Article

More than Anticipated – Production of Antibiotics and Other Secondary Metabolites by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42

Institut für Biologie/Bakteriengenetik, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 2.1). 02/2009; 16(1-2):14-24. DOI: 10.1159/000142891
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The genome of environmental Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 harbors numerous gene clusters involved in synthesis of antifungal and antibacterial acting secondary metabolites. Five gene clusters, srf, bmy, fen, nrs, dhb, covering altogether 137 kb, direct non-ribosomal synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, bacillomycin, fengycin, an unknown peptide, and the iron siderophore bacillibactin. Bacillomycin and fengycin were shown to act against phytopathogenic fungi in a synergistic manner. Three gene clusters, mln, bae, and dif, with a total length of 199 kb were shown to direct synthesis of the antibacterial acting polyketides macrolactin, bacillaene, and difficidin. Both, non-ribosomal synthesis of cyclic lipopeptides and synthesis of polyketides are dependent on the presence of a functional sfp gene product, 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase, as evidenced by knockout mutation of the sfp gene resulting in complete absence of all those eight compounds. In addition, here we present evidence that a gene cluster encoding enzymes involved in synthesis and export of the antibacterial acting dipeptide bacilysin is also functional in FZB42. In summary, environmental FZB42 devoted about 340 kb, corresponding to 8.5% of its total genetic capacity, to synthesis of secondary metabolites useful to cope with other competing microorganisms present in the plant rhizosphere.

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    • "Many strains of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus amyloliuefaciens have been found to interact with plants and produce beneficial effects including disease suppression (Choudhary and Johri, 2009). The type strain of plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has been shown to produce a variety of secondary metabolites involved in microbial antagonism and thus supporting disease suppression of plants (Chen et al., 2009), and this also includes chitinase (Niazi et al., 2014). "
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    • "Many strains of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens have been found to interact with plants and produce beneficial effects including disease suppression (Choudhary and Johri, 2009). Plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens has been shown to produce a variety of secondary metabolites involved in microbial antagonism (Chen et al., 2009) and enzymes like chitinase (Niazi et al., 2014), thus supporting disease suppression in plants. "
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    • "Thus, endophytic B. amyloliquefaciens should be an ideal biocontrol agent against pathogens (Koumoutsi et al. 2004). The study of the complete genome of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 revealed that more than 8.5% of the genome is devoted to synthesizing various kinds of antibiotics and siderophores by pathways not involving ribosomes (Chen et al. 2009b). These results hint that B. amyloliquefaciens may have more ecological functions than has been previously suspected. "

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