was cases assigned to decisions to (1) take
no action/close a case, (2) provide FBSS, or (3) remove the child to
foster care or other substitute care. The sample included cases from
the Texas DFPS child welfare database from the period of September
1, 2003, through February 28, 2005 (n 123,621). Because referrals
to DFPS often involve multiple victims in one family, the investi-
gators used the family or “case” as the unit of analysis. Where fam-
ilies had more than one investigation in the time frame, each inves-
tigation was treated as a separate case.
First, ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used to examine
the mean differences in risk scores by racial and income groups in
the full sample. Then, bivariate logistic regression models were used
to test the two hypotheses about factors that might differentially
predict taking action on a case and the FBSS versus removal deci-
sions. Logistic regression analysis allows for examination of poten-
tial predictors (e.g., race, risk, income) of a dichotomous outcome
(e.g., whether to close a case or act on it, whether to provide FBSS or
remove). So that inferential statistics could be more easily interpreted,
two subsamples were drawn consisting of only African American
and Anglo American cases. An approximately 25% subsample was
156 CHILD WELFARE • VOL. 87, #2
drawn from all cases to determine whether disproportionality exists
in the decision to take action on a case (n 26,846). To determine
whether disproportionality exists in decisions to provide FBSS or re-
move children, an approximately 25% subsample was drawn from
cases resulting in one of these decisions (n 4,027).
Potential explanatory variables for all tests of hypotheses were
identified through both literature review and availability. The main
variables included race/ethnicity, household income, and the case-
worker’s risk assessment score after investigating the report. The
risk assessment score is a composite score constructed by summing
seven risk Areas of Concern reported by caseworkers after they in-
vestigate a reported allegation of abuse/neglect. The seven Areas of
Concern are each scored separately on five point scales where one
is rated “not at all a concern” and five is rated “an extreme concern”
The areas are child vulnerability, caregiver capability, quality of
care, maltreatment pattern, home environment, social environment,
and response to intervention.
3
Other variables included socio -
demographic variables and variables related to the initial report to
DFPS. Sociodemographic variables included age group of the fam-
ily’s youngest child, number of children, number of alleged victims
and alleged perpetrators, parents’ marital status, gender, and whether
at least one parent was a teen parent. Report variables included
type of allegation, source of the report, and state region of report. In
addition, since disproportionality may be potentially explained
through interacting variables, interaction terms were created. The
interactions included in the models were race by income and low
income by whether the case was a neglect case.
All hypothesized explanatory variables were entered into ini-
tial logistic regression models and, following principles of parsi-
mony, any that did not contribute significantly to the model were
eliminated in the final model (p .01 in the likelihood ratio tests).
Variables found to have low explanatory power and excluded
from the final model were number of alleged victims and number
3 The scales have demonstrated both reliability and validity (Baumann et al., in press).
Rivaux et al. 157
of alleged perpetrators.
Results
The total sample was 33.8% African American and 66.2% Anglo
American. Single parent households comprised 71.7% of the sam-
ple, families headed by mothers comprised only 40.4% of the sam-
ple, and families headed by a teen parent comprised 5.0%. Many
families were quite poor with 31.4% of families having a household
income of less than $10,150. Most families had more than one child
(68.5%), only one reported victim (62.8%), and only one perpetrator
(64.5%). The initial reports to DFPS came from legal/medical/or
CPS itself (34.2%), schools or day care centers (18.0%), the victim,
relatives, or friends (30.2%), and other sources (10.3%); anony-
mous reports accounted for 7.3% of all reports. The types of allega-
tions included neglect (34.9%), sexual abuse only (10.5%), physical
abuse only (24.7%), abandonment (1.0%), or multiple forms of
abuse (28.8%). Of the sample used for analysis (n 123,621), 9,635
(7.8%) cases resulted in FBSS, 6,352 (5.1%) resulted in removal to
foster care or some other type of substitute care, and 107,634
(87.1%) cases were closed after investigation.
Figure 1 displays the mean risk scores by a race and income for
the full sample. As indicated in the figure, there are different risk
assessment levels by both race and income within each decision
category. Specifically, (1) risk scores for FBSS are higher than
closed cases and risk scores for removal are higher than FBSS
cases, (2) the risk scores for lower income groups at all decision
levels were higher than those with higher incomes, and (3) risk
scores for Anglo Americans at all decision levels were higher than
risk scores for African Americans (all effects are significant beyond
conventional levels).
4
The first finding (i.e., that risk scores are
4 We also ran a multiple regression equation order to determine the top predictors of risk. The order is
as follows with the beta weights in parentheses: (1) multiple abuse types (1.56), (2) law enforcement
reporter (.67) (3) race (.61), (4) physical abuse (.56), and (5) income (.53).
158 CHILD WELFARE • VOL. 87, #2
graduated from lowest to highest based on whether the case was
closed, resulted in FBSS, or resulted in removal) is what would be
expected. However, the other two findings suggest potential inter-
actions between risk assessment scores, race/ethnicity, and in-
come. Specifically, these findings suggest that those with lower
incomes were generally rated as being at higher risk and that, even
within comparable case decision categories, Anglo Americans had
higher risk than African Americans.
Table 1 presents results of the bivariate logistic regression analy-
sis testing the hypothesis that all else being equal, Anglo Americans
5 Logistic regression is used to understand predictors of dichotomous outcomes, in this case the deci-
sion to close a case versus the decision to act upon it (to offer FBSS services or remove one or more
children). The output of this analysis is an odds ratio. A number greater that one refers to a variable
being more likely to affect this outcome and a number less than one means that it is less likely.
Risk Scores by Race and Income
African American
Anglo American
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Mean Risk Score
High
Income
Low
Income
High
Income
Low
Income
High
Income
Low
Income
Closed Family-Based
Services
Removals
FIGURE 1
Risk Scores by Race and Income
Rivaux et al. 159
TABLE 1
Bivariate Logistic Regression Results for Closed Versus Taking Action
and FBSS Versus Removed
CLOSED VS. ACTION FBSS VS. REMOVAL
OR SIG. 95% CI OR SIG. 95% CI
LOWER UPPER LOWER UPPER
Risk Assessment Score
1.377
.001 1.363 1.392 1.253
.001 1.228 1.278
Income
Less than $10,150 2.40
.001 1.898 3.035 0.99 0.980 0.62 1.60
$10,150–20,549 1.630
.001 1.315 2.031 0.57 0.016 0.36 0.90
$20,550–40,549 1.166 0.175 0.934 1.457 0.76 0.254 0.47 1.22
$40,550 and greater*
Race
African American 1.208 0.005 1.06 1.378 1.77
.001 1.36 2.30
Anglo American*
Age of Oldest Child
Less than 1 year 3.143
.001 2.730 3.619 1.38 0.014 1.07 1.77
1–2 years 1.579
.001 1.371 1.818 0.91 0.462 0.69 1.18
3–5 years 1.160 0.039 1.008 1.335 0.81 0.147 0.62 1.08
6–12 years*
13–16 years 0.793 0.007 0.669 0.939 2.64
.001 1.89 3.69
17 years 0.422 0.005 0.230 0.771 7.43 0.003 1.94 28.45
Number of Children
Multiple children 1.096 0.101 0.982 1.222 0.58
.001 0.48 0.70
Only one child*
Family Gender Composition
Mixed 1.177 .013 1.035 1.338 0.98 0.885 0.78 1.24
All female 1.089 0.119 0.978 1.211 0.86 0.137 0.71 1.05
All male*
Parents’ Marital Status
Not married 0.849 0.004 0.760 0.948 1.34 0.005 1.10 1.64
Married*
Age of Parent
Teen parent 1.110 .268 .923 1.335 0.67 0.008 0.50 0.90
Not teen parent*
State Region
High Plains/Upper 1.158 0.203 0.924 1.45 0.95 0.779 0.66 1.36
Rio Grande
Northwest/Upper 0.815 0.039 0.671 .990 0.67 0.025 0.47 0.95
South
Upper East/ 1.088 0.284 0.933 1.268 0.86 0.284 0.65 1.13
Southeast
Gulf Coast, 2.478
.001 2.177 2.821 0.97 0.783 0.77 1.22
Houston
160 CHILD WELFARE • VOL. 87, #2
TABLE 1 cont.
CLOSED VS. ACTION FBSS VS. REMOVAL
OR SIG. 95% CI OR SIG. 95% CI
LOWER UPPER LOWER UPPER
Central 1.015 0.849 0.868 1.187 1.16 0.288 0.88 1.52
Upper South 2.483 .001 2.070 2.977 0.46
.001 0.33 0.65
Lower South 2.780 .001 2.153 3.590 0.48 0.004 0.29 0.79
Dallas Ft. Worth
Metroplex*
Report Source
Legal/Medical/FPS 1.917 .001 1.709 2.149 1.99
.001 1.60 2.48
School/Daycare 1.332 .001 1.137 1.561 1.25 0.175 0.91 1.72
Anonymous 0.881 0.260 0.707 1.098 1.03 0.900 0.67 1.57
Other 1.081 0.392 0.904 1.293 2.04
.001 1.48 2.80
Relative/victim/
family friend*
Allegation Type
Sexual abuse only 0.923 0.511 0.742 1.161 0.48 0.010 0.28 0.84
Abandonment 5.646
.001 3.924 8.123 14.70
.001 7.06 30.62
Multiple types of 1.391
.001 1.205 1.607 1.01 0.945 0.77 1.33
allegations
Physical abuse only 1.074 0.377 0.917 1.259 0.68 0.018 0.50 0.94
Neglect*
Neglect Income Interaction
Other 0.905 0.309 0.746 1.097 0.97 0.858 0.69 1.37
Both neglect and
low income*
Race Income Interaction
Low-income 0.916 0.365 0.757 1.108 0.80 0.187 0.57 1.12
African American
High-income ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
African American
Low-income ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
Anglo American
High-income Anglo
American
Significant ORs are in bold.
*Indicates reference category
**Indicates insufficient cell size for analysis.
Rivaux et al. 161
would be more likely to have their cases closed than would African
Americans.
5
The table includes the odds ratios and 95% confidence
intervals estimating the relationship between predictors and case
service decisions. In logistic regression, odds ratios estimate the
probability of a given outcome for different groups. If, for example,
racial/ethnic groups are being compared on a given outcome and
an odds ratio greater than one is obtained for a particular
racial/ethnic group, this would mean that the group is more likely
to have that outcome than are other groups. Conversely, if an odds
ratio is less than one for that racial/ethnic group, this would mean
that the outcome is less likely for that group relative to other groups.
The final model demonstrated acceptable model fit (
2
(32)
8411, p < .001). Race did contribute to the decision to take action on
a case; specifically, when compared to Anglo Americans, African
Americans were 20% more likely to have their case acted upon.
Our theoretical variables, risk and income, were also significant
predictors. Other variables that contributed significantly to the
service decision were child’s age, parents’ marital status, report
source, allegation type, and the family living in certain regions of
the state. Since this was a subsample, split sample validation was
run to validate the results. The validation also demonstrated ac-
ceptable model fit (
2
(32) 8251, p .001), but race was not sig-
nificant in this model. However, when analyzing the full data set
(N 106,671;
2
(32) 33,265, p .001), the race variable was sig-
nificant in that African Americans were 12% more likely to have
their cases acted upon than Anglo Americans.
Table 1 also presents results of the bivariate logistic regression
analysis testing the hypothesis that all else equal, when actions are
taken, Anglo Americans would be more likely to be assigned to
FBSS while African Americans would be more likely to be re-
moved. The table includes the odds ratios and 95% confidence in-
tervals estimating the relationship between predictors and case
service decisions. The final model demonstrated acceptable model
fit (
2
(32) 1223.0, p .001) and resulted in a significant effect of
race on the decision about what actions would be taken; specifi-
162 CHILD WELFARE • VOL. 87, #2
cally, when compared to Anglo Americans, African Americans
were 77.0% more likely to be removed. Once again, our theoretical
variables, risk and income, were significant. Other variables that
contributed significantly were child age, whether the parents were
married, level of income, number of children in the family, whether
the parents were teens, report source, allegation type, and state re-
gion of the report. Since this was a subsample, split sample valida-
tion was run to validate the results. The validation also dem -
onstrated acceptable model fit (
2
(32) 1295.92, p .001) and
resulted in a similar significant effect of race on these decisions, that
is, that African Americans were 87.3% more likely to be removed
than were Anglo Americans. Additionally, with the exception of
parents’ marital status no longer showing significance, there was a
similar pattern of significant covariates as in the initial model.
Other previous research suggests that racial differences in case
decisions may be explained by risk assessment instruments that are
racially or economically biased, rather than by possible bias on the
part of caseworkers (e.g., Brissett-Chapman, 1997). If a racial bias
were present, then one would expect the risk scores of African
American families would be higher than Anglo families, since they
are more likely to be removed. This was not the case: African Amer-
ican families actually were found to have lower risk scores when re-
moved than Anglo American families (see Figure 1), though risk and
poverty were found to be related.
Discussion
The bivariate logistic analyses suggest that, all else being equal,
race, risk, and income predict the services decision and the removal
decision. Findings on risk did indicate that families whose children
were removed were rated at higher risk than families who were
provided services, who were, in turn, rated at higher risk than fam-
ilies whose cases were closed. Results further showed that families
with low income had higher risk scores than families with higher
income, and that within decision categories, African American fam-
ilies were rated at lower risk than Anglo families. Finally, these effects
Assessment Dimension:
e.g. Risk or ‘Level of concern’
HIGH
Assessment
LOW
Threshold
Factors
Influencing
Assessment.
Information from
Current situation
being Assessed.
The Case Factors
(Income)
Factors
Influencing
Threshold for
Action
Information from
Experiences and
History of Decision
maker (Race or
Service
Availability)
If the Assessment is ABOVE the Threshold, then ACTION is taken.
If the Assessment is BELOW the Threshold, then NO ACTION is taken.
Rivaux et al. 163
could not be attributed to a cultural bias in risk assessment, yet how
poverty and risk are related remains to be seen.
How might these effects on risk operate in relation to the deci-
sions we are describing? Dalgleish (2003, 2006) argues from a sig-
nal detection framework (Tanner & Swets, 1954) that individuals’
assessments of risk can be similar, but their decision thresholds
may differ. He further argues that the factors that influence the as-
sessment are those associated with information from the current
situation, that is, the case factors; those factors influencing the
decision threshold are those from the decision makers’ history or
experience. We have displayed this relationship in Figure 2.
6
FIGURE 2
A General Model for Assessing the Situation and Deciding What To Do About It—
Dalgleish (2006)
6 We have modified the model slightly to both display the factors in this discussion in parentheses.
164 CHILD WELFARE • VOL. 87, #2
As shown in Figure 2, we view income as a case factor that in-
fluences risk assessment, but not a factor that influences the
threshold for the decision. We contend (as would Dalgleish) that
the threshold itself is affected by variables associated with the de-
cision maker such as their views on race. As indicated in our find-
ings, this would mean that even though African Americans are as-
sessed as having lower risk scores, they are more likely to have a
different threshold for removals and service provision than are An-
glos. We take the model further, however, in suggesting that other
forces can operate to shift these thresholds. This is consistent with
a decision-making ecology framework (Baumann, Fluke, & Kern,
1997), whereby factors that are associated with the organization or
the community might alter one’s threshold. We list one such exam-
ple on the right side of Figure 2: service availability. That is, the
lack of available services in African American communities could
possibly be responsible for the difference in decision-making that
we have shown. Specifically, the families’ problems were sufficient
to warrant taking action and if there were no available services, a
removal may have been the only choice the worker had (i.e., the
threshold was lowered).
In introducing this paper, we noted that some studies find ef-
fects for race and others do not, sometimes showing an effect for
poverty instead. The present findings and the model we provide
suggests why this inconsistency may exist. Poverty may serve as
an indicator of risk. However, when race is included in the model,
race changes the decision threshold.
Limitations and Future Research
The tests that we provide of this model are only a beginning. We
suggest three avenues in future studies that would help illumi-
nate the model we offer and offset the limitations in the present
model regarding determining causality. The first would involve
analyses that control for hierarchical effects that may exist in this
study due to assessing multiple cases from the same family. The
Rivaux et al. 165
second would involve using structural equation modeling
whereby caseworker variables (e.g., cultural sensitivity) would
be associated with what is referred to as a disparity index built
from case level data (Fluke, Parry, & Baumann, 2006). This index
specifies the degree to which a particular decision is based upon
race (all else being equal). Community (e.g., service availability)
and organizational (e.g., workload) factors could be associated
with this same index and the relative contribution of all of these
forces on the decision could be tested. This forms the basis of the
decision-making ecology and allows one to empirically under-
stand what factors are influencing these decisions and design in-
terventions accordingly.
The third avenue that is likely to bear fruit is an experimental
examination of how poverty, risk, and race affect decision thresh-
olds more directly. Clearly, poverty and risk are related. Neverthe-
less, poverty is situational and perhaps should be a part of how we
understand risk. The difference is that our response to poverty also
needs to be situational. As we indicated in the introduction to this
paper, poverty, risk, and race may be related due to the fundamen-
tal attribution error through which decisions may be made based
on an underestimation of situational forces such as poverty. If
more on this error in thinking could be uncovered, perhaps train-
ing or other strategies could be developed that would inoculate
decision makers against it.
Conclusion
Findings from this study indicate that even when controlling for
risk, poverty, and other relevant factors, race affects the decisions to
provide services and to remove. Poverty was associated with
higher risk scores and Anglo Americans were more likely to have
higher risk scores within case decision categories. These findings
suggest that, rather than racial bias in the assigning of the risk score
itself, disproportionality may be better explained by racial/ethnic
differences in the risk threshold workers use to make case deci-
166 CHILD WELFARE • VOL. 87, #2
sions. In particular, the risk threshold for more intrusive case deci-
sions is higher for Anglo Americans than for African Americans.
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... For example, a 2019 report on FPS investigations in New York City found that when comparing similarly low-income boroughs, neighborhoods with higher concentrations of Black and Latinx residents had significantly higher rates of investigations than those with concentrations of White residents (Butel, 2019). Additionally, studies in Texas demonstrate that when controlling for income and maltreatment risk, FPS cases involving Black children are substantiated at higher rates, and Black children are significantly more likely to be removed from their homes than their White counterparts, who are more likely to receive home-based services (Dettlaff et al., 2011;Rivaux et al., 2008). A systematic review of 36 studies examining the overrepresentation of Black youth in the FPS concluded that racial bias at all stages, including at the time of reporting, is the most significant risk factor associated with racial disparities and disproportionality (Cenat et al., 2021). ...
... MR practices then inaccurately blame and judge caregivers for conditions of poverty, responses to which the federal government has historically and continuously underfunded (Abramovitz, 2014;Meiners & Tolliver, 2016;Sangoi, 2020). This impacts primarily Black, Latinx, and Indigenous children, who are overrepresented in reports across professional fields and in later FPS interventions, irrespective of actual rates of maltreatment in comparison to their White counterparts (Butel, 2019;Cenat et al., 2021;Chasnoff et al., 1990;Dettlaff et al., 2011;Edwards et al., 2021;Hill, 2007;Hymel et al., 2018;Kim et al., 2017;Krase, 2013;2015;Lane et al., 2002;Lu et al., 2004;Pew Charitable Trusts & NICWA, n.d.;Rivaux et al., 2008;Roberts et al., 2015;Roberts & Nuru-Jeter, 2011;Tiako & Sweeney, 2022). ...
... Finally, supporters of MR claim that it ultimately helps to prevent and/or treat child maltreatment (CAPTA, 1974;USDHHS, 2018). In actuality, MR creates barriers for families to access holistic support free from surveillance and punishment, hindering them from receiving the kinds of services that would truly prevent and treat harm (Fong, 2019;Jordan & Pritchard, 2018;Lippy et al., 2016;Lippy et al., 2020;Mack, 2021;McTavish et al, 2017;Rise & TakeRoot Justice, 2021;Rivaux et al., 2008;Roberts, 2002;Strozier et al., 2005). MR calls often lead to the removal of children from their homes, compounding trauma to families; in cases where families are kept together after they are reported, the FPS provides services that are often ineffective, incongruent with families' needs, and/or harmful to families (Burton & Montauban, 2022;Corvo et al., 2009;Henry et al., 2020;HRW, 2022;Mack, 2021;Rise & TakeRoot Justice, 2021;Sangoi, 2020;Victor et al., 2021). ...
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This paper critically examines mandated reporting laws for child maltreatment within the profession of social work. It analyzes the history and current use of mandated reporting laws in the United States and debunks three assumptions that uphold the practice of mandated reporting: that mandated reporting is accurate in identifying child maltreatment; that mandated reporting is, at worst, a neutral practice; and that mandated reporting ultimately helps to prevent and/or treat harm to children. In the final section, the author presents guidelines for social workers to implement abolitionist reforms to mandated reporting. The author argues that, in tandem with growing calls to abolish the family policing system and reimagine child welfare, social workers should grapple with the implications of mandated reporting laws on families and the profession of social work and seek to reduce the harms of mandated reporting wherever possible.
... On the other hand, other researchers have documented that racial biases among child welfare practitioners (Rivaux et al., 2008) or larger systemic racism (Dettlaff & Boyd, 2020) may lead to disparate treatment of racial/ethnic minority families. Studies have emphasized racial bias against families of color and inconsistency in human decision-making as primary causes (Britner & Mossler, 2002;Dettlaff et al., 2011;Harris & Hackett, 2008;Rivaux et al., 2008). ...
... On the other hand, other researchers have documented that racial biases among child welfare practitioners (Rivaux et al., 2008) or larger systemic racism (Dettlaff & Boyd, 2020) may lead to disparate treatment of racial/ethnic minority families. Studies have emphasized racial bias against families of color and inconsistency in human decision-making as primary causes (Britner & Mossler, 2002;Dettlaff et al., 2011;Harris & Hackett, 2008;Rivaux et al., 2008). In our study, families of color are brought into the same system with objectively fewer parental risk factors, pointing to differences in perception of risk. ...
... These potential mechanisms to explain the differences we observed are supported in the existing literature. Previous research has noted that non-Hispanic Black families were less likely to receive in-home services and more likely to be removed than non-Hispanic White families (Dettlaff & Boyd, 2020;Rivaux et al., 2008). ...
... Although omitted variables occur for all manner of reasons, variables that are included in the causal model but missing from the data being collected and analyzed are of special concern. For example, in child welfare scholarship, one does find studies of decisionmaking outcomes (e.g., case openings vs. case closures, service referral vs. placement) using a long list of independent variables that include personlevel descriptors such as assessed risk, family income, family structure, marital status, age of parent, and county or service region within a state (Rivaux et al. 2008;Maguire-Jack, Font, and Dillard 2020;Putnam-Hornstein et al. 2013). However, except for regional administrative structure (Courtney and Hook 2012), explicit measures of system structure are usually missing from models that explore differential outcomes. ...
... With that frame in mind, it is useful to start by asking about the probative value that our usual measures of Black child/White child differences have in the context of causal inference. In the child protection literature, there are three measures used to summarize racial differences: proportions or disproportionality (Ganasarajah, Siegel, and Sickmund 2017), probabilities (Rivaux et al. 2008), and rates (Kim and Drake 2018). Though there are other, important ways of knowing about the lived experience of children involved in the child protection system that should inform our understanding of differential treatment and disparity (Tajima 2021;Friere [1970Friere [ ] 2005Samuels 2008Samuels , 2022, because these specific measures are so widely used, it is important to define with precision what each measure measures and how the measure might be used to extend what we know about differential experiences within the child protection system. ...
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... Intersectionality is a viable framework to examine whether the interrelatedness of family migrant background and parent gender are associated with disparities decision-making for providing continued child protection services. Contemporary DME research acknowledges that not only case, professional, agency, or external influences are associated with decisionmaking, but also their interrelations (Rivaux et al., 2008;Wittenstrom et al., 2015). This trend is also shown by studies that investigate disparities in decision-making, as for instance the study by Wittenstrom et al (2015). ...
... To our knowledge, no other quantitative study on disparities in child protection decision-making has adopted an intersectional informed approach to examine the effect of gender and family migrant background. The study expands on the current observations in child welfare decision-making research to investigate how interrelations between factors affect decision-making (Rivaux et al., 2008;Wittenstrom et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
Professionals who are working in the field of child protection make decisions about children and their families on a daily basis. These decisions range from involving family members to deciding what type of child protection interventions seem needed. Consistency in these decisions, implying that cases with similar case facts result in similar decisions, is important. However, previous studies have shown that these decisions are not always consistent and that racial, ethnic, migrant, and gender disparities seem to occur. In this PhD thesis, Floor Middel investigated racial, ethnic, migrant, and gender disparities in decision-making processes. A quantitative case file study representing over 1,200 child protection investigations showed that migrant and gender disparities seem to occur regarding the involvement of family members. Professionals seem to have more contacts with mothers and girls during child protection investigations. Within the Dutch context, professionals contact migrant parents less frequently. Further, racial/ethnic/migrant and gender disparities seem to occur in decision-making. The decision to refer a case to continuing services seems more likely when a mother or migrant father seems to be the perpetrator of maltreatment. In an experimental vignette study, Middel aimed to investigate whether stereotypes that professionals form about parents can explain disparities. While this study provided evidence for racial/ethnic and gender disparities, it did not confirm that stereotypes result in disparities. However, the study showed that perceptions of morality that professionals form about parents have a distinct impact on decision-making processes.
... Prior research also suggests that racial bias in decision-making might contribute to increased rates of foster care entry for minoritized youth. In a study controlling for income and worker-perceived risk, Rivaux et al. (2008) found that Black children were substantially more likely to be removed from the home than their White peers. Administrators and scholars have also noted that systemspecific maltreatment definitions and evidentiary thresholds influence substantiation decisions and -therefore -which children enter foster care (Font & Maguire-Jack, 2021;Milner & Kelly, 2020;Victor, Rousson, Henry, Dalvi, & Mariscal, 2021). ...
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Discussions around reasons for foster care entry primarily focus on family-level service needs. However, families exist within social environments that can either increase or reduce risk for foster care entry. This qualitative study draws on interviews (n = 27), focus groups (n = 7), and open-ended survey responses (n = 548) from child-serving professionals in Indiana to identify community and systems-level factors contributing to entry. Through qualitative coding we identified eight themes at the community-and systems-levels that direct attention toward modifiable dimensions of the social environment that can serve as targets for policy and practice reform.
... 96 Studies have revealed that it "takes less risk of maltreatment for a Black child to be removed from the home compared to a white child." 97 The third problem with these mother-infant programs is the fact that the correctional department requires the mother to sign a waiver releasing the prison from any liability should the child become ill or injured. 98 Forcing women to sign these waivers is particularly troubling because the ability to protect and parent their children is itself not guaranteed under these programs. ...
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The prison-industrial complex has historically operated as a mechanism for social control generally and as a tool to restrict women's reproductive capacities specifically. Reproductive justice is a domain within the practice of health law. However, health law as currently practiced is ill-equipped to understand how the carceral state functions as a structural determinant of health or how legacies of oppression have facilitated the abridgment of incarcerated women's reproductive capacities.
... Researchers and child welfare practitioners have posited various reasons for disparities and stigma within the child welfare system, with a primary discourse focused on bias in decision-making (Dettlaff et al., 2011;Rivaux et al., 2008). However, recent scholars have called for a focus on structural factors in the way we define and respond to child maltreatment (Dunkerley, 2017;Reich, 2005;Roberts, 2002). ...
... Since the discussions primarily focused on the harm caused by CWS involvement, these professionals may view the harm of family separation as greater than the harm of IPV exposure, particularly in light of the recent advocacy efforts that have highlighted racial disparities in the CWS. Work on racial disparities in the CWS has demonstrated how damaging the CWS has been historically when intervening into the lives of families of color and how this harm continues today (Turner Hogan & Siu, 1988;Chasnoff et al., 1990;Lane et al., 2002;Rivaux et al., 2008;Merritt, 2021). ...
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... 4,5 The literature is inconclusive as to the reasons for this inequity: both race and poverty are significant and often intertwined factors in how a CPS-involved family might fare. 3,6 But it is certainly true that Black families are inequitably disrupted and harmed by CPS involvement. ...
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Factors that influence the decision to remove children from their parents' care in cases of abuse and neglect were examined by reviewing hospital records of 185 children. Children with physical injuries were more likely to be placed in a foster home or in residential care if they were from poor families, while those with non-physical injuries were more likely to be removed if their families were more affluent. Implications for clinical decision making are considered.
Chapter
Attribution theory is concerned with the attempts of ordinary people to understand the causes and implications of the events they witness. It deals with the “naive psychology” of the “man in the street” as he interprets his own behaviors and the actions of others. For man—in the perspective of attribution theory—is an intuitive psychologist who seeks to explain behavior and draw inferences about actors and their environments. To better understand the perceptions and actions of this intuitive scientist, his methods must be explored. The sources of oversight, error, or bias in his assumptions and procedures may have serious consequences, both for the lay psychologist himself and for the society that he builds and perpetuates. These shortcomings, explored from the vantage point of contemporary attribution theory, are the focus of the chapter. The logical or rational schemata employed by intuitive psychologists and the sources of bias in their attempts at understanding, predicting, and controlling the events that unfold around them are considered. Attributional biases in the psychology of prediction, perseverance of social inferences and social theories, and the intuitive psychologist's illusions and insights are described.
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This study reviews the records of 3936 children and adolescents under the age of 17 who were referred to the public receiving home for suspected maltreatment. The study examines the correlation between background characteristics (i.e. age, gender, race/ethnicity, reasons for referral), and case outcome decisions (i.e. case open to service, out-of-home placement, and family reunification), using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Racial/ethnic differences are observed. Compared to census data, African Americans are the only over-represented group. Latinos, Asians, and Anglos are all under-represented. Significant differences were detected when race/ethnicity was analyzed with respect to the case opened, length of stay in the foster care, and length of time for family reunification. African American subjects are consistently observed in each outcome category at higher proportions than all other racial/ethnic groups, both mainstream and minority populations.