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Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

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... He had intended to major in English literature at Harvard, but the summer reading list discouraged that and a course from Earnst A. Hooton seduced him to anthropology. Anthropology at Harvard in the 1920s was by his account (Howells, 1992) an inspiringly holistic study of humankind. ...
... In The Pacific Islanders, published just before his retirement, he brought together the geography, human biology, language, archaeology, and ethnology of these fascinating people (Howells, 1973c). He expressed his regret that anthropology departments in the latter part of the 20th century fragmented too much into specialties, thereby losing the magic derived from studying our species from all perspectives (Howells, 1992). ...
... But in a review published in American Anthropologist, Woodbury (1932:143) praised it: "The Indians of Pecos, both in its material and its treatment, represents one of the great publications on the physical anthropology of the American aborigines." Hooton's view of human variation was typological and thoroughly influential (Howells, 1992). ...
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In this chapter we concentrate on how anthropologists have approached the study of human variation. We find that anthropologists have frequently depended on nebulous or nonscientific theories and questionable methods to justify what seem to be foregone conclusions, more often reflecting the contemporary views of society or strong personal opinions, rather than using empirical data and the scientific method. As a result, earlier racist pseudoscience gave way to modern antiracist pseudoscience that has prevented further discussion. Until recently, American forensic anthropologists used race to help identify discovered skeletal remains and were simply doing their work with little thought to race theory. Few anthropologists in any discipline examined humans and human races scientifically, which should involve formulating and testing theories and hypotheses, but instead relied on confirmation bias in publications intended for likeminded audiences. More recently, however, the accumulation of a mountain of morphological and molecular evidence shows an association between traditional human races and patterns of human variation, reflecting the interplay of historical, cultural, and evolutionary factors.
... Then as now, one could argue that "Big Man" personalities can facilitate as much as retard disciplinary developments, but I think it is wiser to let Howells have his say on the matter: He described William C Boyd, as "a hardworking blood group man" (Howells, 1992, p. 11), who understood the genetics of the evolutionary process well, and did not mince words "plowing under" ideas of race and type that then existed. Boyd, however, with his background in immunology, got under physical anthropologists' skin, as he was "not one of the boys," though he was a major force, and eventually won over others, including Howells himself (Howells, 1992). ...
... Then as now, one could argue that "Big Man" personalities can facilitate as much as retard disciplinary developments, but I think it is wiser to let Howells have his say on the matter: He described William C Boyd, as "a hardworking blood group man" (Howells, 1992, p. 11), who understood the genetics of the evolutionary process well, and did not mince words "plowing under" ideas of race and type that then existed. Boyd, however, with his background in immunology, got under physical anthropologists' skin, as he was "not one of the boys," though he was a major force, and eventually won over others, including Howells himself (Howells, 1992). ...
... The negotiations of political settlements, pacts, and power sharing agreements between Lebanon's Zu'ama always took on a confessional die. Khalidi, for example, regards all power arrangements in Lebanon to include a link between the issue of identity and both sectarian structures and intersectarian power balances (Khalidi 1989). He argues that a shift in emphasis from one aspect of the political formula to another reflects the underlying changes in the regional power balances and the change in the identity of the external power sponsoring the power arrangement. ...
... Then as now, one could argue that "Big Man" personalities can facilitate as much as retard disciplinary developments, but I think it is wiser to let Howells have his say on the matter: He described William C Boyd, as "a hardworking blood group man" (Howells, 1992, p. 11), who understood the genetics of the evolutionary process well, and did not mince words "plowing under" ideas of race and type that then existed. Boyd, however, with his background in immunology, got under physical anthropologists' skin, as he was "not one of the boys," though he was a major force, and eventually won over others, including Howells himself (Howells, 1992). ...
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EDITOR's NOTE The year 2000 marks the onset of the 21rst century. Physical anthropologists will provide brief reflections on our discipline, including what attracted them to it, and their views on the directions our discipline may pursue as we enter, in January 2001, the third millennium. Am J Phys Anthropol 111:149–151, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Social media is awash with the latest discoveries about the human past. Headlines read: “DNA of ancient skeleton linked to modern indigenous peoples,” “Ancient DNA suggests the first Americans sidestepped the glaciers,” and “Ancient DNA reveals secrets of human history.” These headlines all come from respected outlets with a connection to the academic community (Smithsonian, Science, and Nature, respectively). However, news media outlets with a more popular audience have also become interested in the stories and histories being revealed about our ancestors through modern and ancient DNA, and new toolkits include a heavy bioinformatics component. As expected, these headlines are a bit more sensational: “Are you tall? Then thank your ancient cousins: Neanderthal DNA still helps dictate your HEIGHT and whether you suffer from lupus and schizophrenia” reads a Daily Mail headline about Neanderthal admixture. Another reads: “The ‘founding father’ of Europe: DNA reveals all Europeans are related to a group that lived around 35,000 years ago.” Yet another, seemingly contradictory, headline reads: “Europeans drawn from three ancient ‘tribes.’” Communications technology has evolved in lockstep with advances in DNA recovery and analysis over the last two decades, perhaps giving the impression that studies of past population movements are a recent development. However, interest in “ancient migrations” has a deep history in western science, beginning with analyses of the skull using what are now referred to as biological distance methods.
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New Zealand being an island nation, geologically away from the rest of the world, tourism is one of our main economical sources. New Zealand is the first country in the world to establish a government department dedicated to promoting itself as a tourist destination. This essay is going to explore the design evolutions from the early ages of the department till present day and how the agency portrays us as a nation.
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Biological explanations shaped criminology at its inception, and today they are reemerging with fresh vigor and increased potential. But many criminologists do not understand how biological theories developed, what they contributed to criminology generally and where they went astray. This paper focuses on the work of Earnest A. Hooton, whose criminological studies, published in 1939, met with decidedly mixed reviews but were nonetheless discussed for decades in criminological textbooks. Information about a now half-forgotten and misunderstood figure like Hooton, in addition to being useful in and of itself, contributes to the history of criminology as a discipline—a project essential to the field's ultimate maturity. It helps build a history of criminological knowledge.
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William White Howells was one of the intellectual giants of the discipline of biological anthropology during the twentieth century. He was a devoted student of Earnest A. Hooton; yet he played a central role in directing the discipline away from the typological thinking that infused the work of his predecessor, and toward the population perspective that characterizes the field today. An original and productive scholar with diverse interests, his influence was extraordinary not merely because of his brilliance, but also because of the kind of mentor he was. Almost two dozen graduate students, and countless others with whom he interacted in various capacities, have carried Howells' legacy into the twenty-first century.
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The contributions to physical anthropology with which Franz Boas is usually credited are in the areas of growth, plasticity of head and body form, and biometric genetics. Such a listing of Boas's contributions overlooks the tremendous amount of research he did with biological variability of Native American populations. The rediscovery of his anthropometric data documents the tremendous investment in time, money, and effort Boas devoted to the topic and provides the opportunity to rediscover his insights into a subject that is of continuing interest. The design of his massive anthropometric survey of native North Americans reveals a concern for population analyses and a rejection of the typological framework of the time. If Boas's ideas had been adopted at the turn of the century, the development of physical anthropology in America might have been much different.
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