Multiple Cerebral and Cerebellar Infarcts as the First Clinical Manifestation in a Patient with Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review.
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare autoimmune disease with small-vessel vasculitis. Neurological manifestation of CSS is common. Central nervous system is less frequently involved than that of peripheral nervous system.
We report a case of 60-year-old man who presented with acute onset of right hemiparesis and impaired cognition. The presence of hypereosinophilia, asthma, sinusitis and extravascular eosinophil accumulation led to the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple infarcts in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. The neurophysiology study did not reveal peripheral neuropathy. The patient was effectively treated with methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and warfarin.
Symptoms and signs of central nervous system can be the initial neurological manifestation of CSS patients. CSS should be considered while patients have stroke and hypereosinophilia. In our patient, there is a good response to timely steroid, immunosuppressant and anticoagulant therapies.
Available from: Maurizio Balestrino
Available from: synapse.koreamed.org
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ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), previously called Churg-Strauss syndrome, is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis, accompanied by asthma, hypereosinophilia, nonfixed pulmonary infiltrates, and sinusitis. Peripheral neuropathy is common in patients with EGPA; however, a few cases of EGPA with central nervous system (CNS) involvement have been reported. A 45-year-old female referred for right side weakness and posterior neck pain was diagnosed as EGPA with subarachnoid hemorrhage and mononeuritis multiplex. She was effectively treated with a high dose glucocorticoid, cyclophosphamide, and intravenous immunoglobulin. EGPA with CNS involvement is uncommon and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore more rapid and accurate diagnostic evaluation may be required. EGPA should be considered in patients with neurological symptoms and hypereosinophilia.
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ABSTRACT: We report a case of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes occurring almost simultaneously in a patient diagnosed with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) previously known as Churg-Strauss vasculitis. To our knowledge, this is the first known case.
A 59-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of bilateral leg weakness, difficulty ambulating, and dyesthesias. While in the hospital, he developed acute right hand weakness, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple, bilateral ischemic infarcts. After a few days, he acutely became unresponsive and was found to have a large left frontal hematoma and underwent emergent hematoma evacuation. His weakness was unexplained by the infarcts based on location and so a peripheral process was suspected.
Nerve conduction studies showed severe axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. A sural nerve biopsy showed necrotizing vasculitis, consistent with EGPA.
EGPA is the rarest of the antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody vasculitides. The peripheral nervous system is frequently involved, but the central nervous system can also be affected. The vasculitis damages the vessel walls, which leads either to stenosis or to dilatation, resulting in ischemic or bleeding consequences which can occur simultaneously, such as in this case. Caution should be exercised when prescribing antiplatelet therapy to such patients.
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