Article

A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

Matthew C. Farrelly, Brett R. Loomis, and G. Lance Couzens are with RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC. Beth Han and Joe Gfroerer are with the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD. Nicole Kuiper, Shanta Dube, and Ralph S. Caraballo are with the Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 01/2013; 103(3). DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300948
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:
We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking).

Methods:
We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels.

Results:
Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws.

Conclusions:
Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Ralph S Caraballo, Jul 25, 2014
    • "Finally, indoor clean air laws have been long discussed as a determinant factor of youth smoking (Tauras et al., 2005; Farrelly et al., 2013). These regulations have been in place in various cities, counties, and states since early 1990s by restricting smoking in workplaces, restaurants, or bars. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has contracted with states to perform random checks of tobacco retailers to identify illegal sales to youths. We test whether the inspections affect youth access and smoking for boys and girls. Using the 2010-2013 Monitoring the Future survey and data on the number and location of inspections in the first several years of the program, we find the checks have been successful at limiting access to cigarettes in small retail establishments. As for reducing smoking, we only observe reductions among girls. Boys continue to smoke with about the same incidence and intensity as before the inspections. The likely reason for this is that girls are generally more successful at purchasing illicit products at retail establishments while underage. Therefore, enforcing the minimum legal age laws for purchasing tobacco products likely curtails the access of girls to the illegal product.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
    • "This suggests that substance use prevention programmes and tobacco control programmes should target young people, as they are most at risk for smoking. Indeed, in the U.S., state-level tobacco control programmes were associated with substantial declines in several smoking-related behaviours among youth, including susceptibility, initiation, current smoking, and established smoking (Farrelly et al., 2013). Other effective strategies to reduce smoking among young people include web-based interventions (Simmons et al., 2013), technology-assisted interventions (Newman et al., 2011), and school/university-based interventions (Hutton et al., 2011; Lechner et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) often co-occur with smoking and tobacco use disorders. Each of these disorders is known to have negative health consequences and impairment independently, but little is known about the impact of their co-occurrence. The aim of the present study is to examine the prevalence, correlates, order of onset, and impact of co-occurring daily smoking, PTSD, and AUDs. Method: The 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (2007 NSMHWB) was a nationally representative survey of 8841 Australians. The survey assessed for 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders; the age respondents first started smoking daily, experienced a traumatic event, or developed problems with alcohol; and self-reported mental and physical health and impairment. Results: There were systematic patterns of co-occurrence between daily smoking, PTSD, and AUDs. Daily smoking and problems with alcohol use tended to develop after first trauma exposure, which is broadly consistent with the self-medication hypothesis. Daily smoking, PTSD, and AUDs were also associated with additive negative effects on mental and physical health and functioning, after controlling for demographics. Conclusions: Smoking, PTSD, and AUDs commonly co-occur in this nationally representative sample of Australian men and women, and this comorbidity was associated with greater severity of mental and physical health problems and impairment in several areas of functioning. This study highlights the importance of identifying and eliminating these patterns of co-occurrence, potentially through integrated interventions.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Drug and alcohol dependence
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In an effort to explore opportunities for cancer prevention during preadolescence and adolescence, the Cancer Prevention Across the Lifespan workgroup within the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened an informal panel of experts for a 2-day workshop August 9-10, 2011. In this report, we provide highlights from the workshop. A central theme of the workshop was that preadolescence and adolescence are times of unique susceptibility and vulnerability within the lifespan. Participants discussed the evidence linking exposures during adolescence (e.g., risky behaviors, chemicals, medical imaging procedures) and subsequent cancer risk during adulthood. Participants also discussed potential opportunities to intervene on risk factors for cancer at multiple levels during adolescence, the importance of more focused approaches to adequately address health disparities, and the ongoing need for transdisciplinary and translational prevention research. Future opportunities for the CDC include further leveraging surveillance data from sources such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Children's Study and continuing to build on collaborations with other federal agencies and with national, state, and local organizations. Many ideas and insights generated during the workshop will be put into action as CDC continues to explore opportunities for cancer prevention during youth and across the lifespan.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Adolescent Health
Show more