Residualization of Hatchery Steelhead: A Meta-Analysis of Hatchery Practices

Fisheries Centre (FC), University of British Columbia - Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
North American Journal of Fisheries Management (Impact Factor: 0.95). 10/2012; 32(5):905-921. DOI: 10.1080/02755947.2012.711269


Freshwater residualization, whereby anadromous juvenile salmonids fail to emigrate seawards within the primary migration period, causes considerable economic and ecological management concern. Previous studies have attempted to identify possible factors contributing to residualization, including both fish-related and release methodology-related attributes, in order to develop measures to reduce it. Here, we synthesize 48 previous estimates of the residualization rates of hatchery-reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from 16 studies and evaluate the cross-study effects of several factors that can be controlled by hatchery managers. The proportion of fish in hatchery release groups that residualized ranged from 0% to 17% (average, 5.6%). Characteristics of the release process were dominant in affecting residualization rates, while characteristics of individual steelhead primarily determined which, but not how many, individuals residualized. Releases of fewer fish and those located closer to the ocean or to a confluence with a major river produced fewer residuals than larger releases located further upstream. Acclimation ponds also appeared to reduce residualization, but there was no evidence of a release date effect across locations and years. Within a release year, individuals from endemic broodstock had higher residualization rates than those from hatchery-propagated broodstock while smaller individuals and larger males were more likely to residualize than individuals of intermediate size (similar to 213 mm fork length). To meet management objectives of reducing steelhead residualization, we recommend releases closer to an ocean or large river, particularly for releases of relatively few fish, in conjunction with the use of acclimation ponds. Management effort should focus on selective harvesting of hatchery residuals, a process which may be supported by rearing and release strategies. These objectives may trade off with conservation objectives; straying risk and genetic effects should especially be taken into account.

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Available from: Michael Melnychuk
    • "Melnychuk, unpublished data), and by tailoring release times to avoid seasonal periods of predator aggregations (Mace 1983; Wood 1987). Other release strategies can be used to help reduce the frequency of residualization (Hausch and Melnychuk 2012) and to reduce potential impacts on wild populations (Naish et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: We observed large survival differences between wild and hatchery-reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the juvenile downstream migration immediately after release, which persisted through adult life. Following a railway spill of sodium hydroxide into the Cheakamus River, British Columbia, a short-term conservation hatchery rearing program was implemented for steelhead. We used acoustic telemetry and mark-recapture models to estimate survival of wild and (or) hatchery-reared steelhead during 4 years of the smolt migration, with both groups released in 2008. After adjusting for estimated freshwater residualization, 7%-13% of wild smolts and 30%-40% of hatchery smolts died in the first 3 km of the migration. Estimated survival from release to ocean entry was 71%-84% for wild fish and 26%-40% for hatchery fish and to exit from the Strait of Georgia system was 22%-33% for wild fish and 3.5%-6.7% for hatchery fish. A calculated 2.3-fold survival difference established during the downstream migration was similar to that after the return of adult spawners, as return rates were 8.0% for wild fish and 4.1% for hatchery fish. Contrary to current understanding, a large proportion of salmon mortality in the smolt-to-adult period, commonly termed "marine mortality", may actually occur prior to ocean entry.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • "Alternately, Sharpe et al. (2007) found that increasing the growth rates of smaller fish during rearing reduced residualism rates, but completely eliminating this life history strategy in a hatchery population, particularly those using natural-origin broodstock, is unlikely. However, the characteristics of release methodology are important in determining a population's residualism rate (Hausch and Melnychuk 2012). Compared with a forced release strategy (i.e., all fish released on a predetermined date), a volitional release strategy focuses on allowing only those fish demonstrating migratory tendencies to enter the natural environment. "
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    ABSTRACT: We classified juvenile hatchery summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss released from Wells Hatchery, Washington, from three brood years (2002–2004) as those that migrated volitionally (VM) from rearing ponds or as those that were forced out of rearing ponds after volitional migration concluded (NM). Fish were implanted with PIT tags prior to release and we used recreational angling equipment to recapture tagged fish to estimate the relative contribution rates of VM and NM release groups to the stream-resident population of juvenile hatchery summer steelhead in the Twisp River. We also evaluated the survival for each group from release to McNary Dam, and from release to adult return (SAR) at Bonneville and Wells dams on the Columbia River. Overall, we estimated that 82% of stream-resident hatchery juvenile summer steelhead originated from releases of NM fish. The probability of survival from release to McNary Dam was significantly greater for VM groups (mean, 0.4817; SE, 0.023) than for NM groups (mean, 0.2182; SE, 0.021) within each year. The mean SAR to Bonneville and Wells dams was 1.54% and 1.26%, respectively, for VM fish and 0.37% and 0.32%, respectively, for NM fish; the differences were significant between groups within each year. As an index of release strategy performance, VM releases resulted in one stream-resident fish recaptured for every 7.8 adults returned, while NM releases produced one stream-resident fish recaptured for every 0.48 adults returned. These results suggest that managers employ a volitional release strategy to significantly reduce the abundance of stream-resident juvenile hatchery steelhead by not releasing NM fish into waters inhabited by anadromous fishes, thereby reducing negative ecological interactions between hatchery residual steelhead and wild salmonids at little cost to adult returns.Received February 25, 2013; accepted July 8, 2013
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · North American Journal of Fisheries Management
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    ABSTRACT: When rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fry (underyearlings) were introduced into laboratory channels at three different prey levels and permitted to emigrate voluntarily, their density remained highest at the highest prey level. The distribution of fry was positively associated with a gradient in prey abundance. Both territory size and frequency of aggressive encounter varied inversely with prey level; the higher the prey level, the smaller the territory and the lower the frequency of aggressive encounter. Emigration from the channels was neither as rapid nor as marked when prey level was reduced, compared to when fry were initially introduced to different prey levels. However, frequency of aggressive encounter significantly increased when the prey level was decreased and significantly decreased when the prey was increased.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011
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