Phenylephrine-Induced Cardiomyocyte Injury Is Triggered by Superoxide Generation through Uncoupled Endothelial Nitric-Oxide Synthase and Ameliorated by 3-[2-[4-(3-Chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxyinda zole (DY-9836), a Novel Calmodulin Antagonist

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
Molecular pharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.13). 10/2008; 75(1):101-12. DOI: 10.1124/mol.108.050716
Source: PubMed


The pathophysiological relevance of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS)-induced superoxide production in cardiomyocyte injury after prolonged phenylephrine (PE) exposure remains unclear. The aims of this study were to define the mechanism of O2(*) production by uncoupled eNOS and evaluate the therapeutic potential of a novel calmodulin antagonist 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxyindazole (DY-9836) to rescue hypertrophied cardiomyocytes from PE-induced injury. In cultured rat cardiomyocytes, prolonged exposure for 96 h to PE led to translocation from membrane to cytosol of eNOS and breakdown of caveolin-3 and dystrophin. When NO and O2(*) production were monitored in PE-treated cells by 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein and dihydroethidium, respectively, Ca(2+)-induced NO production elevated by 5.7-fold (p < 0.01) after 48-h PE treatment, and the basal NO concentration markedly elevated (16-fold; p < 0.01) after 96-h PE treatment. On the other hand, the O2(*) generation at 96 h was closely associated with an increased uncoupled eNOS level. Coincubation with DY-9836 (3 microM) during the last 48 h inhibited the aberrant O2(*) generation nearly completely and NO production by 72% (p < 0.01) after 96 h of PE treatment and inhibited the breakdown of caveolin-3/dystrophin in cardiomyocytes. PE-induced apoptosis assessed by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining was also attenuated by DY-9836 treatment. These results suggest that O2(*) generation by uncoupled eNOS probably triggers PE-induced cardiomyocyte injury. Inhibition of abnormal O2(*) and NO generation by DY-9836 treatment represents an attractive therapeutic strategy for PE/hypertrophy-induced cardiomyocyte injury.

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    • "It has been shown that oxidative inhibition of cystathionine β-synthase occurs, leading to accumulation of intracellular homocysteine [37]. Previous studies have demonstrated the production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species PE in cardiomyocytes [38]. Therefore, it is possible that PE-induced increase of homocysteine concentrations may result from the oxidative inhibition of the cystathionine β-synthase, which will be determined in our future studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by phenylephrine (PE) is accompanied by suppression of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity, and copper (Cu) supplementation restores CCO activity and reverses the hypertrophy. The present study was aimed to understand the mechanism of PE-induced decrease in CCO activity. Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with PE at a final concentration of l00 µM in cultures for 72 h to induce cell hypertrophy. The CCO activity was determined by enzymatic assay and changes in CCO subunit COX-IV as well as copper chaperones for CCO (COX17, SCO2, and COX11) were determined by Western blotting. PE treatment increased both intracellular and extracellular homocysteine concentrations and decreased intracellular Cu concentrations. Studies in vitro found that homocysteine and Cu form complexes. Inhibition of the intracellular homocysteine synthesis in the PE-treated cardiomyocytes prevented the increase in the extracellular homocysteine concentration, retained the intracellular Cu concentration, and preserved the CCO activity. PE treatment decreased protein concentrations of the COX-IV, and the Cu chaperones COX17, COX11, and SCO2. These PE effects were prevented by either inhibition of the intracellular homocysteine synthesis or Cu supplementation. Therefore, PE-induced elevation of homocysteine restricts Cu availability through its interaction with Cu and suppression of Cu chaperones, leading to the decrease in CCO enzyme activity.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In situ DNA fragmentation was assessed using a TUNEL assay as previously described [20]. Images were recorded after counterstaining with TO-PRO3 (nuclei marker), and cardiac myocytes were identified by staining with anti-sarcomeric actinin (green). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II δB (CaMKIIδB) is one of the predominant isoforms of CaMKII in the heart. The precise role of CaMKIIδB in the transcriptional cross-talk of Ca²⁺-handling proteins during heart failure remains unclear. In this work, we aim to determine the mechanism of CaMKIIδB in modulating the expression of sarcolemmal Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchange (NCX1). We also aim to address the potential effects of calmodulin antagonism on the imbalance of NCX1 and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase (SERCA) during heart failure. Eight weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced heart failure in mice, we found that the heart weight/tibia length (HW/TL) ratio and the lung weight/body weight (LW/BW) ratio increased by 59% and 133%, respectively. We further found that the left ventricle-shortening fraction decreased by 40% compared with the sham-operated controls. Immunoblotting revealed that the phosphorylation of CaMKIIδB significantly increased 8 weeks after TAC-induced heart failure. NCX1 protein levels were also elevated, whereas SERCA2 protein levels decreased in the same animal model. Moreover, transfection of active CaMKIIδB significantly increased NCX1 protein levels in adult mouse cardiomyocytes via class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC)/myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2)-dependent signaling. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of calmodulin/CaMKIIδB activity improved cardiac function in TAC mice, which partially normalized the imbalance between NCX1 and SERCA2. These data identify NCX1 as a cellular target for CaMKIIδB. We also suggest that the CaMKIIδB-induced imbalance between NCX1 and SERCA2 is partially responsible for the disturbance of intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis and the pathological process of heart failure.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2011 · PLoS ONE
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    • "We have found that the novel calmodulin antagonist DY- 9760e can protect the heart from ischemic/reperfusion injury (Hashimoto et al., 2005) and that its active metabolite DY- 9836 prevents phenylephrine-induced injury to cultured cardiomyocytes (Lu et al., 2009a). It is more important that DY-9836 treatment totally inhibited aberrant NO production and superoxide generation by uncoupled eNOS after phenylephrine treatment of these cells (Lu et al., 2009a). We also found that DY-9760e treatment of cultured cardiomyocytes prevents ET-1-induced hypertrophy (Lu et al., 2009b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Using a heart ischemia/reperfusion model in rats, we recently demonstrated that 3-[2-[4-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-5,6-dimethoxy-1-(4-imidazolylmethyl)-1H-indazole dihydrochloride 3.5 hydrate (DY-9760e), a calmodulin inhibitor, is a cardioprotective drug. Here, we examined cardioprotective mechanisms of DY-9760e in hypertrophy and heart failure using a mouse transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model. Mice were subjected to TAC and 2 weeks later they were administered DY-9760e for another 6 weeks (at 10 or 20 mg/kg/day p.o.). Chronic administration inhibited TAC-induced increased heart-to-body weight ratio dose-dependently. Consistent with inhibition of hypertrophy, fraction shortening, an indicator of heart contractile function, assessed by echocardiography was completely restored by DY-9760e (20 mg/kg/day) administration. Inhibition of TAC-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) up-regulation further confirmed an antihypertrophic effect of DY-9760e. It is noteworthy that we found that breakdown of dystrophin and spectrin by calpain was associated with heart failure in TAC mice. Caveolin-3 breakdown was closely associated with endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) dissociation from the plasma membrane and its subsequent uncoupling. Uncoupled monomeric eNOS formation was associated with increased protein tyrosine nitration, suggesting peroxynitrite production and NO and superoxide formation. It is important to note that 6 weeks of DY-9760e treatment significantly blocked hypertrophic responses, such as increased heart weight and ANP induction. Overall, we show that inhibition of both dystrophin/spectrin breakdown and uncoupling of eNOS probably underlies the cardioprotective mechanisms of DY-9760e. The observed protection of sarcolemmal proteins and eNOS by DY-9760e during pressure overload suggests a novel therapeutic strategy to rescue the heart from hypertrophy-induced failure.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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