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Science 2.0 -- Is Open Access Science the Future?

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Abstract

* Science 2.0 generally refers to new practices of scientists who post raw experimental results, nascent theories, claims of discovery and draft papers on the Web for others to see and comment on. * Proponents say these “open access” practices make scientific progress more collaborative and therefore more productive. * Critics say scientists who put preliminary findings online risk having others copy or exploit the work to gain credit or even patents. * Despite pros and cons, Science 2.0 sites are beginning to proliferate; one notable example is the OpenWetWare project started by biological engi­neers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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... The 'open' concept ('open-access', 'open-science') is poised to transform communication in science. It is quickly expanding the ability " not just to consume online information but to publish it, edit it and collaborate about it – forcing such old-line institutions as journalism, marketing and even politicking to adopt whole new ways of thinking and operating … Since the time of Galileo and Newton, scientists have built up their knowledge about the world by 'crowd-sourcing' the contributions of many researchers and then refining that knowledge through open debate " Waldrop (2008). According to Waldrop (2008), the transformation to open-science will be driven by the " fear factor " ; " if you wait for the journals, your work won't appear for another six to nine months. ...
... It is quickly expanding the ability " not just to consume online information but to publish it, edit it and collaborate about it – forcing such old-line institutions as journalism, marketing and even politicking to adopt whole new ways of thinking and operating … Since the time of Galileo and Newton, scientists have built up their knowledge about the world by 'crowd-sourcing' the contributions of many researchers and then refining that knowledge through open debate " Waldrop (2008). According to Waldrop (2008), the transformation to open-science will be driven by the " fear factor " ; " if you wait for the journals, your work won't appear for another six to nine months. But with open science, your claim to priority is out there right away. ...
... " The 'credit' problem however remains a big barrier; " the peerreviewed paper is the cornerstone of jobs and promotion, … Scientists don't blog because they get no credit for that … publications were always the one thing you could measure. Now, however, as more of this informal communication goes online, that will get easier to measure, too " (Waldrop 2008). Ideas in Ecology and Evolution solves the credit problem by combining all the advantages of rapid, open-concept communication with formal credit as a peer-reviewed publication of original ideas and commentaries. ...
... There is no doubt that research has changed and metamorphosed through the use of ICTs as numerous authors have noted so far (Nentwich, 2003;de Sompel et al., 2004;Arms and Larsen, 2007;Borgman, 2007;Waldrop, 2008;Odlyzko, 2009). However, deeper and more radical transformations that potentially could cause changes in the configurations of the principles of research activities have resulted from technological innovations brought about by the Web 2.0. ...
... However, deeper and more radical transformations that potentially could cause changes in the configurations of the principles of research activities have resulted from technological innovations brought about by the Web 2.0. (Waldrop, 2008;Luzon, 2009;Odlyzko, 2009;Procter et al., 2010;Lievrouw, 2011). Given the social and communicative nature of scientific inquiry, it is little surprise that many researchers have become active participants in this new Web, often using services and tools created specifically for research (Priem & Hemminger, 2010). ...
... The collaborative model of knowledge production, mash-up practices and anonymity result in the creation of information contexts where authenticity, trustworthiness, authority and reliability have to be and are continually questioned. There is an additional risk for researchers who share their preliminary findings and put them online: others could copy or exploit their work to get credit or even patents, particularly in hypercompetitive fields where patents, promotion and tenure normally hinge on who first published a new discovery (Waldrop, 2008). The amateurism that so strongly characterizes Web 2.0 environments, along with issues surrounding privacy, confidentiality and trust (Yuwei, 2008), may be tolerable for entertainment purposes, but they are positively not acceptable in science. ...
Article
In this paper, based on desk research, we will present the most important features of Research 2.0 in its relationship with information literacy (IL). The appearance of the Research 2.0 paradigm was brought about by numerous technological innovations resulting from Web 2.0. This may lead to transformations that could change the principles of research activities. When explaining the nature of Research 2.0 we highlight factors that hinder its wider uptake. We will also try to show that IL is changing in some of its aspects as a result of developments in the Research 2.0 domain, regardless of the fact that it is not widely adopted. The consequences resulting from the analyzed transformations in IL are of utmost importance for academic libraries, the content of their instructional activities and future information literacy conceptualizations.
... Numerous authors refer to the changing configurations of science and scientific work as the processes resulting from technological innovations. (Thorin, 2003;Nentwich, 2003;de Sompel, Payette, Erickson, Lagoze & Warner, 2004;Arms & Larsen, 2007;Borgman, 2007;Waldrop, 2008;Odlyzko, 2009;Procter et al., 2010). There is no doubt that science has been changed and metamorphosed by the use of technologies, in particular networked technologies. ...
... IL should not be restricted to the sphere of libraries and customary resources and the usual channels of information searching and retrieval. Changes in the scholarly domain are possible and according to the opinion of some authors will quite likely happen (Weller et al., 2007;Waldrop, 2008;Nikam & Babu, 2009;Odlyzko, 2009;Warden, 2010;Priem, 2010). Postgraduate researchers should therefore be introduced to new information spaces and instructed in how to express themselves in this new context, how to organize resources for themselves and contribute to these new environments not just as users of information, but as creators and co--creators as well. ...
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In this paper fundamental principles that might inform an approach to Information Literacy (IL) on the postgraduate level will be identified. Those are based on following premises: • the aims of postgraduate/doctoral studies are different in comparison to earlier educational levels and face specific challenges due to the heterogeneity of student populations • IL frameworks have to acknowledge and address this challenge by adjusting to specific needs of postgraduate students who operate in new information realms • new modes of assessment are needed as a result of revolutionary changes in information landscapes and patterns of generation and use of scientific information Teaching students in the scientific method and culture has long been recognized as the major focus of postgraduate education, an important precondition for research practices is the adequate performance in the realm of information handling and information management, i.e., information literacy. IL on postgraduate levels has a strong focus on the universe of scientific information, which itself went through tremendous changes in the last decade, particularly as a result of the appearance of the Web 2.0 (e.g. Science 2.0, Research 2.0). Such profound changes suggest renewed conceptions and focal points of IL at the postgraduate level which will take into account the fluid nature of current information environments. After discussing changes in information landscapes brought about the Web 2.0 and examining transformed premises of scientific work within such environments, the authors will plea for re-conceptualizations of IL on the postgraduate level and propose new principles of IL frameworks and modes of assessment that will recognize this transformation.
... • Despite pros and cons, Science 2.0 sites are beginning to proliferate; one notable example is the OpenWetWare project started by biological engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (Waldrop, 2008; http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=science-2-point-0-great-new-tool-or-great-risk) ...
... Second was the development, in the early twenty-first century, of new, more "open" forms of science: that is, increased use of non-expert data collection, "crowdsourcing" (Cook 2011), open sharing, discussion and publishing of early results, and highly networked, "just-in-time" collaborations. This "Science 2.0" is highly productive: it is, according to the commentators, the source of innovation in today's world (Waldrop 2008;Peters 2011). 11 Alongside this were massive changes to traditional conceptions of knowledge and expertise. ...
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Since its inception, science education has been the focus of a great many reform attempts. In general, the aim has been to improve science understanding and/or make science study more interesting and/or relevant to a wider range of students. However, these reform attempts have had limited success. This paper argues that this is in part because science education as a discipline has some “blind spots”, some unacknowledged assumptions that obstruct its development and make it immune to change. While this has long been a problem, the paper argues that, in the new, “postnormal” conditions of the twenty-first century, it is now imperative that we see these blind spots and think differently about what science education is for. School science as we now know it (along with the other school subjects) developed as part of, and in parallel with, modern economies/societies, which in turn depended on the burning of fossil fuels. However, because this period of “carbonised modernity” is now coming to an end, many of the assumptions it was built on must be re-examined. This has (or should have) major implications for science education. Via an exploration of three very different “orientations to the future”, the paper aims to provoke discussion of how science education could be reconceptualised to support our transition into the post-carbon, Anthropocene era.
... Recently, developments under the paradigm of Science 2.0 have received a lot of attention [1]. Researchers are embracing the capabilities of Web 2.0 tools and technologies, such as blogs, wikis, and social networking sites, to support their research. ...
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In this paper we present an ecosystem for the lightweight exchange of publication metadata based on the principles of Web 2.0. At the heart of this ecosystem, semantically enriched RSS feeds are used for dissemination. These feeds are complemented by services for creation and aggregation, as well as widgets for retrieval and visualization of publication metadata. In two scenarios, we show how these publication feeds can benefit institutions, researchers, and the TEL community. We then present the formats, services, and widgets developed for the bootstrapping of the ecosystem. We conclude with an outline of the integration of publication feeds with the STELLAR Network of Excellence 1 and an outlook on future developments.
... Wikis and blogs are also being used to enhance collaborative research. [15] Open Access and Social Media Over fifty years ago, Eugene Garfield, a founder in the field of bibliometrics, introduced the concept of the citation index. [16] His ideas have blossomed into a host of "impact factors" that measure the degree of a journal's influence by counting the number of times its articles are cited. ...
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Participatory medicine flourishes where there is an unimpeded flow of information. Open and freely available access to medical research improves outcomes and empowers e-patients. Traditionally, research papers undergo peer review before publication. Two trends, open access and social media, are changing the peer review process. E-patients must be aware that traditional peer review applies different criteria and methods than review through social media outlets. Although still developing, these review processes may affect the evaluation of research quality.
... In May 2008, Scientific American published an article tagged Science 2.0, suggesting that Web 2.0 tools such as social networking, blogging, and tagging, could facilitate collaboration and thus make science more productive. 162 Even though Crotty sounded a cautionary note two years later, drawing the distinction between talking about science and doing science, 163 there is little doubt that social networking and other 'instant' forms of communication have contributed to progress in science and technology. ...
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Egyptian evidence of scientific records dates back almost 50 centuries. In more recent times da Vinci and Faraday provide role models for scrupulous recording of ideas, observations, and conclusions. Their medium was paper, but despite the quality of their notebooks, we cannot turn the clock back. Our primary purpose is to review the influences of the digital era on scientific record keeping. We examine the foundations of the emerging opportunities for preserving and curating electronic records focussing on electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs), with an emphasis on their characteristics and usability.
... And because of high rejection rates in many journals, it can often take more than a year to get a new idea published, by which time it may already be old— scooped by someone else. An alternative is to promote ideas through blogging, but most scientists don't blog because they receive no credit or recognition for blogging (Waldrop 2008). IEE is the only peer-review journal for ecologists and evolutionists that is dedicated exclusively to 'forum'-style papers. ...
... This original aim is now again the focus with much activity around it: "Science 2.0" is the result of "Web 2.0" tools and trends influencing how we carry out research (Shneiderman 2008;Codina 2009;O'Reilly, T. 2005). The effects are visible on how researchers experiment, get feedback on their work, and interact with their community (Waldrop 2008;Reinhardt et al. 2009). Researchers are starting to embrace different types of social tools, in order to pose questions, provide answers, share knowledge, initiate debates, etc. ...
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Science 2.0 is the result of Web 2.0 tools and trends influencing the research area. In this paper, we focus on a scenario where a researcher is interested in the topic and speaker at a conference: finding more information about them is far from instantaneous. Thus, we identified a need to not only find speaker and paper information during the presentation, but also to subscribe to feeds that keep the attendee informed about ongoing work from the speaker. This work presents the development of a mobile application that groups all the relevant information of a speaker in a way that can be easily exposed and integrated in the normal workflow of the audience. The result is a frictionless blending of the face-to-face event that a conference or workshop presentation represents with the rich interaction and alerting services that a web2.0 environment provides.
... Research 2.0 is the result of applying Web2.0 tools and approaches on regular research processes in order to improve practices and increase participation and collaboration [1,2]. The connection of researchers in order to nurture future collaboration is one of the key goals of the Research2.0 ...
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As one of its main goals, the Research 2.0 concept focuses on the improvement of the connection and collaboration between researchers. Within this short paper we present More!, a mobile social discovery tool for researchers. We describe the application itself and present some initial results obtained by using the tool on small scenarios. Later we describe the current challenges of the tool and the future developments. Finally, we state open problems of the field and the application itself.
... OpenWetWare wiki defines Science 2.0 in the following terms: The internet is undergoing a major change – from an original environment in which individuals post static information to a new environment where anyone can dynamically and collaboratively create, edit, and disseminate content. The emergence of Science 2.0 or Open science has been noted by M. Mitchell Waldrop (2008), writing for the Scientific American, in 'Science 2.0 – is open access science the future?', where he makes the following points: @BULLET Science 2.0 generally refers to new practices of scientists who post raw experimental results, nascent theories, claims of discovery and draft papers on the Web for others to see and comment on. ...
This article begins by examining the dimensions of open science including the ethics of science and the peer review system before defining open science in terms of 'wiki science' or 'science 2.0'. The article then briefly scrutinizes the future of open science, commenting upon the nature of open distributed knowledge systems and new models of production and innovation based on peer-to-peer systems.
... For communication with the wider public, the mass medianewspapers, television and radio offer researchers a platform. However, in the main, the information that comes through these media arrives after the fact; whether a newspaper article or a classic peer-reviewed paper, they are 'effectively just [a] snapshot of what the authors have done and thought at [one] moment in time' (Waldrop, 2008). The work published is finished and complete; this leaves what happens while it is being carried out as something of a mystery to members of the public. ...
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Open Science is an emerging approach to the conduct of science, technology and engineering projects, in which information about the whole of an ongoing investigation is made available on and through the Internet. Adopting an Open Science approach means the audience for the research can extend beyond the researchers involved to other researchers and to members of the public. Thus, Open Science has implications for engineering research, practice, publishing and public engagement with engineering. This paper reviews the history and evolution of the Open Science movement, includes some reflections on the related areas of Open Access, peer-review and public engagement with science and engineering and discusses data gathered from interviews. The analysis suggests that interviewees have concerns about issues such as precedence and protection of original work and the time needed to integrate open science practices into daily work. Successfully working in such collaborations is likely to require not only common practical tools but also the development of shared language and understanding between researchers and members of the public. Interviewees recognise the value of Open Science in collaborative research and its innovative facility to sustain direct public access to research outputs. It also has the potential to allow members of the public to make real practical contributions to research.
... al bien común de la ciencia, un nuevo paradigma ha ido creciendo en las últimas décadas (Dutton y Jeffreys, 2010). Este nuevo paradigma se muestra, en parte, bajo las etiquetas de ciencia abierta u open science (Woelfle, Olliaro, y Todd, 2011), comunes científicos o scientific commons (Nelson 2004;Cook-Deegan, 2007), e-Science (Bohle, 2013) o science 2.0 (Waldrop, 2008). ...
... There is an increasing interest in trying to leverage Web 2.0 benefits in science with the ultimate goal to create something that may be called "Science 2.0" [4]. Scientific Workflow Management (SWFMS) [14] is one of such areas of science that may benefit to leverage Web 2.0 (e.g. ...
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Web 2.0 promises a more enjoyable experience for creating content by users by providing easy-to-use information sharing and collaboration tools, and focusing on user-centered design. Provenance in Scientific Workflow Management is one kind of user-generated data that can benefit from using Web 2.0. We propose a simple set of Web 2.0 technologies that is simple to implement and can be immediately leveraged by scientific users. Using Atom Syndication Protocol to represent workflow state and its provenance users can easily disseminate their scientific results. Collaboration and authoring can be facilitated by using Atom Publishing Protocol and standard Web 2.0 blogging tools to publish and annotate provenance. Users can search stored provenance by using search engines. If search results are in standard Atom Syndication Protocol, for example when search engines support OpenSearch standard, then Atom feeds can be used to monitor provenance changes increasing the likelihood of discoveries. By using those Web 2.0 standards, the value of scientific provenance data increases by making it a natural part of growing a variety of user-generated scientific (and non-scientific) content. Keywordsscientific workflow provenance-user-generated content-scientific notebook-atom syndication format-atom publishing protocol
... As mentioned, social media interactions and the reputational platforms that have emerged to take advantage of them have helped make the scholarly environment more open, and some commentators see it as providing the technical platform essential to a 'reevolution' of science (Waldrop 2008). Various studies show increases in the use of social media (and emerging platforms with reputation-building applications) among scholars, although use is patchy. ...
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Structural changes to the scholarly environment are taking place as a result of the introduction of Web 2.0 technologies, which have given rise to Open Science 2.0 initiatives, such as open access publishing, open data, citizen science, and open peer evaluation systems. In turn, this is leading to new ways of building, showcasing, and measuring scholarly reputation through emerging platforms, such as ResearchGate. The article reports the findings of a survey of the opinions and practices of 251 European scholars about this emerging scholarly market. Findings showed that traditional research-related activities, including conducting and collaborating in research, taking part in multidisciplinary projects, and publishing in journals contribute most to scholarly reputation. The greatest weaknesses of reputational platforms were a lack of trustworthiness and being open to gaming. The large majority of researchers, despite some reservations, thought that reputational systems were here to stay and will become increasingly important in the future, and especially for younger researchers.
... For example, Priem (2013) claimed that publishing forms, reward systems, measurement tools and peer-review systems will soon change. Similarly, Waldrop (2008) and Kendall (2015) stated that open science will be the new norm and that we will experience many changes to authorship and research evaluation systems in the next years. The predictions for the future of the publishing system is also the subject of the LIS field. ...
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... He says that in principal, this transition to Web 2.0 is perfectly natural. Scientists of the past or present are habitual of "crowd sourcing" of knowledge through open debate and Web 2.0 fits perfectly with the science works (as cited in Waldrop, 2008). The significant increase in the use of electronic modes and systems has a positive influence on the ease of communication without affecting the inherent structure of the process and this initiative is positively debated by faculty members and academic officers at some prestigious institutions by the notion "NO" too big deal (Smith, 2007). ...
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... "Scientists should communicate the data they collect and the models they create, to allow free and open access, and in ways that are intelligible, assessable and usable for other specialists in the same or linked fields wherever they are in the world" This built on the emergence of Science 2.0 (Waldrop, 2008), seeking an open approach to science based on emerging Web standards (particularly Web 2.0 technologies offering user generated content and a move towards a more social web). In practice, however, at that time there were many cultural and technological barriers to a world where data-sets were available for open access in common repositories. ...
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... Companies like Amazon [4, 5, and 6] and Google [7] but also science organisations like the German D-Grid Initiative [8] or the EU-Commission FP7-Project EGEE [9] make Cloud and Grid computing accessible for the wider public. And Social Networking Solutions are available as Open Source solutions -customisable to individual needs, as SaaS [1], create the opportunity to build solutions which more adequately support the challenges described above in a significantly more user-friendly (intuitive) way. 4 Several upcoming approaches to complexity reduction like Science 2.0 [13], eScience [12], eResearch and so forth already try to find their ways in adopting the new Web 2.0 and/or Grid/Cloud technologies into research of different kind, letting members of the research organisations make use of these Technologies to support their daily business by integrating Grid/Cloud based computing as well as Web 2.0 techniques into existing IT-Infrastructures. Even if some of the employed technologies are more or less mature the concepts themselves are still subject to research. ...
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The literature reports that science academicians of higher education are heavy users of e-scholarly communication besides traditional sources (Tenopir, 2002; 2003; Smith, 2003; Hiller and Self, 2002; Tenopir and King, 2004; 2001; Jamali, 2008). All over the world library subscription, online subscribed and unsubscribed sources are playing an important role in meeting their scholarly needs at local, national and international level. Life scientists were found the biggest users and OA repositories featured strongly in the ranked lists of life sciences (Nicholas et al. 2009)* “The scientists have high expectation for being able to access all the information they need in the online format” (Jamali, 2008). While studying the differences in information seeking behaviour of scientists from different subfields of physics and astronomy, he raises question for this community that “What is not available online is not worth reading”. Surridge rightly advocates the importance of web 2.0 as an important mode to meet the scientists’ needs. He says that in principal, this transition to Web 2.0 is perfectly natural. Scientists of the past or present are habitual of “crowd sourcing” of knowledge through open debate and Web 2.0 fits perfectly with the science works (as cited in Waldrop, 2008, May). The significant increase in the use of electronic modes and systems has a positive influence on the ease of communication without affecting the inherent structure of the process and this initiative is positively debated by faculty members and academic officers at some prestigious institutions by notion “NO” to big deal (Smith, 2007). The awareness and adoption of e-journals is increasing rapidly while convenience of use has remained the most important concern for users. However, “the capacity to absorb scientific and technical knowledge is often weak in developing countries, leading to low levels of scientific output and further under-development” (Chan, Kirsop, Costa and Arunachalam, 2005, p.3). ProQuest advisory board meeting viewed that permanent access is a big deal, and raised the question to “thoughts on institutional repositories, open access, ILS, and anything else that comes to mind” (Arbor, 2007, May, 7-8). The concept of OA has introduced by Harnad (1999) in a proposal. He suggested to place scholarly pre-prints along with post-prints of peer-reviewed published articles in open archives, and made available for free of cost. “OA is now threatening to overturn the $6 billion scholarly publishing industry and is forcing even the largest publishers against the ropes” (Poyender, 2004, p.5). Providing speedy and reliable e-access to consumers is a fundamental prerequisite for promoting digital culture in a country. This study has been made at a time when the Government of Pakistan initiated significant, concrete efforts by establishing ICT infrastructure in universities and providing e-sources to university libraries in order to meet the changing needs of academicians, especially in the field of Science and Technology (S&T). The Government, through Higher Education Commission (HEC), is spending huge amount of budget for the subscription of online sources and promotion of national digital library programme. This is a unique example of country level subscription of e-sources in the third world (Said, 2006). Right now, HEC is spending huge amount of money in subscribing more than thirty e-databases and 45000 e-books. And it is also providing lending services from different e-repositories (Punjab University Library, n. d.) Library and information services available to the Community of PU are: 1. A central library 2. Institutional/departmental library units 3. HEC National Digital Library on Campus Access (subscribed as well as open access digital sources i.e., e-journals, e-books, links to e-repositories etc.) These e-databases are searchable at PU campus with one window interface through ELIN (Electronic Library Information Navigator). ELIN integrates data from several publishers, databases and e-print open archives (Punjab University Library, n. d.). The networked academic environment demands that S&T teachers and researchers of Pakistan make effective use of the available resources for competitive teaching and research. They suppose to be able to use effectively the “knowledge @ your [their] fingertips” (Pakistan, HEC, n.d.). At the same time, for LIS professionals it is vital to probe into the pattern and practices of this community regarding seeking and using the digital resources at their disposal. For the purpose of this study, "OA" and "SA" are defined as: Open Access: An e-mode to access the information that is digitized, free of charge, copyright and licensing restrictions and available through general online-resources (e.g. Google, Yahoo, Scirus etc., e-links and informal e-communication). Subscribed Access: HEC, IP based free on campus access to its affiliated institution(s).
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Introduction Scholarly communication is the essence of all scientific work (Gravey, 1979). With the emergence of digital information resources and internet, the modes of accessing, searching, retrieving and consuming scholarly information have been rapidly changed. This scenario is "effectively transforming science into e-science" (Robert, 2009). The major developments in scientists' world are: globalization, exponential growth of S&T literature, increasing tendency of team research (multidisciplinary & interdisciplinary), collaboration at local, national and international level, and rapid disseminations of research results through sophisticated technologies. The direct access to scholarly communication made their practices more productive and collaborative. This scenario has brought certain challenges along with promising opportunities (Tahira, Muzammil, 2008). The literature reports that science academicians of higher education are heavy users of e-scholarly communication besides traditional sources (Tenopir, 2002; 2003; Smith, 2003; Hiller and Self, 2002; Tenopir and King, 2004; 2001; Jamali, 2008). All over the world library subscription, online subscribed and unsubscribed sources are playing an important role in meeting their scholarly needs at local, national and international level. Life scientists were found the biggest users and OA repositories featured strongly in the ranked lists of life sciences (Nicholas et al. 2009)* "The scientists have high expectation for being able to access all the information they need in the online format" (Jamali, 2008). While studying the differences in information seeking behaviour of scientists from different subfields of physics and astronomy, he raises question for this community that "What is not available online is not worth reading". Surridge rightly advocates the importance of web 2.0 as an important mode to meet the scientists' needs. He says that in principal, this transition to Web 2.0 is perfectly natural. Scientists of the past or present are habitual of "crowd sourcing" of knowledge through open debate and Web 2.0 fits perfectly with the science works (as cited in Waldrop, 2008, May). The significant increase in the use of electronic modes and systems has a positive influence on the ease of communication without affecting the inherent structure of the process and this initiative is positively debated by faculty members and academic officers at some prestigious institutions by notion "NO" to big deal (Smith, 2007). The awareness and adoption of e-journals is increasing rapidly while convenience of use has remained the most important concern for users. However, "the capacity to absorb scientific and technical knowledge is often weak in developing countries, leading to low levels of scientific output and further under-development" (Chan, Kirsop, Costa and Arunachalam, 2005, p.3). ProQuest advisory board meeting viewed that permanent access is a big deal, and raised the question to "thoughts on institutional repositories, open access, ILS, and anything else that comes to mind" (Arbor, 2007, May, 7-8). The concept of OA has introduced by Harnad (1999) in a proposal. He suggested to place scholarly pre-prints along with post-prints of peer-reviewed published articles in open archives, and made available for free of cost. "OA is now threatening to overturn the $6 billion scholarly publishing industry and is forcing even the largest publishers against the ropes" (Poyender, 2004, p.5). Providing speedy and reliable e-access to consumers is a fundamental prerequisite for promoting digital culture in a country. This study has been made at a time when the Government of Pakistan initiated significant, concrete efforts by establishing ICT infrastructure in universities and providing e-sources to university libraries in order to meet the changing needs of academicians, especially in the field of Science and Technology (S&T). The Government, through Higher Education Commission (HEC), is spending huge amount of budget for the subscription of online sources and promotion of national digital library programme. This is a unique example of country level subscription of e-sources in the third world (Said, 2006). Right now, HEC is spending huge amount of money in subscribing more than thirty e-databases and 45000 e-books. And it is also providing lending services from different e-repositories (Punjab University Library, n. d.) Library and information services available to the Community of PU are: 1. A central library 2. Institutional/departmental library units 3. HEC National Digital Library on Campus Access (subscribed as well as open access digital sources i.e., e-journals, e-books, links to e-repositories etc.) These e-databases are searchable at PU campus with one window interface through ELIN (Electronic Library Information Navigator). ELIN integrates data from several publishers, databases and e-print open archives (Punjab University Library, n. d.). The networked academic environment demands that S&T teachers and researchers of Pakistan make effective use of the available resources for competitive teaching and research. They suppose to be able to use effectively the "knowledge @ your [their] fingertips" (Pakistan, HEC, n.d.). At the same time, for LIS professionals it is vital to probe into the pattern and practices of this community regarding seeking and using the digital resources at their disposal. For the purpose of this study, 'OA' and 'SA' are defined as: Open Access: An e-mode to access the information that is digitized, free of charge, copyright and licensing restrictions and available through general online-resources (e.g. Google, Yahoo, Scirus etc., e-links and informal e-communication). Subscribed Access: HEC, IP based free on campus access to its affiliated institution(s).
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