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Filamentous Bacteriophage as a Novel Therapeutic Tool for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

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Antibodies towards the N-terminal region of the amyloid-beta peptide (AbetaP) bind to Abeta fibrils, leading to their disaggregation. We developed an immunization procedure using filamentous phages displaying the only four amino acids EFRH encompassing amino acids 3-6 of the 42 residues of AbetaP, found to be the main regulatory site for Abeta formation. Phages displaying EFRH epitope are effective in eliciting humoral response against AbetaP which, in turn, relieves amyloid burden in brains of amyloid-beta protein precursor transgenic mice, improving their ability to perform cognitive tasks. In order to overcome the low permeability of the blood brain barrier for targeting 'anti-aggregating' monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to Abeta plaques in the brain, we applied antibody engineering methods to minimize the size of mAbs while maintaining their biological activity. Single-chain antibodies displayed on the surface of filamentous phage showed the ability to enter the central nervous system (CNS). The genetically engineered filamentous bacteriophage proved to be an efficient, nontoxic viral delivery vector to the brain, offering an obvious advantage over other mammalian vectors. The feasibility of these novel strategies for production and targeting of anti-aggregating antibodies against Abeta plaques to disease affected regions in the CNS may have clinical potential for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
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... Using the B16-OVA tumor model, Eriksson et al. (2007) showed that phage displaying peptides and/or Fabs specific for tumor antigens delayed tumor growth and improved survival, owing in large part to activation of tumor-associated macrophages and recruitment of neutrophils to the tumor site (Eriksson et al., 2009). Phage displaying an scFv against β-amyloid fibrils showed promise as a diagnostic (Frenkel and Solomon, 2002) and therapeutic (Solomon, 2008) reagent for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease due to the unanticipated ability of the phage to penetrate into brain tissue (Ksendzovsky et al., 2012). Similarly, phage displaying an immunodominant peptide epitope derived from myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein depleted pathogenic demyelinating antibodies in brain tissue in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis (Rakover et al., 2010). ...
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