Boost First, Eliminate Systematic Error, and Individualize CTV to PTV Margin When Treating Pelvic Lymph Nodes in High-Risk Prostate Cancer
Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. Radiotherapy and Oncology
(Impact Factor: 4.36).
11/2008; 90(3):353-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.radonc.2008.09.021
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the movement of the planning target volume (PTV) in relation to the pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) during treatment of high-risk prostate cancer.
We reviewed the daily treatment course of ten consecutively treated patients with high-risk prostate cancer. PLNs were included in the initial PTV for each patient. Daily on-board imaging of gold fiducial markers implanted in the prostate was used; daily couch shifts were made as needed and recorded. We analyzed how the daily couch shifts impacted the dose delivered to the PLN.
A PLN clinical target volume was identified in each man using CT-based treatment planning. At treatment planning, median minimum planned dose to the PLN was 95%, maximum 101%, and mean 97%. Daily couch shifting to prostate markers degraded the dose slightly; median minimum dose to the PLN was 92%, maximum, 101%, and mean delivered, 96%. We found two cases, where daily systematic shifts resulted in an underdosing of the PLN by 9% and 29%, respectively. In other cases, daily shifts were random and led to a mean 2.2% degradation of planned to delivered PLN dose.
We demonstrated degradation of the delivered dose to PLN PTV, which may occur if daily alignment only to the prostate is considered. To improve PLN PTV, it maybe preferable to deliver the prostate/boost treatment first, and adapt the PTV of the pelvic/nodal treatment to uncertainties documented during prostate/boost treatment.
Available from: Jeroen B van de Kamer
- "Rossi et al. show that a considerable degradation of the delivered dose to the pelvic lymph nodes might occur when on-line position correction is applied based on the prostate position . They propose to start the treatment with the execution of the boost plan. "
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ABSTRACT: The application of lipiodol injections as markers around bladder tumors combined with the use of CBCT for image guidance enables daily on-line position correction based on the position of the bladder tumor. However, this might introduce the risk of underdosing the pelvic lymph nodes. In this study several correction strategies were compared.
For this study set-up errors and tumor displacements for ten complete treatments were generated; both were based on the data of 10 bladder cancer patients. Besides, two IMRT plans were made for 20 patients, one for the elective field and a boost plan for the tumor. For each patient 10 complete treatments were simulated. For each treatment the dose was calculated without position correction (option 1), correction on bony anatomy (option 2), on tumor only (option 3) and separately on bone for the elective field (option 4). For each method we analyzed the D99% for the tumor, bladder and lymph nodes and the V95% for the small intestines, rectum, healthy part of the bladder and femoral heads.
CTV coverage was significantly lower with options 1 and 2. With option 3 the tumor coverage was not significantly different from the treatment plan. The DeltaD99% (D99%, option n - D99%, treatment plan) for option 4 was small, but significant. For the lymph nodes the results from option 1 differed not significantly from the treatment plan. The median DeltaD99% of the other options were small, but significant. DeltaD99% for PTVbladder was small for options 1, 2 and 4, but decreased up to -8.5 Gy when option 3 was applied. Option 4 is the only method where the difference with the treatment plan never exceeds 2 Gy. The V95% for the rectum, femoral heads and small intestines was small in the treatment plan and this remained so after applying the correction options, indicating that no additional hot spots occurred.
Applying independent position correction on bone for the elective field and on tumor for the boost separately gives on average the best target coverage, without introducing additional hot spots in the healthy tissue.
Available from: Morten Høyer
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ABSTRACT: Successful deformable image registration is an essential component of both dose accumulation and plan adaptation in radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a deformable image registration application for propagation of contours using repeat CT scans of the pelvis, a region where considerable deformations are expected.
The study involved four prostate cancer patients, each with 9-11 repeat CT scans. An oncologist contoured bladder, rectum, clinical target volume of pelvic lymph nodes (CTV-ln) and prostate (CTV-p) in all CT scans. The reference CT was retrospectively registered to the repeat CT scans with both rigid and deformable registration using a recently released commercial clinical software application. Two different diffusion-based 'demons' deformable registration algorithms were applied, differing in the amount of deformations being allowed, with algorithm A being more generous than algorithm B. The evaluation of the propagated structures included both quantitative measures and qualitative scoring.
We found the differences between the algorithms to be most evident for bladder and rectum. An increase in mean Dice similarity coefficient relative the rigid registrations of 12% and 13% was obtained with algorithm A for bladder and rectum, compared to 2% with algorithm B. For bladder the mean sensitivity and positive predictive value was 0.92 and 0.87 with algorithm A and 0.82 and 0.83 with algorithm B. Corresponding values for rectum was 0.81 and 0.76 with algorithm A and 0.75 and 0.69 with algorithm B. This translated into 57% and 26% passing the clinical evaluation for bladder and rectum, with algorithm A, compared to 17% and 14% with algorithm B. For CTV-ln and CTV-p both algorithms performed well by all measures, e.g. with 86% of the target structures passing the clinical evaluation.
Deformable image registration improved contour propagation in the pelvis for all organs investigated. Differences in the performance of the algorithms were seen which became more pronounced for the highly deformable organs of bladder and rectum.
Available from: Lise Bentzen
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ABSTRACT: Uncorrelated motion of targets and large deformations of organs at risk represent challenges for image-guidance in simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiotherapy (RT) of pelvic tumour sites. This study aims to evaluate the robustness towards geometrical uncertainties in prostate cancer using two image-guided RT (IGRT) set-up strategies for two SIB delivery methods. Secondly, we evaluate the ability of geometrical parameters to predict when the applied margins are insufficient, resulting in target underdosage (TUD).
The study included nine patients with eight to nine repeat computed tomography (CT)-scans evenly distributed throughout their treatment course. The prostate target (CTV-p) and the lymph node target including seminal vesicles (CTV-ln/sv) were delineated in all scans. SIB treatment plans for intensity-modulated RT and volumetric modulated arc therapy were generated on the planning CT and transferred to the repeat CTs for dose re-calculation using registration based on either anatomy or intra-prostatic fiducial markers. Receiving operator characteristic analysis was used to deduce the ability of the parameters to predict TUD.
The dosimetric differences between the two positioning strategies were small for all parameters evaluated and significant only for the dose to rectum. Anatomy based registration resulted in inferior target coverage with a larger number of TUDs, mostly seen in the seminal vesicles. For both targets the highest sensitivity and specificity of predicting TUD was seen for the relative volume and the lowest was found for the displacement vector.
Positioning based on fiducials gave the best trade-off between coverage of the targets although resulting in the highest dose to rectum. Target underdosage occurred mostly in the seminal vesicles. For both targets, the best parameter to predict TUD was the relative volume.
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