Article

Maternal and Neonatal Effects of Substance Abuse during Pregnancy: Our Ten-year Experience

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Split University Hospital, Split, Croatia.
Yonsei Medical Journal (Impact Factor: 1.29). 10/2008; 49(5):705-13. DOI: 10.3349/ymj.2008.49.5.705
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to assess perinatal outcome of pregnancy burdened with maternal addiction in comparison with an unselected population from a European transition country.
Data on pregnancies complicated by illicit drug abuse (n = 85) managed during a 10-year period (1997-2007) at Split University Hospital were analyzed. Data on the type of drug, course of gestation and labor, and on perinatal outcome were considered. Data on all non-dependence pregnancies recorded during the study period were used as a control group.
During the study period, there were 85 dependence-complicated pregnancies (0.2%). Use of heroin alone during pregnancy was recorded in 51 women (50%), methadone alone in 6 (7%), and a combination of heroin and methadone in 9 (11%). Premature delivery was significantly more common in the group of pregnant addicts (21% vs. 6%); 49% of pregnant addicts were carriers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 14% of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Neonatal abstinence syndrome developed in 61 infants (7%) born to addicted mothers. There were 4 cases (4.6%) of early neonatal death; 7 neonates had 5-minute Apgar score < or = 7 (8%); 29 neonates had low birth weight for age (33%); and 7 neonates had congenital anomalies (8%). The risk of various congenital anomalies was 3-fold in the group of children born to addicted mothers.
Addiction pregnancies present a small but high-risk group according to perinatal outcome. Appropriate obstetric and neonatal care can reduce the rate of complications in these pregnancies and improve perinatal outcome.

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    • "The analysis revealed that the women are young mothers, with low educational level, as well as a higher rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes (e.g., stillbirth rate, 0.84 % versus 0.37 % (in 2009)—0.44 % (in 1995) in the general population) and a lower rate of multiple births (0.48 % versus 1.72 % (in 2009)) compared to the general population of Austria (Statistik Austria 2011a, b). However, the smoking and hepatitis C rate, as well as the prescription rate of psychotropic medications in the sample were high and comparable to those of other opioid-dependent pregnant populations (Kashiwagi et al. 2005; Vucinovic et al 2008; McCarthy et al. 2005; Jones et al. 2010; Seligman et al. 2010; Mayet et al. 2008). "
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