The prevalence and ingredient cost of chronic comorbidity in the Irish elderly population with medication treated type 2 diabetes: A retrospective cross-sectional study using a national pharmacy claims database

BMC Health Services Research (Impact Factor: 1.71). 01/2013; 13(1):23. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-23
Source: PubMed


Comorbidity in patients with diabetes is associated with poorer health and increased cost. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and ingredient cost of comorbidity in patients ≥ 65 years with and without medication treated type 2 diabetes using a national pharmacy claims database.

The Irish Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Service pharmacy claims database, which includes all prescribing to individuals covered by the General Medical Services scheme, was used to identify the study population (≥ 65 years). Patients with medication treated type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were identified using the prescription of oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents alone or in combination with insulin as a proxy for disease diagnosis. The prevalence and ingredient prescribing cost of treated chronic comorbidity in the study population with and without medication treated T2DM were ascertained using a modified version of the RxRiskV index, a prescription based comorbidity index. The association between T2DM and comorbid conditions was assessed using logistic regression adjusting for age and sex. Bootstrapping was used to ascertain the mean annual ingredient cost of treated comorbidity. Statistical significance at p < 0.05 was assumed.

In 2010, 43165 of 445180 GMS eligible individuals (9.7%) were identified as having received medication for T2DM. The median number of comorbid conditions was significantly higher in those with T2DM compared to without (median 5 vs. 3 respectively; p < 0.001). Individuals with T2DM were more likely to have ≥ 5 comorbidities when compared to those without (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 2.76-2.88, p < 0.0001). The mean annual ingredient cost for comorbidity was higher in the study population with T2DM (€1238.67, 95% CI = €1238.20 - €1239.14) compared to those without the condition (€799.28, 95% CI = €799.14 - € 799.41).

Individuals with T2DM were more likely to have a higher number of treated comorbid conditions than those without and this was associated with higher ingredient costs. This has important policy and economic consequences for the planning and provision of future health services in Ireland, given the expected increase in T2DM and other chronic conditions.

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Available from: Kathleen Bennett, Sep 08, 2014
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    • "Claims data are reliable, longitudinal, cover a large population and are widely used in epidemiological, health services and outcome research e.g. [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Quantifying the burden of diabetes mellitus is fundamental for managing patients in health service delivery systems and improves the understanding of the importance of prevention and early intervention of diabetes. In Switzerland, epidemiological data on diabetes are very scarce. In this study we provide a first national overview of the current situation of diabetes mellitus in Switzerland as well as the development of the prevalence, incidence, mortality and costs between 2006 and 2011. Methods Using health care claims data of a large health insurance group, current epidemiology and costs were determined from a sample of adult enrollees in 2011. The identification of patients with diabetes was based on prescription data of diabetes related drugs using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification as proxy for clinical diagnosis. We further evaluated changes in epidemiology and costs between 2006 and 2011. All results were weighted with census data to achieve an extrapolation to the Swiss general population level. Results A total of 920’402 patients were enrolled in 2011 and 49’757 (5.4%) were identified as diabetes cases. The extrapolated overall prevalence of diabetes in Switzerland was 4.9% (2006, 3.9%). The incidence was 0.58% in 2011 (2007, 0.63%). The extrapolated mortality rate was 2.6% with no significant change over time. Annual diabetes costs to the mandatory health insurance increased from EUR 5,036 per patient in 2006 to EUR 5’331 per patient in 2011. Conclusions This study shows a high medical and economic burden of diabetes. The prevalence and costs of diabetes in Switzerland increased substantially over time. Findings stress the need for public health strategies to manage patients with chronic conditions and optimize resource allocation in health service delivery systems.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Endocrine Disorders
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    • "New drugs, which had not been developed and thus were not commercially available in the past years, were not included in the model. Furthermore, previous studies claimed the possibility of an exact differentiation between specific diseases via ATC code [12,19-21]. For example beta-blockers and diuretics were assigned to the category “hypertension” [19,22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Quantifying population health is important for public health policy. Since national disease registers recording clinical diagnoses are often not available, pharmacy data were frequently used to identify chronic conditions (CCs) in populations. However, most approaches mapping prescribed drugs to CCs are outdated and unambiguous. The aim of this study was to provide an improved and updated mapping approach to the classification of medications. Furthermore, we aimed to give an overview of the proportions of patients with CCs in Switzerland using this new mapping approach. The database included medical and pharmacy claims data (2011) from patients aged 18 years or older. Based on prescription drug data and using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system, patients with CCs were identified by a medical expert review. Proportions of patients with CCs were calculated by sex and age groups. We constructed multiple logistic regression models to assess the association between patient characteristics and having a CC, as well as between risk factors (diabetes, hyperlipidemia) for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD as one of the most prevalent CCs. A total of 22 CCs were identified. In 2011, 62% of the 932[prime]612 subjects enrolled have been prescribed a drug for the treatment of at least one CC. Rheumatologic conditions, CVD and pain were the most frequent CCs. 29% of the persons had CVD, 10% both CVD and hyperlipidemia, 4% CVD and diabetes, and 2% suffered from all of the three conditions. The regression model showed that diabetes and hyperlipidemia were strongly associated with CVD. Using pharmacy claims data, we developed an updated and improved approach for a feasible and efficient measure of patients' chronic disease status. Pharmacy drug data may be a valuable source for measuring population's burden of disease, when clinical data are missing. This approach may contribute to health policy debates about health services sources and risk adjustment modelling.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether the type of comorbid condition affects medication persistence and adherence in patients initiating oral anti-hyperglycaemic (OAH) therapy. The Irish Health Services Executive pharmacy claims database was used to identify a cohort of incident OAH therapy users (anatomical therapeutic chemical A10B), ≥25 years, between June 2009 and December 2010. Persistence and adherence were examined at 6 and 12 months post-therapy initiation. Comorbidity was ascertained using modified versions of the RxRisk and RxRisk-V indices and classified as either concordant or discordant with diabetes. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were determined in relation to comorbidity using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, gender and type of OAH prescribed. In the study cohort (n = 21 280), persistence was 74.0% and 62.6% and adherence was 70.0% and 66.7% for all OAHs at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Patients with only concordant comorbidity were significantly more likely to be persistent at 6 (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.28, 1.65) and 12 months (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.09, 1.38). Patients with only discordant comorbidity were significantly less likely to be persistent at 6 (OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.35, 0.46) and 12 months (OR 0.43 95%CI 0.38, 0.50) (p < 0.0001). Results were similar for adherence. The study suggests that the persistence and adherence of OAH therapy in incident users are affected by the type of comorbidity present; this may help in identifying effective interventions aimed at optimising medication use. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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