Nondiabetic kidney disease in type 2 diabetic patients: A single center experience
Department of Nephrology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Punjagutta, Hyderabad, India.Indian Journal of Nephrology 09/2012; 22(5):358-62. DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.103912
Nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD) is seen as a cause of proteinuria and renal failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The clinical differences between NDRD and diabetic glomerulosclerosis (DGS) are not clear. This study was done to find the spectrum of NDRD in type 2 DM patients and differences in clinical profile between NDRD and DGS patients. Data of patients with type 2 DM who underwent renal biopsy in this institute from 1990 to 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were categorized as isolated NDRD, NDRD with DGS, and isolated DGS. A total of 75 patients were included. Mean age was 45 ± 10.2 years, male to female ratio was 3.1 : 1, median duration of DM was 12 months (range, 1 year-15 years), proteinuria was 4.2 ± 3.4 g/day, and serum creatinine was 4.3 ± 3.9 mg/dl. Hypertension was observed in 63 (84%) cases and microscopic hematuria in 24 (32%) cases. Nephrotic syndrome (38.7%) was the commonest clinical presentation. Forty-eight (64%) cases had NDRD and 27 (36%) had DGS. The commonest NDRD was minimal change disease (12.5%). Three (6.3%) patients had lupus nephritis. Tubulointerstitial nephritis has been observed in 10.4% patients. No significant differences between NDRD and DGS patients were found except hypertension which was significantly high in the DGS group. Acute kidney injury and nephritic syndrome were not observed in the DGS group. In conclusion, the incidence of biopsy-proven NDRD in type 2 DM in this study was high. Kidney biopsy aided in the detection of NDRD in clinically suspected patients.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease all over the world. India has a high incidence and prevalence of diabetes and >30% have nephropathy. Recently, a histological classification has been proposed. This study analyzed the renal histology in 114 diabetic patients with renal dysfunction. Nearly 75% of patients had DN. Fifty five (63.95%) were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 7.04 ± 4.9 years. Mean serum creatinine in study group was 5.2 ± 2.9 mg/dl, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 23.43 ± 21.48 ml/min/1.732 m(2). Forty eight patients (55.81%) had diabetic retinopathy (DR); prevalence of DR was more in patients who had diabetes for > 10 years than patients who had diabetes for <6 years (P = 0.022). The most common histological class was Class IV observed in 37 (43.02. %) cases, Class III DN in 24 (27.90%) cases, Class IIa and Class IIb in 11 (12.79%) cases each and Class I DN in 3 (3.48%) cases. Higher histological class was associated with higher proteinuria, lower glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.001) and was more likely to be associated with retinopathy (P = 0.012) and hypertension (P = 0.0003) but did not correlate with duration of diabetes (P = 0.85). There was a poor correlation between retinopathy and DN. Biopsy helps to stage the renal lesions in diabetics with renal dysfunction.
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ABSTRACT: Aims: The indications for renal biopsy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are not well established. We investigated the prevalence, spectrum, and predictors of biopsy-proven non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) in T2D. Methods: An observational, single-center, retrospective study of T2D adults who underwent renal biopsies (N = 51) over 10 years for nephrotic-range proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, or rapidly declining renal function. Results: Thirty-five (68.6%) biopsies were diagnostic of NDRD, and 16 (31.4%) revealed isolated diabetic nephropathy. The most common NDRDs were interstitial nephritis (20%), progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis (14%), membranous nephropathy (11%), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (11%). The odds for NDRD declined by 97% in the presence of diabetic retinopathy (P < 0.001). The deterioration of HbA1c during the year before biopsy predicted NDRD even after adjusting for diabetic retinopathy (OR, 7.65; 95% CI, 1.36-123.04; P = 0.003). A model based on the interaction between the HbA1c values 12 months before biopsy and the absolute change in these values during the preceding year predicted NDRD with 73.7% sensitivity and 75% specificity (AUC, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-0.94). Conclusions: This study demonstrated a considerably high prevalence of NDRD in T2D adults undergoing renal biopsy. The absence of diabetic retinopathy, lower HbA1c values 12 months before biopsy and greater deterioration in HbA1c prior to biopsy predicted NDRD in T2D. Further studies are needed to validate the findings.
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