Safety and Mutagenicity Evaluation of Nanoparticulate Red Mold Rice

Institute of Microbiology and Biochemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 11/2008; 56(22):11038-48. DOI: 10.1021/jf801335u
Source: PubMed


Nowadays, people have recognized the importance of Monascus fermented products due to their many health benefits. A previous study demonstrated a novel formulation approach for the preparation of nanoparticulate red mold rice (NRMR). The aim of this study is to determine the useability of stable NRMR dispersion by evaluating its safety and mutagenicity with the Ames test. The crude red mold rice (RMR) was processed using a wet milling technology in the presence of distilled water to form an aqueous-based nanoparticle dispersion with a mean particle size of 259.3 nm. The formulated diepersion was found to be homogeneous and exhibited unimodal particle size distribution when analyzed by dynamic laser scattering techniques. Ames test results indicated that the equivalent of up to 1 mg of ethanol extract of RMR per plate exhibited no genotoxicity toward Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, and TA 102. In the feeding toxicity test, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of NRMR was found to be 1000 mg/kg/day for both male and female rats. In conclusion, red mold rice can be formulated as a stable nanoparticulate dispersion using wet milling technology. In vitro and in vivo safety evaluations of NRMR indicated that no mutagenic or toxic responses were observed in this study.

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    • "Analyzing the components of the fermented products from M. purpureus NTU 568, NTU 568 RMD was found to contain more bioactive orange pigments than NTU 568 RMR does (Hsu et al., 2011b). A safety evaluation of NTU 568 RMR and its nanoparticulate products was reported and showed that neither exerts mutagenic nor toxic responses (Yu et al., 2008). Herein, we describe our investigation of the safety of NTU 568 RMD, which exhibited a chemopreventive potential higher than that of NTU 568 RMR. "
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    ABSTRACT: Monascus-fermented products, including red mold rice and red mold dioscorea, have been developed as functional foods with many health benefits. We performed safety and mutagenic evaluations on red mold dioscorea powder (RMDP) fermented from M. purpureus NTU 568. The results of Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 showed that RMDP (⩽5 mg/plate) was not mutagenic. The mammalian chromosomal aberration test showed that the number of Chinese hamster ovary cells with abnormal chromosomes was <3% after RMDP treatment (maximum concentration: 5 mg/mL). Imprinting control region mice were used to estimate the genotoxicity of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) did not show significant differences in the number of reticulocytes or the occurrence of micronucleated reticulocytes. A 28-day oral toxicity assay in Sprague-Dawley rats was performed to investigate the no observed adverse effect level of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) caused no toxicological responses such as mortality, variation in body weight, or toxicopathologic lesions. Thus, RMDP from M. purpureus NTU 568 shows no significant mutagenic or toxic effects.
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    ABSTRACT: Monascus is one of the traditional fermentation fungi and has been used in many kinds of food for thousands of years. Although Monascus-fermented red mold rice performs cholesterol-lowering effects, blood pressure-lowing effects, and antioxidant effects, another metabolite, nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic citrinin, causes the concerns for safety. Various citrinin concentrations (1, 2, 10, 20, and 200 ppm) in the red mold rice are, respectively, estimated for safe use in animal tests. According to the results of serum biochemistry assays of liver and kidney in each group, citrinin did not reveal any nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, the results of histopathological slices of liver and kidney in each group did not show any significant differences from control histopathological findings. As a result, we presume that citrinin concentrations in Monascus-fermented products within 200 ppm will not affect the functions of liver and kidney or cause any nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. According to safety factor, it is proposed that 2 ppm citrinin in Monascus-fermented products may be a safe concentration.
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    ABSTRACT: Monascus -fermented red mold dioscorea (RMD) has been proven to possess greater hypolipidemic effect than red mold rice (RMR) even though they include equal levels of cholesterol-lowering agent monacolin K. However, higher concentrations of yellow pigments (monascin and ankaflavin) were found in RMD than in RMR. In this study, purified monascin and ankaflavin were administered to hyperlipidemic hamsters for 8 weeks, respectively, to test whether these two compounds were novel hypolipidemic ingredients. In the statistical results, monascin and ankaflavin showed significant effect on lowering cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in serum, as well as aorta lipid plaque (p < 0.05). Importantly, monascin and ankaflavin, unlike monacolin K, were able to perform up-regulation rather than down-regulation on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in serum. This finding not only explained why RMD showed greater hypolipidemic and HDL-C-raising effect than RMR but also proved that monascin and ankaflavin would act as novel and potent hypolipidemic ingredients.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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