Mucosal Lactobacillus vectored vaccines
Traditional non-gastrointestinal vaccines can prevent effectively the invasion of pathogens; however, these vaccines are less effective against mucosal infections because there is not a sufficient immune response at the mucosa. Most pathogens invade via a mucosal pathway (oral, intranasal, or vaginal). ( 1) It is widely accepted that Lactobacillus species play a critical role as commensals in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. ( 2) Their ability to survive in the digestive tract, their close association with the intestinal epithelium, their immunomodulatory properties and their safety even when consumed in large amounts make lactobacilli attractive candidates for live vehicles for the delivery of immunogens to the intestinal mucosa. ( 3) The oral or intranasal administration of Lactobacillus-based vaccines is a promising method to control mucosal infection because these vaccines could induce strong humoral and cellular immune responses both in the blood and at mucosal sites.