population (14% among cases) diminishes the possibil-
ity that HBV/HCV status, the primary risk factor of
liver cancer in other populations, may confound our
results. Moreover, when we performed sensitivity anal-
yses excluding the few subjects who were positive for
chronic infection of HBV and HCV, the associations
between serum CML-AGE or sRAGE and liver cancer
did not change. Finland is known to have among the
lowest prevalence of HBV and HCV in the world. In
the general population of Finland, the prevalence of
HBV and HCV are 0.2% and <2%, respectively,
which is similar to that of the ATBC study.
In conclusion, the ﬁndings from our prospective
study among Finnish male smokers support the hy-
pothesis that sRAGE may be protective against liver
cancer. Our results, particularly the unexpected inverse
association observed with serum levels of CML-AGE,
warrant examination in other populations.
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