Nowadays, people have recognized the importance of Monascus fermented products due to their many health benefits. A previous study demonstrated a novel formulation approach for the preparation of nanoparticulate red mold rice (NRMR). The aim of this study is to determine the useability of stable NRMR dispersion by evaluating its safety and mutagenicity with the Ames test. The crude red mold rice (RMR) was processed using a wet milling technology in the presence of distilled water to form an aqueous-based nanoparticle dispersion with a mean particle size of 259.3 nm. The formulated diepersion was found to be homogeneous and exhibited unimodal particle size distribution when analyzed by dynamic laser scattering techniques. Ames test results indicated that the equivalent of up to 1 mg of ethanol extract of RMR per plate exhibited no genotoxicity toward Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, and TA 102. In the feeding toxicity test, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of NRMR was found to be 1000 mg/kg/day for both male and female rats. In conclusion, red mold rice can be formulated as a stable nanoparticulate dispersion using wet milling technology. In vitro and in vivo safety evaluations of NRMR indicated that no mutagenic or toxic responses were observed in this study.
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"Analyzing the components of the fermented products from M. purpureus NTU 568, NTU 568 RMD was found to contain more bioactive orange pigments than NTU 568 RMR does (Hsu et al., 2011b). A safety evaluation of NTU 568 RMR and its nanoparticulate products was reported and showed that neither exerts mutagenic nor toxic responses (Yu et al., 2008). Herein, we describe our investigation of the safety of NTU 568 RMD, which exhibited a chemopreventive potential higher than that of NTU 568 RMR. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Monascus-fermented products, including red mold rice and red mold dioscorea, have been developed as functional foods with many health benefits. We performed safety and mutagenic evaluations on red mold dioscorea powder (RMDP) fermented from M. purpureus NTU 568. The results of Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 showed that RMDP (⩽5 mg/plate) was not mutagenic. The mammalian chromosomal aberration test showed that the number of Chinese hamster ovary cells with abnormal chromosomes was <3% after RMDP treatment (maximum concentration: 5 mg/mL). Imprinting control region mice were used to estimate the genotoxicity of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) did not show significant differences in the number of reticulocytes or the occurrence of micronucleated reticulocytes. A 28-day oral toxicity assay in Sprague-Dawley rats was performed to investigate the no observed adverse effect level of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) caused no toxicological responses such as mortality, variation in body weight, or toxicopathologic lesions. Thus, RMDP from M. purpureus NTU 568 shows no significant mutagenic or toxic effects.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
"However, that also implied that inhibition of atherosclerosis caused by the treatment of RMD was contributed more by monascin and ankaflavin than monacolin K. Regarding the safety of monascin and ankaflavin, Monascus pigments have been used as food colorant for century years. In the previous study, high dosage of Monascus pigment extract was orally fed mice for 28 days in order to evaluate the safety (Yu et al. 2006; Yu et al. 2008). The results showed no damage in outward and organs, as well as no abnormal in blood biochemistry analysis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been reported to play a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system thereby exerting an inhibition in nerve impulse, in turn ameliorating depression; in addition, recent study also reveals the anti-hypertensive effect of GABA in vivo. Edible fungi of the Monascus species have been used as traditional Chinese medicine in eastern Asia for several centuries. Monascus-fermented products possess a number of functional secondary metabolites, including anti-inflammatory pigments (such as monascin and ankaflavin), monacolins, dimerumic acid, and GABA. Several scientific studies have shown that these secondary metabolites have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor activities. Moreover, many published reports have shown the efficacy of Monascus-fermented products in the prevention or amelioration of some diseases, including hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and numerous types of cancer in recent studies. The current article discusses and provides evidence to elucidate the anti-hypertensive benefit of Monascus-fermented metabolites, including anti-inflammatory pigments and GABA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Monascus is one of the traditional fermentation fungi and has been used in many kinds of food for thousands of years. Although Monascus-fermented red mold rice performs cholesterol-lowering effects, blood pressure-lowing effects, and antioxidant effects, another metabolite, nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic citrinin, causes the concerns for safety. Various citrinin concentrations (1, 2, 10, 20, and 200 ppm) in the red mold rice are, respectively, estimated for safe use in animal tests. According to the results of serum biochemistry assays of liver and kidney in each group, citrinin did not reveal any nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, the results of histopathological slices of liver and kidney in each group did not show any significant differences from control histopathological findings. As a result, we presume that citrinin concentrations in Monascus-fermented products within 200 ppm will not affect the functions of liver and kidney or cause any nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. According to safety factor, it is proposed that 2 ppm citrinin in Monascus-fermented products may be a safe concentration.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of Food Science