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edsocsac 69 Abstract—This article proposes an open flexible and composable framework for the development, the delivery and the presentation of t-learning courses in interactive digital TV (iDTV). The framework is divided into two main parts: the production side, where the course is prepared and the client side, where it is presented on iDTV, and where the user can perform the educational interaction. The course production is supported by an ad-hoc designed authoring tool, while the runtime user interaction on iDTV is managed by a multimedia course player providing personalization services and a library of educational and entertainment elements and services.
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1558-7908 © 2008 IEEE Education Society Students Activities Committee (EdSocSAC)
Abstract—This article proposes an open flexible and
composable framework for the development, the delivery and the
presentation of t-learning courses in interactive digital TV (iDTV).
The framework is divided into two main parts: the production side,
where the course is prepared and the client side, where it is
presented on iDTV, and where the user can perform the
educational interaction. The course production is supported by an
ad-hoc designed authoring tool, while the runtime user interaction
on iDTV is managed by a multimedia course player providing
personalization services and a library of educational and
entertainment elements and services.
Index Terms— authoring tool, iDTV, MHP, t-learning
elevision has had a long history of performing an
educational function for the mass audience, typically by
broadcasting culturally-relevant movies, documentaries and
news as well as educational programs. The idea of Distance
Learning through a TV blossomed extensively in particular as a
complementary educational option besides PC-based e-learning
and traditional analogue TV educational programs. In particular,
TV-based interactive education promises a huge potential due
This work was supported by ELU (Enhanced Learning Unlimited) project,
which is funded by the European Commission.
Francesco Bellotti is with the ELIOS Lab, Department of Biophysical and
Electronic Engineering (DIBE), University of Genoa (e-mail:
Stefanos Vrochidis is working as a Research Associate within the
Informatics and Telematics Institute, Thessaloniki, Greece, (e-mail:
Eirini Parissi is working as a Research Assistant within the Informatics and
Telematics Institute, Thessaloniki, Greece, (e-mail:
Pascal Lhoas, Master in IT, is working as a project manager within the
Center of IT Innovation of the Public Research Center Henri Tudor,
Luxembourg (
Damien Mathevon is with the Center of IT innovation as engineer
specialized in multimedia and iDTV within the Public Research Center Henri
Tudor, Luxembourg (
Matteo Pellegrino is a PhD student in the ELIOS Lab, Department of
Biophysical and Electronic Engineering (DIBE), University of Genoa (e-mail:
Giancarlo Bo is with the Giunti Labs S.r.l., Sestri Levante, Italy (e-mail:
Ioannis Kompatsiaris is working as a Senior Researcher within the
Informatics and Telematics Institute, Thessaloniki, Greece, (e-mail:
Publisher Identification Number 1558-7908-062008-04
to its ability to support interactivity, while compensating for the
low penetration of Internet-enabled computers in comparison
with the penetration of a TV in a household.
“T-learning” was the new term, which prevailed for the
definition of TV-based interactive learning [1]. The first forms
of learning with interactive digital TV (iDTV) have been little
more than modified or enhanced videoconferencing. Today,
iDTV platforms for learning provide a large amount of
audiovisual and educational content to the viewer through
interactive and content personalization. iDTV is considered as
the convergence of television and computer technologies by
encompassing three important features typical of
computer-based technologies [2], such as interactivity,
personalization and digitization.
Digital television mostly relies on the Digital Video
Broadcasting (DVB) standard, characterized as DVB-T for
terrestrial, DVB-S for Satellite and DVB-C for Cable
transmissions. DVB has been defined by a consortium of public
and private organizations in the iDTV sector [3].
In the DVB schema, the digital TV signal is transmitted as a
stream of MPEG-2 data known as a transport stream. This
stream consists of a set of sub-streams (elementary streams),
where each sub-stream can contain MPEG-2 encoded audio,
MPEG-2 encoded video or data encapsulated in MPEG-2
Fig. 1: overall broadcasting system for digital TV.
Subsequently, the transport stream is passed to the
multiplexer and then to a Radio Frequency (RF) transmitter in
order to be broadcasted. The overall broadcasting system for
digital TV is illustrated in Figure 1. The received signal is
demodulated and afterwards it has to be decoded appropriately.
The common TV sets are manufactured to deal with analogue
signals. Hence, a device called Set Top Box (STB) is used to
transform the digital signal. Moreover, it also provides a
middleware, based on an embedded Operating System (OS),
F. Bellotti, S. Vrochidis, E. Parissi, P. Lhoas, D. Mathevon, M. Pellegrino, G. Bo and I. Kompatsiaris
A T-learning Courses Development and
Presentation Framework
1558-7908 © 2008 IEEE Education Society Students Activities Committee (EdSocSAC)
which is an execution environment for running the interactive
applications that are broadcast in a channel together with the
main audiovisual stream. Execution environments are standard
and the most common are: the European Multimedia Home
Platform (MHP), the American Open Cable Application
Platform (OCAP) and DTV Application Software Environment
(DASE), the Japanese STD-B23/STD-B24. Since MHP is the
standard in Europe and a subset of it, the Globally Executable
MHP (GEM), is becoming the common reference world-wide,
in this article we focus on MHP.
MHP is the middleware system for interactive TV
development designed by the DVB Project [4]. The first draft of
MHP was released in August 1999 and the first version of MHP
1.0 was approved by DVB in February 2000. MHP offers a
standard platform for application developers. Applications are
written in Java and HTML, so they don't depend on any single
hardware platform or operating system. Due to the iDTV’s
special context, MHP-Java applications are slightly different
from normal Java applications. However due to the similarities
with Java applets, MHP-Java applications are called Xlets.
On the one hand, MHP Java limitations are mainly related to
the constraints given by the STB’s hardware and OS in terms of
computational power, memory size, storage, communication
facilities, screen resolution, font and colour availability and
their size is severely constrained by the limited bandwidth
available. On the other hand, MHP provides support for those
special features which are essential in the digital TV world such
as low-level access to the transport stream, service information
access, and support for the specialized graphics model of the
digital TV. MHP can be extensively exploited by t-learning as it
offers the proper middleware for learning interactive
Fig. 2: General Framework for the development and delivery of a t-learning
The purpose of this article is to propose an open flexible
platform for the development of t-learning courses by exploiting
the available iDTV technologies in a pedagogical way.
The article is organized as follows: section II presents the
proposed framework, the t-learning course structure and the
main components involved. Subsequently, section III describes
the development of t-learning courses, by analyzing the
authoring tool, while section IV deals with the client side, where
the Course Multimedia Player is presented. Eventually, section
V concludes the paper.
A. General Framework
The proposed architecture, which is illustrated in Figure 2 is
split in two parts: the production side where the content is
prepared and the receiver side where the course is presented to
the viewer through the appropriate terminal.
The production side is the area where the course content is
created. As the course development is based on the requirement
of reusability, the content is structured in the appropriate format
so it is playable by a Course Multimedia Player which is also
transmitted with the course package.
The educational A/V stream for the t-learning course is built
by a TV producer, while the contents are developed in the
authoring tool by the educators. The content including games,
images and text is used for the development of personalized
courses and can be retrieved from a server where learning
resources are stored. Eventual A/V-application synchronization
is achieved with the aid of authoring tool as well, where the
content created is matched on specific time stamps inserted in
the A/V stream. Subsequently, the A/V stream is fed into the
MPEG2 encoder while the content produced by the authoring
tool and the Course Player Xlet are inserted into the object
carousel. In this way the sub-streams are constructed and then
multiplexed to form the final transport stream, which is
The signal is received at the receiver side and processed by
the STB where the A/V stream and the applications are restored
from the transport stream. The Xlet that contains the t-learning
course runs on the STB MHP middleware presenting the
content of the course. The existence of an Internet IP return
channel on the STB allows the use of on-demand features.
Through this return channel it is possible to send requests
regarding the retrieval of additional learning resources as well
as information about the viewer in order to support more
advanced personalization features.
B. T-learning Course Structure
The course creation is based on the structure of a Learning
Object (LO) [5]. A Learning Object can be defined as both the
basic unit of a learning experience and as a small, atomic chunk
of learning that can be reused in different context. In other
words, the LO structure is actually an aggregation of items,
which grants a customizable and flexible reuse.
Following this definition and by adopting the LO model
specifically developed for t-learning courses, it is possible to
integrate several multimedia components and thus create
educational material and content suitable for distribution
through an iDTV infrastructure. Thanks to this model the
content author can manage separately the various components,
as well as the parameters that define their behavior, and then
generate in a simple way the final LO (course) in the form of an
XML script.
1558-7908 © 2008 IEEE Education Society Students Activities Committee (EdSocSAC)
This XML script describes the t-learning course and is
interpreted at runtime by the Course Multimedia Player on the
STB. It is Object Oriented, which is close to human reasoning,
easy to agree and specify. Moreover, Object Orientation is well
supported through powerful development tools (e.g. UML). The
script is event-oriented as well, which is particularly suited for
the TV environment, where an application may be synchronized
with the underlying A/V stream.
The main objects nested in the script are called cards and can
contain either a multimedia page (MPage) , which may consist
of texts, images, audios and buttons accompanied by the TV
stream in various formats (e.g. inside a quarter frame), or an
interactive edutainment unit, such as a game. As multimedia
page is considered a normal page that could appear in the TV
screen while games include quizzes, puzzles and so on.
In order to support reusability, the above items (Mpage and
games) are implemented as specific templates, which are fully
configurable in terms of contents and appearence. These
templates can thus be instantiated one or more time in a course.
Configuration files also support personalization. That is, the
properties of a single template instance can further be
parametrized according to the dynamic (i.e. evolving even
during the course) profile of the end-user. This is achieved
through the introduction of parametrical tags that can be
parameterized by the course content author on the parameters
defined by the Personalizer’s module which is described in the
next section.
The XML script specifies the cards that constitute a course,
their content (in terms of the above mentioned templates), and
their time scheduling, since several of them may be
synchronized with the A/V stream., Synchronization is
expressed in terms of time triggers that are inserted in the A/V
stream and are able to trigger relevant cards, as it is specified in
the script.
The script also contains information about global variables,
that can be defined by the author and serve to store, for the
whole length of a course, course-specific information that are
typically used to schedule the triggering of the cards according
to the preferences, needs and/or other parameters of the current
Finally, through the script the course author can also
specificy the aspect and the functionalities of the navigation bar,
which is displayed as a stripe at the bottom (or top) of the screen
and is controlled through the 4 iDTV colour buttons (red, green,
yellow, blue). Sample functionalities can be offered by the
navigation bar include: personalization settings, choice of
course categories, exit/hiding/restoring of cards, helps, further
info, other advanced services. Functionalities are grouped in 4
clusters, each one of which is mapped to (and accessed through,
by end-users) one the four coloured buttons. A course may have
several different navigation bar configurations that change
dynamically during the course itself (e.g. in different cards,
different categories, when no card is on display) in order to
provide the most suited, context-aware support. These different
configurations are to be specified by the author in the course
C. Multimedia Page
A multimedia page is the most common item used in a card to
create a course. It allows the content creator to freely locate
static assets as titles, pictures, text zones and also interactive
assets as buttons.
Figure 3 shows a multimedia page displayed by transparency
on a full screen TV-program.
The Mpage is template-based in order to allow reusability.
Such page can be shown at runtime by using the specific
MHP-java classes which read the respective property file. The
property file supports the customization and the personalization
of the page including text fonts, text boxes size and location, etc.
A sample Mpage as it presented to the viewer through the
iDTV screen is illustrated in 0.
Figure 3: Instance of a Multimedia Page.
D. Interactive Edutainment units
Games in iDTV could play an important role in t-learning
although today are used mostly for entertainment. Nowadays, a
considerable number of games exist for iDTV, covering various
categories, such as arcade, adventure, puzzle and educational
games. Quizzes, multiple-choice and memory games could
increase the interest of the viewer-learner supporting the
concept of relaxed-learning that seems suited to TV.
T-learning has the ambition of creating educational games for
a wide range of users, in particular those with limited attitude to
computers. The games are considered as an integral part of a
t-learning course as they could support the learning procedure
involving a wide audience through challenges and engaging
activities that are anyway able to meet the typical user need for
relax and sympathy.
The games that can be included in a course are based on
specific configurable templates and form a Java class package,
which is structured as follows. Game Template is a Java class
that abstracts general game functionalities. Subclasses of Game
Template are the game typologies offered by the standard game
1558-7908 © 2008 IEEE Education Society Students Activities Committee (EdSocSAC)
library. Sample game typologies include: Memory, Puzzles,
Visual Quiz, Couples, etc. The Actual games played by the
end-users will be instances of such subclasses.
From a software point of view, Game Templates is a
hierarchy of Java classes. Game Template is the abstract
superclass. The game typologies are the concrete subclasses.
The actual games running on the STB will be instances of
such game typologies. Every game instance will come boundled
with its own resources (i.e. images, animations, fonts, graphics,
text, etc.).
The actual games running on the STB will be instances of
such game typologies. Every game instance will come boundled
with its own resources (i.e. images, animations, fonts, graphics,
text, etc.).
On the production side (i.e. off-line), an author – even not
skilled in computer science – will be able to create instances of
the various game typologies (i.e. actual games that will be
broadcast and played) by editing parameters (e.g. number of
available lives) and inserting contents (e.g. images, graphics,
questions, animations, etc.). This can be done .manually, or,
much more efficiently, thorugh an ad-hoc developed authoring
tool, that we will describe in the next section.
Figure 4: Instances of Games.
The runtime system running on the STB manages the
life-cycle of every card and its contained elements, games
included (i.e. loading, starting, managing its exit and possibly
forcing a pause and/or stop), according to what specified by the
script. A game will be able itself to recursively manage other
games (i.e. building trees of games, according to the user
In Figure 4, sample instances of Quiz, Couples, Memory and
Puzzle games are illustrated in the way they appear in the TV
E. Personalization in t-learning courses
In general, the final goal of personalized learning is to
provide a learning path that is matched to the learner's needs and
abilities, resulting in a more efficient and high quality learning
process. In order to obtain this matching of learner’s profile and
objectives, current learning context and available pedagogical
resources, a well-defined description of each component
involved in the process is needed, with specific focus on the user
model. An additional interesting aspect of the personalization
process is that, once the user model has been identified, the
accuracy of the personalization can be iteratively improved with
time, as more dynamic data are collected and stored regarding
the ongoing interactions of the user with the system and the
continuous monitoring and re-assessment of the user’s
satisfaction. This also allows for a classification and
“clustering” of learners [6].
Personalization in terms of t-Learning implies that a potential
iDTV learner can easily be offered on his/her TV equipment a
selection of available pedagogical contents and services
according to his/her interests, skills and preferences.
The module, which is responsible for allowing
personalization in the proposed t-learning framework, is called
Personalizer. This module is capable of user tracking, taking
into account long term features as age, sex, etc., and session
features, like score in a game, difficulty course level and other
course related preferences.
The Personalizer keeps track of the dynamic user profile (e.g.
current values of the user interaction, such as score, what pages
have already been visited, what quizzes, etc.) and of the
persistent user profile (e.g. preferences, etc.). Before finishing,
every card is responsible for updating the Personalizer. For
instance, the results of a questionnaire may change so the global
score of the course has to be updated.
The main component involved in the production side is the
authoring tool. This tool is composed of two logical parts: the
content insertion and configuration tool and the script builder.
The former is responsible for the template configuration
while the latter deals with the definition of the sequence of the
course based on time and logical events. The output of this tool
is composed of the sequence script in XML format, as described
in the previous section, the property files of the templates and
the resources (images, audio files, etc) involved, in a structure
package. The whole production chain is illustrated in Figure 5.
1558-7908 © 2008 IEEE Education Society Students Activities Committee (EdSocSAC)
Fig. 5: Production Chain.
A. Authoring Tool
The proposed authoring tool is an efficient environment
where the author is capable of creating educative courses for
iDTV. It consists mainly of the two logical aforementioned
parts: the course sequence and events definition part, where the
structure of the course is defined based on event and the
templates configuration part, which is responsible for the
customization of existing templates like multimedia pages and
The tool provides a clear graphical interface (Figure 6) which
supports features as drag and drop, image previews and object
designing. The concept of the tool is based on the creation of
Learning Objects in a form of XML script and on the
configuration of existing templates.
A typical t-learning course is based on a learning object and
can contain the following main items:
Globals: used for global tags definition
Variables: for the definition of variables used within the
object. It is possible also to declare here all the variables that has
to be used inside events
Cards: used for creating and setting up cards which
correspond to a set of templates as Multimedia pages,
presentations and games, as described in section II
Categories: used for creating and setting up categories,
which correspond to different course paths, and those related
events that define both the user interaction and how the course
will be presented to the learner. As categories can be considered
levels of difficulty (i.e. hard, easy) or other domain categories
(i.e. History, Architecture, etc)
The part of the authoring tool dedicated to the creation of
categories provides authors with an intuitive way for defining
events lists (temporal or logical) linked to each category. The
tool handles the definition of all the supported
operations/instructions by using an XSD schema in a “secure”
mode, thus avoiding the risk for the author to generate invalid
XML files.
Each category is graphically represented as a tree, this way
giving to the author a visual and easy perception of the sequence
and articulation of the events. Other supported features - as drag
and drop cards, a temporal line where the events can be
sequenced and the possibility to play a video content (.avi)
further allow for an easy creation of categories (Figure 6). As a
result, the tool provides a “What You See Is What You Get”
(WYSIWYG) environment where authors will not have to be
concerned by the internal structure and the constraints imposed
by the XML script.
Fig. 6: Authoring Tool interface with events and timeline.
The part of the tool which is responsible for the configuration
of the cards provides a friendly environment where existing
templates can be customized. These templates include
Multimedia pages with images, buttons and text, multimedia
presentations and games, which can be configured appropriately
in terms of appearance, fonts, screen mode and content (Fig. 7).
The idea of templates allows full reusage of existing code and
material which is very important in the case of iDTV where the
bandwidth for data transmission and the STB memory are
limited. Hence, this authoring tool is a proper solution for
t-learning as it has been developed to tackle the special needs
and constraints of the iDTV and to offer educational oriented
content creation.
The proposed templates have been designed in a way that
satisfies the needs of the learners while the full configuration
capability, which can also be based on conditions, is an added
pedagogical value as it supports the creation of personalized
Fig. 7: Authoring Tool interface with templates configuration.
1558-7908 © 2008 IEEE Education Society Students Activities Committee (EdSocSAC)
Fig. 8: Authoring Tool interface with navigation bar configuration.
Furthermore the tool supports a standard way of designing
cards and templates based on a predefined style which will set a
default for many configuration values and let the author specify
only the main ones.
This feature increases the usability of the tool as it makes it
even more user-friendly and usable also by end-users who do
not intent to waste a lot of time for creating the course and
designing new multimedia pages.
In addition, the authoring tool provides a functionality that
allows the author to customize the navigation bar by offering a
proper interface with menus preview and add-remove menu
items capability. Figure 8 illustrates the above functionality.
Pedagogists and teaching professional will be interested in
such a tool as it provides a user-friendly and course oriented
environment for the creation of iDTV supported pedagogical
content without requiring programming skills. In addition, this
tool could be a very convenient and innovative solution for
professional content providers who are interested in creating
learning content, as at this point there is no authoring software in
the market that supports the development of education oriented
content for iDTV.
The Course Multimedia Player (CMP) is the t-learning client
software that reads the data generated by the authoring tools to
present the final course. It runs on the user MHP STB to allow
interactivity between the learner and the application.
Two main steps in the playing process can be identified as
shown in Figure 9:
Building the interactive application.
Executing the application with the video.
A. Building the interactive application
As explained in previous section, the xml script contains all
required data to instantiate a course. By reading this xml
description file, the multimedia player creates the static part of
the course (each page/card) and the dynamic part where
navigation, personalized path based on the user profile, and
synchronization with the TV-program are involved.
Fig. 9: Building the application in the Client Side.
B. Executing the Application with the video
When a T-Learning application is launched by a TV viewer,
the Course Multimedia Player parses the corresponding scripts
to instantiate the T-learning course. Subsequently, the following
components are involved:
Graphical Rendering Manager
Navigation Manager
Synchronization Manager
Personalisation Manager
Interactivity Manager
1) Graphical Rendering Manager
First, the Multimedia Player is responsible for the graphical
interface. It displays all the course components and manages the
video stream rendering. For instance, following the course
creator choice or according to the Personalizer’s values, each
course screen can be displayed in 3 different modes: full Screen
(FS), full Screen with TV picture (FSTV) and Stripe (S) (Fig.
Fig. 10: Card Display Modalities: Stripe, Full Screen with TV Picture, and Full
Screen Instance of a Multimedia Page.
2) Navigation Manager (personalised)
Interpreted at runtime, the course path can change following
several rules from the personalization manager (0). This path
can also be influenced by the synchronization manager or the
user interaction. It allows a dynamic adaptation of the learning
path. At a higher level, different paths may be specified by the
author for different user categories, as shown in Fig. 11.
3) Synchronisation Manager
Synchronization is realized between the TV-program and the
application. Indeed, regarding the timeline, some time triggers
(they may correspond to events such as beginning of the first
1558-7908 © 2008 IEEE Education Society Students Activities Committee (EdSocSAC)
part, end of the second part) are listened by the synchronization
manager that can thus take adequate actions. For instance, start
an application or change the section in a course.
Fig. 11: Different Course paths paths – due to a user’s personal values - for 3
different user categories. Circles correspond to cards.
If we consider a TV-program, which is related to tourism,
with a first part dedicated to Paris and a second part dedicated to
London, the synchronization mechanism will send an event to
the course to change the relative data from Paris to London. The
T-learning course may be thus context-aware regarding the
video stream.
4) Personalisation Manager
The Personalizer keeps track of the dynamic user profile (e.g.
current values of the user interaction, such as score, what pages
have already been visited, what quizzes, etc.) and of the
persistent user profile (e.g. preferences, age, etc.). Not only
will this module be responsible for updating the Personalizer’s
data, but it will also orient the user by taking decision at runtime
as explained in the subsection II-E.
5) Interactivity Manager
Finally, the Course Multimedia Player manages Interactivity.
Interactivity can be seen in two levels:
Local interactivity: it is provided by programmable
components that enable the action of the user on visible parts of
the screen and change the behavior/settings/appearence of the
objects that are displayed, without the need of a return channel.
The user can access local interactivity simply through her/his
remote control.
Server interactivity: same as local interactivity but the
actions of the user are sent to a server as “requests” via a
physical return channel [c.f. General Framework Part] and the
behavior of the displayed objects is modified through the
reception of “commands” from the servers, application servers
or broadcast server. For instance, the server interactivity can be
used to store general data in a centralized way or also to request
additional information on a given topic.
Although the research and development in iDTV-based
t-learning is rather limited up to date, some interesting
approaches have been presented.
An interesting approach was the technological framework for
TV supported collaborative learning proposed in [7]. In this
approach t-learning contents are created with appropriate tools
and delivered however personalization was not applied and the
fully automatic creation of the course was not supported. In a
more recent work [8] a more general framework is presented
with content creation based on XML structures and templates.
Although this work has been an interesting basis it is still
inadequate to deal with learning oriented content as it serves
more general purposes. Furthermore the two aforementioned
approaches haven’t been tested thoroughly in iDTV or
simulation environment, as no specific results are presented.
Considering the market approach, nowadays there are
considerable tools available, both open source and commercial,
like Composer [9] and Grins Pro Editor [10]. More specifically,
the former is capable of creating content in NCL [11] language
for Ginga middleware while the latter is a SMIL [12] editor.
Such tools could have been used for the creation of pedagogical
content due to their flexibility, however, as they are not
education-oriented, they would fail to satisfy the needs of
In this article a flexible framework for the creation and
display of t-learning content on iDTV was presented. The
proposed platform exploits the available iDTV technologies in
order to provide support for the development and presentation
of t-learning courses satisfying the pedagogical requirements.
During the course creation, a clear structure for the content is
defined, while the template logic allows reusability, which is a
big advantage at the iDTV world where the available bandwidth
and the storage capabilities of the STBs are limited and the
production costs are high and the time-to-market short.
Moreover, the configurability option allows the insertion of
personalization, which is considered as an added pedagogical
This template-based approach allows the creation of flexible,
standard courses that are interpreted by a multimedia course
player running on a STB, The player interprets the course
configuration script and accordingly presents the structure
content to the viewer and manages her/his interaction through
the remote control.
Another advantage of the proposed framework is the
extensibility as it is possible to support services on demand, also
1558-7908 © 2008 IEEE Education Society Students Activities Committee (EdSocSAC)
by exploiting the return channel of the STB, and including other
kinds of contents, such as virtual avatars and more complex
This work is supported by the project ELU (Enhanced
Learning Unlimited) [13], which is funded by the European
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... Para la elaboración del material adecuado para la implementación de un sistema t-learning se resalta que esté tipo de contenidos está dirigido principalmente a como una parte de la educación no formal e informal y como un suplemento de la educación formal, por lo que el acceso a la información no se realiza de manera lineal. [88] Uno de los pasos principales en la elaboración de los contenidos es la adaptación de los recursos fílmicos como soporte para el nuevo material, se debe empezar por extraer los puntos clave tratados en el video y desarraigarlo de esa linealidad que es innata del formato. [87] Después de caracterizar los puntos clave se tiene que verificar a que publico está dirigido el contenido, ya que es diferente la forma de tratar un público de niños, a un público como adultos o aun más especializado como una clase para unos estudiantes de educación superior, por lo cual se pueden desarrollar varios contenidos en torno a una misma fuente de información. ...
... [89] Por esto algunos autores prefieren llamar a estos videojuegos como Unidades Interactivas de Edutainment, las cuales tienen como objetivo principal el afianzamiento de la información adquirida, además de establecer otros escenarios en los cuales puede ser de mayor agrado para los usuarios. [88] Los desarrollos tienen que tener en cuenta las limitaciones de la plataforma y no tienen que ser de gran complejidad; las temáticas más utilizadas son los juegos de Memoria, Rompecabezas, Cuestionarios (visuales y de textos), etc.; también debe tenerse en cuenta el nivel de comunicación con el proveedor de los contenidos, ya que se tienen que considerar juegos on-line o en otros casos off-line. [88] ...
... [88] Los desarrollos tienen que tener en cuenta las limitaciones de la plataforma y no tienen que ser de gran complejidad; las temáticas más utilizadas son los juegos de Memoria, Rompecabezas, Cuestionarios (visuales y de textos), etc.; también debe tenerse en cuenta el nivel de comunicación con el proveedor de los contenidos, ya que se tienen que considerar juegos on-line o en otros casos off-line. [88] ...
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The thesis presented is intended to carry out an analysis of technology transfer for proper implementation of educational content in the interactive DTT system in Colombia. As an initial part, a study was conducted on the characteristics of technology transfer systems, later was made a general survey of the technical and economic characteristics of digital television system DVB-T, as well as the main features that should have an interactive virtual platforms supported education.Finally we developed a technology transfer analysis considering the current situation as well as other technical, economic and regional analysis and presentation of the corresponding draw up suggestions additionally result of studies and reviews and present the progress in the process technology transfer
... Digital TV (DTV) is considered to be the convergence of television and computing technologies, bringing together three typical features such as interactivity (which means that the user can control the activities), customization (which is adapting the interactive contents for each user profile), and digitalization (the technological advances that allow the highest sound and image quality) [1]. DTV is made operational either by cable, satellite, microwave, terrestrial broadcast; or by ADSL or IP (IPTV and WebTV) trends. ...
... Companies such as the BBC [11] have developed several educational applications for children such as CBeebies, but they do not detail models of implementation either. In [1], a framework is proposed for t-learning courses, which is divided into two parts: the production and the client. That research is not clear about the development of a prototype and does not show results of the framework's use. ...
... Among t-learning applications are: formal and informal learning courses, support on formal learning courses of educational institutions, specialized training courses (interested business and individuals), support on home care, continuing education programs in several disciplines, personalized courses, social and support training, training for immigrants (languages or others), and training programs for people in remote areas. The propitious scenarios for t-learning are designed according to the student's willingness for education through television [1]: ...
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Digital television (DTV) provides pedagogical and technological advantages to education. DTV is presented as a novelty for the audience and involves the convergence of education, telecommunications, and internet in a unique environment. This technology will allow for the development of interactive educational platforms known as t-learning platforms. Currently, there are relatively few models which describe the processes involved in t-learning. This article presents a cyclic model, which takes into account the feedback of the process and other requirements. It also presents the theoretical framework associated with t-learning. It describes the PDCA t-learning proposed model (PDCA is plan, do, check, and act) that has been implemented in a prototype of a module (wireless networking fundamentals) on the area of telecommunications. This application was tested in a digital terrestrial television (DTTV OR DTT) laboratory.
... T-learning is a teaching / learning based on Interactive Digital Television (iDTV), the convergence of television technologies with telecommunications and systems in accordance with the educational and audiovisual sector, among others [9] Fig. 1. T-learning [10] The advantages of t-Learning over e-Learning are basically in function that it is estimated that there are more televisions, a greater access. Also, usability, we basically use a control. ...
... La TDi se considera la convergencia de la televisión y las tecnologías de computación, que reúne tres características típicas (Bellotti et al., 2008): interactividad, personalización y digitalización. En la TDi el contenido de un programa, la forma o incluso el orden de presentación puede ser afectado por el usuario. ...
Digital television will have an imminent deployment in the next coming years, and considering that interactivity is one of the main advantages of this kind of systems, it is required a study of the usability of interactive applications in which the user actively participates during the transmission of a television program. Therefore it is necessary to find the best way to design usable applications in interactive Digital Television environments (iTV). This paper presents a set of guidelines supporting design of usable applications in iTV environments, which have been proposed from a set of usability evaluations conducted at the Digital Television Laboratory of the Universidad del Cauca (Colombia).
... Convergencia PC, TV y e-learning. [10] Las ventajas del t-Learning sobre el e-Learning, son básicamente en función de que se estima que hay mayor cantidad de televisores, mayor acceso. Así mismo la facilidad de uso, básicamente utilizamos un control. ...
Conference Paper
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La personalización de los contenidos educativos hace que el aprendizaje resulte más atractivo, por su adaptación a las preferencias del alumno; resultando más efectivo, porque se tiene en cuenta la experiencia formativa del estudiante y las metas que aspira alcanzar. Para dar un primer paso en el diseño de contenidos educativos para TVD que brinden esta característica se presenta en este articulo la incorporación de UDL para la creación de contenidos educativos en el contexto de t-learning.
... Interactive Digital Television (iDT) is considered as the link of television and computer technologies, which gather three typical features: interactivity, customization and digitization [1]. A TV program refers to "any type of content, should it be an advertisement, a movie, a quiz show, teletext page, email message or even any kind of sound" [2]. ...
Interactive Digital Television (iDT) is considered as the convergence of television and computer technologies. Usability evaluation for applications based on emerging information technology brings new challenges. The main iDT feature is that the user may interact with the application; therefore usability should be a main concern when designing iDT applications. Current research usually focuses on iDT applications from a technical point of view, rather than a user-centered approach. There is a need for new usability evaluation methods or at least for the use of traditional evaluations in novel ways. A set of specific usability heuristics was defined and validated, in order to help the usability evaluations of iDT applications. A usability checklist to be used when applying iDT heuristics is also proposed.
... Rey-López, Fernández-Vilas, & Díaz-Redondo (2006) identifican tres tipos de experiencias en t-learning, con base en el objetivo final para el que se crean: el entretenimiento que educa o entercation (entertainment+education), en el cual un programa de televisión se complementa con elementos de formación y el programa de TV funciona como un gancho para la educación; la educación que entretiene o edutainment (education+entertainment), en el cual los elementos de aprendizaje se complementan con segmentos de TV que convierten la experiencia de aprendizaje en algo más divertido; y un tercero, que introduce el concepto de adaptabilidad a los dos anteriores (adaptative entercation y adaptative edutainment) para que el estudiante logre los objetivos de aprendizaje de acuerdo con sus posibilidades. Por otra parte, Belloti, Vrochidis, Parissi, Lhoas, Mathevon, Pellegrino, Bo & Kompatsiaris (2008), definen un objeto de aprendizaje como la unidad básica de un proceso general de enseñanza que puede ser reutilizado según las condiciones o contexto. Esta perspectiva incluye los conceptos de adaptabilidad y flexibilidad. ...
At a time when Colombia is in a migration from analog television to digital television, it is necessary to review authors, to demonstrate the processes of creating applications for this medium, where the interaction plays a very important role. This is why it is vital for future developers and builders for television applications, understanding the different types of content that can be performed, their characteristics and, particularly, the aspects and the design guidelines to consider in the development of this applications. Also, they should know what could be the role of digital TV in learning contexts and how this medium can be presented as a new option for communication and teaching processes.
... Bellotti y colegas proponen un marco de referencia para la creación de contenidos educativos en entornos de t-learning separando las herramientas del lado de producción y cliente (Bellotti et al. 2008). Para producción, presentan una herramienta que facilita la edición de un fichero XML que describe el contenido. ...
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El fenómeno de la interacción se produce cuando dos o más entidades (personas u objetos) influyen mutuamente sobre su comportamiento a través de acciones recíprocas. Esta tesis utiliza este fenómeno como la base para la definición de una estrategia de aprendizaje activo a través de Internet. Para ello, se proponen tres tipos de mecanismos de interacción: interactividad, interacción social e interacción por autoría. Los mecanismos de interactividad se relacionan con las acciones entre las personas y los objetos de información, en las cuales se manipulan aspectos de presentación de los mensajes. Por otra parte, los mecanismos de interacción social se relacionan con los procesos de comunicación entre personas. Y finalmente, los mecanismos de interacción por autoría se relacionan con procesos de creación de nuevos objetos. Por otra parte, los contenidos multimedia y las tecnologías web sociales parecen configurar un escenario idóneo para el aprendizaje activo. Por una parte, la multimedia ofrece un formato versátil cuya popularidad crece con las capacidades de las redes de datos. Mientras tanto, los servicios basados en tecnologías web sociales fomentan una actitud más proactiva frente a la información. En consecuencia, estos dos elementos forman el contexto en cual esta tesis ha definido una estrategia de aprendizaje activo fundamenta en un método colaborativo centrado en la creación de objetos multimedia-interactivos. Este método es asistido por un entorno de aprendizaje multimedia desarrollado como parte de esta tesis, denominado Social Media Learning (SMLearning). SMLearning fue diseñado con una arquitectura de servicios abiertos que se integra con las plataformas de las redes sociales Facebook y YouTube. Asimismo, tuvo en cuenta los principios de diseño groupware que incluyen la gestión de información de conciencia (Awareness) y diversas interfaces para el análisis de datos. Además, para la definición de los objetos multimedia-interactivos se propuso un formato de documento XML que extiende la gramática del lenguaje SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language) de la W3C. Finalmente, esta propuesta fue validada en diversos escenarios de aprendizaje real desarrollado durante tres cursos académicos (2011 a 2014). Estas experiencias fueron parte del desarrollo formal de asignaturas de grado y postgrado de la Escuela Politécnica Superior EPS de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. El primer caso contó con un tiempo de experiencia limitado a una semana y un alto número de participantes (135). El segundo caso contó con un tiempo de experiencia prolongado (11 semanas) y un número de participantes menor (entre 6 y 11 estudiantes). El análisis de estos casos se basa en la definición y aplicación de tres indicadores: satisfacción, simetría y consenso, en un enfoque de evaluación mixta, es decir, combinando diversos métodos y fuentes de datos. Los resultados obtenidos corroboran un impacto positivo de los mecanismos de interacción en el proceso de aprendizaje de los estudiantes, a través de una alta satisfacción. Además, el indicador de simetría demostró que existe reciprocidad en las acciones de los estudiantes durante la interacción social; en tanto que, el consenso corrobora la efectividad de los procesos de negociación reflejado en un aumento de la precisión del grupo en la evaluación de la calidad de los recursos.
... The idea of Distance Learning through TV emerged extensively in particular as a complementary educational option besides PC-based e-Learning and traditional TV educational programs. iDTV education promises a huge potential due to its ability to support interactivity and the term of t-Learning prevailed for the definition of TV-based interactive learning (Bellotti, 2008). Today, iDTV platforms for learning provide a large amount of audiovisual and educational content to the viewer through interactive and content personalization. ...
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Nowadays, the Interactive Digital Television (iDTV) has promoted and increased the communication and interaction for knowledge, entertainment and recreation in Distance Education. The t-Learning has been used as a new way of teaching and learning in the context of Learning Objects (LOs) assisting in electronic courses’ development. With the fast e-Learning progress, some efforts to standardization have appeared enabling the educational contents’ reusability and interoperability among systems. The most used standard is the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). Therefore, this work is presenting the T-SCORM extension, which is aiming to adapt to the SCORM, thus improving the search and navigation of LOs with educational content for t-Learning. That will be done through an authoring tool named T-SCORM ADAPTER, and the final results will be showed in the application named T-SCORM-Moodle.
Con las ventajas que ofrece la television digital interactiva, es posible incorporar, modificar o eliminar elementos publicitarios en los contenidos audiovisuales ya elaborados, y anadirle o asociarle aplicaciones o servicios interactivos. Sin embargo, la deteccion e incorporacion de espacios publicitarios en los contenidos existentes es una tarea tediosa que, en la mayoria de los casos, se hace de forma manual. Este trabajo propone una alternativa de deteccion de espacios publicitarios en contenidos audiovisuales digitales que permitan posteriormente la inclusion de publicidad interactiva inmersa.
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This paper presents an overview of the new concepts and characteristics brought out by Ginga, the standard middleware of the Brazilian digital TV system.
Conference Paper
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Interactive digital TV is emerging as a potentially important medium to create opportunities for learning at home. To date, the offer has been mostly based on the contents available through broadcast, but this is expected to change in the near future. The increasing availability of high-quality bidirectional networks, together with the fact that IDTV users are abandoning their passive habits, envisages a new range of highly interactive services that may enhance greatly the prospects of distance education. This paper introduces a technological framework for the development and deployment of distributed and collaborative educational services for IDTV, proposing an extension to the multimedia home platform standard. The framework is based on a selection of freely available technologies, which we integrate into a CASE tool that bridges the gap between course-authoring and programming tasks. We also discuss the possible market implications of our approach, because the ideas presented here contribute to openness in the field of IDTV services, so far monopolised by mainstream broadcasters.
Conference Paper
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In this paper we present a recommender system of personalized TV contents, called AVATAR, for which we propose a modular multiagent architecture, that combines different knowledge inference strategies (such as Bayesian techniques, profiles matching and semantic reasoning). We focus on the description of one of these strategies, the naive Bayesian classifiers, explaining an example in the context of personalized digital television. In order to represent the knowledge in the television domain, we have developed TV contents ontology, to infer new data from the known information. Besides, the TV-anytime specification has been used referred to the description of contents and the management of user preferences and their activity logs. The proposed recommender system has been conceived as an application conforming to multimedia home platform (MHP) standard, to be distributed over the broadcast transport stream that is tuned by the user receiver.
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IDTV (Interactive Digital TV) opens new learning opportunities for those social groups that would hardly have access to traditional forms of education. However, viewers are not usually active learners, for this reason, education through IDTV should be offered in an attractive way, so as they get engaged in the learning experience. For this to be possible, we need to introduce personalization in the t-learning field. To achieve this goal, we present, in this paper, a proposal of self-adaptive t-learning objects, which show a different behavior depending on user's characteristics. These objects are conformant to the ADL SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard for which we propose an extension in order to permit this type of learning objects. We expose as well an authoring tool to these objects, which hides the implementation details to the content creator.
The application of emerging digital technologies such as e-mail, the World Wide Web and the Internet in the educational setting has received wide acceptance all over the world. One of the latest technological advancements being considered within the scope of learning is Interactive Digital Television. This paper examines the convergence of Interactive Television and e-learning, towards the establishment of t-learning as a value-adding service of digital television.
T-learning is a shorthand meaning for TV-based interactive learning. So far, learning via interactive digital TV has been more edutainment than formal learning, but we have moved towards more engaged learning. According to Helsinki University of Technology research and experiences, the Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) standard enables formal learning in digital TV and digital TV can be used to facilitate learning process. Learning opportunities in digital TV are possible to be described with the T-learning model. The model defines different features and functions in T-learning and describes what kind of learning is enabled through digital television (DTV). Furthermore, few examples of different opportunities in learning via DTV are provided. T-learning model is described for formal and informal learning.
Conference Paper
A crucial problem of recent applications requiring a DTV-based solution is that they are designed to solve one specific problem. The aim of this paper is to propose a universal framework for DTV applications that will use sophisticated methods of object sharing, data abstraction and template exploitation. This framework should realize all repeating programmer operations automatically - e.g. template based output, data transfer and validation, multilanguage support, security, authorization, etc. The system should realize maximum tasks (generating output) automatically without additional programming by content developer.