Mechanisms of human inherited epilepsies. Prog Neurobiol.
It is just over a decade since the discovery of the first human epilepsy associated ion channel gene mutation. Since then mutations in at least 25 different genes have been described, although the strength of the evidence for these genes having a pathogenic role in epilepsy varies. These discoveries are allowing us to gradually begin to unravel the molecular basis of this complex disease. In the epilepsies, virtually all the established genes code for ion channel subunits. This has led to the concept that the idiopathic epilepsies are a family of channelopathies. This review first introduces the epilepsy syndromes linked to mutations in the various genes. Next it collates the genetic and functional analysis of these genes. This part of the review is divided into voltage-gated channels (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl(-) and HCN), ligand-gated channels (nicotinic acetylcholine and GABA(A) receptors) and miscellaneous proteins. In some cases significant advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular and cellular deficits caused by mutations. However, the link between molecular deficit and clinical phenotype is still unknown. Piecing together this puzzle should allow us to understand the underlying pathology of epilepsy ultimately providing novel therapeutic strategies to complete the clinic-bench-clinic cycle.
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