More than Anticipated – Production of Antibiotics and Other Secondary Metabolites by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42

Institut für Biologie/Bakteriengenetik, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 2.1). 02/2009; 16(1-2):14-24. DOI: 10.1159/000142891
Source: PubMed


The genome of environmental Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 harbors numerous gene clusters involved in synthesis of antifungal and antibacterial acting secondary metabolites. Five gene clusters, srf, bmy, fen, nrs, dhb, covering altogether 137 kb, direct non-ribosomal synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, bacillomycin, fengycin, an unknown peptide, and the iron siderophore bacillibactin. Bacillomycin and fengycin were shown to act against phytopathogenic fungi in a synergistic manner. Three gene clusters, mln, bae, and dif, with a total length of 199 kb were shown to direct synthesis of the antibacterial acting polyketides macrolactin, bacillaene, and difficidin. Both, non-ribosomal synthesis of cyclic lipopeptides and synthesis of polyketides are dependent on the presence of a functional sfp gene product, 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase, as evidenced by knockout mutation of the sfp gene resulting in complete absence of all those eight compounds. In addition, here we present evidence that a gene cluster encoding enzymes involved in synthesis and export of the antibacterial acting dipeptide bacilysin is also functional in FZB42. In summary, environmental FZB42 devoted about 340 kb, corresponding to 8.5% of its total genetic capacity, to synthesis of secondary metabolites useful to cope with other competing microorganisms present in the plant rhizosphere.

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Available from: Rainer Borriss
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    • "Many strains of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus amyloliuefaciens have been found to interact with plants and produce beneficial effects including disease suppression (Choudhary and Johri, 2009). The type strain of plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has been shown to produce a variety of secondary metabolites involved in microbial antagonism and thus supporting disease suppression of plants (Chen et al., 2009), and this also includes chitinase (Niazi et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Many bacteria strains are now successfully used for plant-growth promotion (PGPR) and as biocontrol agents (BCA) against plant diseases. Mechanisms behind their action involve production of enzymes and antibiotics, which in high concentrations could also affect non-target organisms hence the biodiversity and processes in the soil. Despite these potential negative side effects, there is little research done on the subject to confirm whether they are significant. In three laboratory experiments, we tested the effect of the bacterial BCA Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 (BA) on two earthworm species, common in agricultural soils in temperate regions of the world and representing different ecological groups; one anecic (Aporrectodea longa) and one endogeic species (Aporrectodea caliginosa). The earthworms were kept in replicated pots containing soil from local agricultural fields. They were fed on cow manure, and exposed to BA by (1) dipping into a BA solution (short-term external exposure in high concentration), (2) mixing BA solution into the soil (long term external and internal exposure) and (3) feeding earthworms with BA infested plant litter (internal exposure of the gut).After 1-2 months, survival, growth and reproduction of the earthworms were recorded. We found no effect of the treatments as compared to control without BA amendments. We conclude that the use of high doses of BA with concentrations at the same magnitude as maximally expected when the bacteria are used as PGPR and BCA, is not harmful to the soil dwelling earthworms tested in this project. Further studies of the ecological effects of PGPR and BCA bacteria on other non-target soil organisms are encouraged. The development of sustainable agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are optimized, has to be aided by a deeper knowledge of the combined effect of bacteria and earthworms on the promotion of plant health.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Applied Soil Ecology
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    • "Many strains of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens have been found to interact with plants and produce beneficial effects including disease suppression (Choudhary and Johri, 2009). Plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens has been shown to produce a variety of secondary metabolites involved in microbial antagonism (Chen et al., 2009) and enzymes like chitinase (Niazi et al., 2014), thus supporting disease suppression in plants. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate thermophilic bacteria from soil having broad antifungal spectrum against Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Botrytis cinerea. One isolate selected could resist heat shock of 60°C for one hour, and had broad antifungal activity in dual culture assay against all tested fungal pathogens and was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1 using 16S rRNA gene sequence. Further investigation for antifungal activity of bacterial culture filtrate (BCF) and butanol crude extract (BCE) of various concentrations showed broad spectrum antifungal activity and fungal growth inhibition significantly increased with increasing concentration with highest growth inhibition of 100% against R. solani with 50% BCF and 11 mm of zone of inhibition against R. solani with 4 mg BCE concentration. Treatment of butanol crude extract resulted in deformation, lysis or degradation of C. gloeosporioides and P. capsici hyphae. Furthermore, B. amyloliquefaciens Y1 produced volatile compounds inhibiting growth of R. solani (70%), C. gloeosporioides (65%) and P. capsici (65-70%) when tested in volatile assay. The results from the study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens Y1 could be a biocontrol candidate to control fungal diseases in crops. Antifungal potential (dual culture assay) of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y1.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    • "Thus, endophytic B. amyloliquefaciens should be an ideal biocontrol agent against pathogens (Koumoutsi et al. 2004). The study of the complete genome of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 revealed that more than 8.5% of the genome is devoted to synthesizing various kinds of antibiotics and siderophores by pathways not involving ribosomes (Chen et al. 2009b). These results hint that B. amyloliquefaciens may have more ecological functions than has been previously suspected. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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