Plant Food Supplements with Anti-Inflammatory Properties: A Systematic Review (I)
a Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences , Università degli Studi di Milano , Via Balzaretti 9 , 20133 , Milano , Italy. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition
(Impact Factor: 5.18).
01/2013; 53(4):403-13. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2012.682123
Plant food supplements (PFS) receive great acceptance by European consumers. However, quality and efficacy of these products remain a question of concern. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of PFS for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review, which consists of two parts, considers Olea europea L., Camellia sinensis L., Vitis vinifera L., and Matricaria recutita L., which are herbal material frequently used also as food. The search retrieved 1251 publications. By applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 91. Vitis vinifera L. showed promising results, but other trials should be performed in order to assessing the efficacy. Surprisingly, it was impossible to draw conclusions for the anti-inflammatory effect of Camellia sinensis L. as green tea. No studies were found on the leaves of Olea europea L. whereas more human trials are needed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of olive oil. Only one study for Matricaria recutita L. was selected. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered.
Available from: Louise Bennett
- "The protective properties of dietary phytochemicals are strongly related to their capacity to regulate inflammation and oxidative stress, which is evident as lowering of biomarkers of inflammation. From 2000 to 2013, results from 39 epidemiological studies and 42 clinical intervention studies indicated that a favourable lowering of the proinflammatory biomarkers was reported in a similar number of studies compared to those that reported no effect, in terms of correlation between phytochemical intake and status of, or change in, specific inflammation biomarkers (Barbaresko et al., 2013; Dell'agli et al., 2013; Esfahani et al., 2011; Magrone et al., 2013). A very minor proportion of studies indicated a negative effect or elevation of any inflammation biomarker. "
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ABSTRACT: Dietary phytochemicals are associated with reducing risk of chronic diseases in humans. Protective bio-efficacy of phytochemicals depends on absorption in the digestive tract and consequent plasma concentrations of bioactive species, but methods to predict absorption of phytochemicals are lacking. Phytochemicals are structurally heterogeneous and the time to reach their maximum concentration in plasma (Tmax) reflects molecular properties and absorption via either the upper or lower intestine. We have developed two statistical models to predict Tmax of phytochemicals following intestinal passive absorption using selected physicochemical properties. The data used to develop the models was obtained from published reports of pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers for 41 compounds; including 7 phenolics, 17 polyphenolics, 6 carotenoids and 11 vitamins, administered in either liquid, solid or semi-solid forms. Of the 7 physicochemical parameters included in the modelling, it was found that Tmax was significantly dependent on lipophilicity, molecular mass and polar surface area. A predictive model including lipophilicity and molecular mass was applied to characterise the expected absorption properties of a selection of phytochemical extracts. Future studies will test the accuracy of predictions of Tmax for strategic selections of dietary and therapeutic phytochemicals and seek to demonstrate outcomes for biological efficacy.
- "These findings are in agreement with those of previous reports that oleuropein showed cardioprotective effects in isolated hearts from rabbits with doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and hypercholesterolemia. The conclusion that oleuropein had cardioprotective effects is strengthened by the findings that oleuropein decreased myocardial infarct size and coronary effluent CK-MB in the present study. This conclusion receives support from previous studies showing similar effects by oleuropein in isolated hearts from rabbits with doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and hypercholesterolemia. The cardioprotection offered by oleuropein has been attributed to its ability to prevent life threatening and malignant arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, and anti-inflammatory. and antioxidant activities. Therefore, increased antioxidant activity of oleuropein, characterized by decreased serum MDA and increased erythrocyte SOD levels, might partly explain its cardioprotective effects in the present study. "
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The study aimed at examining the role of oxidative stress in cadioprotective effects of oleuropein in a rat model of simultaneous type 2 diabetes and renal hypertension.
Materials and Methods:
Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats including a control group, a diabetic-hypertensive group receiving vehicle, and three diabetic-hypertensive groups receiving oleuropein at 20, 40, or 60 mg/kg/day were used. Blood pressure and glucose, serum malondialdehyde, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were measured, and animal's hearts with ischemia/reperfusion injuries were used using Langendorff technique.
Blood pressure, blood glucose, serum malondialdehyde, infarct size, coronary effluent creatine kinase-MB, and coronary resistance of diabetic-hypertensive group were significantly higher than those of the control group, while those of the oleuropein-receiving groups were significantly lower than those of the diabetic hypertensive group receiving the vehicle. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, left ventricular developed pressure, and rate of rise and rate of decrease of ventricular pressure of diabetic-hypertensive group were significantly lower than those of the control group. These parameters as well as heart rate of oleuropein-receiving groups were significantly higher than those of the diabetic-hypertensive group.
The findings indicate that oleuropein offered cardioprotection, which might be partly mediated by its antioxidant properties.
Available from: Elena Pomari
- "Camellia sinensis (CS), as green tea, is a species of plant whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce the popular tea beverage. It is widely known for its anti-inflammatory effect, and there is growing interest in its cardiovascular health benefits.13 Green tea and its major ingredient, epigallocatechin gallate, effectively inhibited the release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in LPS-induced macrophage cultures14 by promoting its aggregation and autophagic degradation in these cells.15 "
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Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study.
Materials and methods
Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2.
A noncytotoxic dose (200 μM) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus.
The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel modulating therapeutic strategies.
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