Molecular genetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to aminoglycosides and cyclic peptide capreomycin antibiotics in Korea

Department of Research and Development, Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, 168-5 Osongsangmyung4ro, Osongup, Cheongwongun, Chungbuk, 363-954, Republic of Korea.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Formerly MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology) (Impact Factor: 1.78). 01/2013; 29(6). DOI: 10.1007/s11274-013-1256-x
Source: PubMed


Aminoglycosides are key drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. A total of 97 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and 29 pan-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Korean tuberculosis patients were analyzed to characterize mutations within the rrs, rpsL, gidB, eis and tlyA genes. Thirty (56.6 %) of the 53 streptomycin (STR)-resistant strains had a rpsL mutation and eight strains (15.1 %) had a rrs (514 or 908 site) mutation, whereas 11 (20.8 %) of the 53 STR-resistant strains had a gidB mutation without rpsL or either rrs mutation. Most of the gidB mutations conferred low-level STR resistance, and 22 of these mutations were novel. Mutation at position 1401 in rrs lead to resistance to kanamycin (80/95 = 84.2 %; KAN), amikacin (80/87 = 92.0 %; AMK), and capreomycin (74/86 = 86.0 %; CAP). In this study, 13.7 % (13/95) of KAN-resistant strains showed eis mutations, including 4 kinds of novel mutations. Isolates with eis structural gene mutations were cross-resistant to STR, KAN, CAP, and AMK. Here, 5.8 % (5/86) of the CAP-resistant strains harbored a tlyA mutation that included 3 different novel point mutations. Detection of the A1401G mutation appeared to be 100 % specific for the detection of resistance to KAN and AMK. These data establish the presence of phenotypic XDR strains using molecular profiling and are helpful to understanding of aminoglycoside resistance at the molecular level.

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Available from: Hum Nath Jnawali, Aug 13, 2015
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    • "These strains exhibited the high-level resistance to CAP with MIC greater than 64 μg/ml and did not contain the rrs mutation, indicating that these mutations were expectedly associated with CAP resistance [24]. Most recently, the T539G has been reported in capreomycin-resistant isolates in Korea but with low percentage (3 out of 86, 3.5%) [38]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) makes the treatment and control of tuberculosis difficult. Rapid detection of drug-resistant strains is important for the successful treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis; however, not all resistance mechanisms to the injectable second-line drugs such as amikacin (AK), kanamycin (KM), and capreomycin (CAP) are well understood. This study aims to validate the mechanisms associated with AK, KM, and CAP resistance in M. tuberculosis clinical strains isolated in Thailand. Results A total of 15,124 M. tuberculosis clinical strains were isolated from 23,693 smear-positive sputum samples sent from 288 hospitals in 46 of 77 provinces of Thailand. Phenotypic analysis identified 1,294 strains as MDR-TB and second-line drugs susceptibility was performed in all MDR-TB strains and revealed 58 XDR-TB strains. Twenty-nine KM-resistant strains (26 XDR-TB and 3 MDR-TB) could be retrieved and their genes associated with AK, KM, and CAP resistance were investigated compared with 27 KM-susceptible strains. Mutation of the rrs (A1401G) was found in 21 out of 29 KM-resistant strains whereas mutations of eis either at C-14 T or at G-37 T were found in 5 strains. Three remaining KM-resistant strains did not contain any known mutations. Capreomycin resistance was determined in 28 of 29 KM-resistant strains. Analysis of tlyA revealed that the A33G mutation was found in all CAP-resistant strains and also in susceptible strains. In contrast, the recently identified tlyA mutation T539G and the novel Ins49GC were found in two and one CAP-resistant strains, respectively. In addition, our finding demonstrated the insertion of cytosine at position 581 of the tap, a putative drug efflux encoding gene, in both KM-resistant and KM-susceptible strains. Conclusions Our finding demonstrated that the majority of KM resistance mechanism in Thai M. tuberculosis clinical strains was rrs mutation at A1401G. Mutations of the eis promoter region either at C-14 T or G-37 T was found in 5 of 29 strains whereas three strains did not contain any known mutations. For CAP resistance, 3 of 28 CAP-resistant strains contained either T539G or Ins49GC mutations at tlyA that might be associated with the resistant phenotype.
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    ABSTRACT: The aminoglycosides amikacin (AMK)/kanamycin (KAN) and the cyclic polypeptide capreomycin (CAP) are important injectable drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Cross-resistance among these drug classes occurs and information on the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), above the normal wild-type distribution, may be useful in identifying isolates that are still accessible to drug treatment. Isolates from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were subjected to DNA sequencing of the rrs (1400-1500 region) and tlyA genes. Sequencing data were compared with (i) conventional susceptibility testing at standard critical concentrations (CCs) on Middlebrook 7H11 agar and (ii) MGIT 960-based MIC determinations to assess the presence of AMK- and CAP-resistant mutants. Isolates with an rrs A1401G mutation showed high-level resistance to AMK (>20 mg/L) and decreased phenotypic susceptibility to CAP (MICs 10-15 mg/L). The MICs of CAP were below the bioavailability of the drug, which suggests that it may still be effective against multi- or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis [M(X)DR-TB]. Agar-based CC testing was found to be unreliable for resistance recognition of CAP in particular.
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