Immunohistochemical Staining of B7-H1 (PD-L1) on Paraffin-embedded Slides of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Tissue
The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.Journal of Visualized Experiments (Impact Factor: 1.33). 01/2013; DOI: 10.3791/4059
B7-H1/PD-L1, a member of the B7 family of immune-regulatory cell-surface proteins, plays an important role in the negative regulation of cell-mediated immune responses through its interaction with its receptor, programmed death-1 (PD-1) (1,2). Overexpression of B7-H1 by tumor cells has been noted in a number of human cancers, including melanoma, glioblastoma, and carcinomas of the lung, breast, colon, ovary, and renal cells, and has been shown to impair anti-tumor T-cell immunity(3-8). Recently, B7-H1 expression by pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues has been identified as a potential prognostic marker(9,10). Additionally, blockade of B7-H1 in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer has been shown to produce an anti-tumor response(11). These data suggest the importance of B7-H1 as a potential therapeutic target. Anti-B7-H1 blockade antibodies are therefore being tested in clinical trials for multiple human solid tumors including melanoma and cancers of lung, colon, kidney, stomach and pancreas(12). In order to eventually be able to identify the patients who will benefit from B7-H1 targeting therapies, it is critical to investigate the correlation between expression and localization of B7-H1 and patient response to treatment with B7-H1 blockade antibodies. Examining the expression of B7-H1 in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues through immunohistochemistry will give a better understanding of how this co-inhibitory signaling molecule contributes to the suppression of antitumor immunity in the tumor's microenvironment. The anti-B7-H1 monoclonal antibody (clone 5H1) developed by Chen and coworkers has been shown to produce reliable staining results in cryosections of multiple types of human neoplastic tissues(4,8), but staining on paraffin-embedded slides had been a challenge until recently(13-18). We have developed the B7-H1 staining protocol for paraffin-embedded slides of pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues. The B7-H1 staining protocol described here produces consistent membranous and cytoplasmic staining of B7-H1 with little background.
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ABSTRACT: Despite recent chemotherapeutic advances, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains a disease with a poor prognosis and few options. In other difficult to treat cancers, two immunotherapies have recently been approved. Approvals for ipilimumab (Yervoy®) for metastatic melanoma and sipuleucel-T (Provenge®) for castration-resistant prostate cancer offer new insights in this exciting and evolving field. A diverse number of treatment modalities are currently being explored in order to determine which will show efficacy in PDA. Suppressive tumor microenvironments and negative inhibitory signaling pathways contribute to tumor immune evasion. However, recent advances in understanding the complex interplay of tumor-specific T cells, immune checkpoints, and the identification of new biomarkers offer promise. In this review, we will discuss the most recent immunotherapy failures and successes, as well as future treatment strategies for PDA.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common solid tumors worldwide. Surgery is potentially curative, but high recurrence rates worsen patient prognosis. The interaction between the proteins programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an important immune checkpoint. The significance of PD-L1 expression and human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA class I), recognized by CD8 T cells, in the prognosis of patients with HCC remains to be determined. We assessed the levels of PD-L1 and HLA class I expression on HCC samples from 80 patients who had undergone hepatectomy at our institution, and evaluated the correlations between PD-L1 and HLA class I expression and patient prognosis. High HLA class I expression was correlated with significantly better recurrence-free survival (RFS), but not overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis showed that high HLA class I expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS. Low expression of PD-L1 on HCC tended to predict better OS, but the difference was not statistically significant. PD-L1 expression on HCC correlated with the number of CD163-positive macrophages and HLA class I expression with CD3-positive cell infiltration. Univariable and multivariable analyses showed that combined PD-L1 low/HLA class I high expression on HCCs was prognostic for improved OS and RFS. PD-L1 status may be a good predictor of prognosis in HCC patients with high HLA class I expression. Novel therapies targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway may improve the prognosis of patients with HCC.
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is considered a "nonimmunogenic" neoplasm. Single-agent immunotherapies have failed to demonstrate significant clinical activity in PDAC and other "nonimmunogenic" tumors, in part due to a complex tumor microenvironment (TME) that provides a formidable barrier to immune infiltration and function. We designed a neoadjuvant and adjuvant clinical trial comparing an irradiated, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting, allogeneic PDAC vaccine (GVAX) given as a single agent or in combination with low-dose cyclophosphamide to deplete regulatory T cells (Treg) as a means to study how the TME is altered by immunotherapy. Examination of resected PDACs revealed the formation of vaccine-induced intratumoral tertiary lymphoid aggregates in 33 of 39 patients 2 weeks after vaccine treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed these aggregates to be regulatory structures of adaptive immunity. Microarray analysis of microdissected aggregates identified gene-expression signatures in five signaling pathways involved in regulating immune-cell activation and trafficking that were associated with improved postvaccination responses. A suppressed Treg pathway and an enhanced Th17 pathway within these aggregates were associated with improved survival, enhanced postvaccination mesothelin-specific T-cell responses, and increased intratumoral Teff:Treg ratios. This study provides the first example of immune-based therapy converting a "nonimmunogenic" neoplasm into an "immunogenic" neoplasm by inducing infiltration of T cells and development of tertiary lymphoid structures in the TME. Post-GVAX T-cell infiltration and aggregate formation resulted in the upregulation of immunosuppressive regulatory mechanisms, including the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway, suggesting that patients with vaccine-primed PDAC may be better candidates than vaccine-naive patients for immune checkpoint and other immunomodulatory therapies.(C) 2014 AACR.
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